Referierte Publikationen


M. Metternich, H. Nazary, D. Schumacher, C. Brabetz, F. Kroll, F.-E. Brack, M. Ehret, A. Blazevic, U. Schramm, V. Bagnoud, and M. Roth
Analyzing the filamentation of MeV-range proton bunches in a laser-driven ion beamline and optimizing their peak intensity
Phys. Rev. Accel. Beams, 25 :111301 (November 2022)
In this article, we report on the latest investigations and achievements in proton beam shaping with our laser-driven ion beamline at GSI Helmholtzzentrum fiir Schwerionenforschung GmbH. This beamline was realized within the framework of the Laser Ion Generation, Handling, and Transport (LIGHT) collaboration to study the combination of laser-driven ion beams with conventional accelerator components. At its current state, the ions are accelerated by the high-power laser PHELIX via target normal sheath acceleration, and two pulsed high-magnetic solenoids are used for energy selection, transport, and transverse focusing. In between the two solenoids, there is a rf cavity that gives the LIGHT beamline the capability to longitudinally manipulate and temporally compress ion bunches to sub-nanosecond durations. To get optimal results, the rf cavity has to be synchronized with the PHELIX laser and therefore a reliable measurement of the temporal ion beam profile is necessary. In the past, these measurements showed unexpected correlations between the temporal beam profile and the phase as well as the electric field strength of the cavity. In this article, we present a numerical simulation of the beam transport through the LIGHT beamline which explains this behavior by a beam filamentation. We also report on our latest experimental campaigns, in which we combined transverse and longitudinal focusing for the first time. This led to proton bunches with a peak intensity of (3.28 +/- 0.24) x 10(8) protons/ (ns mm(2)) at a central energy of (7.72 +/- 0.14) MeV. The intensity refers to a circle with a diameter of (1.38 +/- 0.02) mm that encloses 50% of the protons in the focal spot at the end of the beamline. The temporal bunch width at this position was (742 +/- 40) ps (FWHM).
D. Schwickert, M. Ruberti, P. Kolorenc, A. Przystawik, S. Skruszewicz, M. Sumfleth, M. Braune, L. Bocklage, L. Carretero, M. Czwalinna, D. Diaman, S. Duesterer, M. Kuhlmann, S. Palutke, R. Röhlsberger, J. Roensch-Schulenburg, S. Toleikis, S. Usenko, J. Viefhaus, A. Vorobiov, M. Martins, D. Kip, V. Averbukh, J. Marangos, and T. Laarmann
Charge-induced chemical dynamics in glycine probed with time-resolved Auger electron spectroscopy
Struct. Dyn., 9 :064301 (November 2022)
In the present contribution, we use x-rays to monitor charge-induced chemical dynamics in the photoionized amino acid glycine with femtosecond time resolution. The outgoing photoelectron leaves behind the cation in a coherent superposition of quantum mechanical eigenstates. Delayed x-ray pulses track the induced coherence through resonant x-ray absorption that induces Auger decay. Temporal modulation of the Auger electron signal correlated with specific ions is observed, which is governed by the initial electronic coherence and subsequent vibronic coupling to nuclear degrees of freedom. In the time-resolved x-ray absorption measurement, we monitor the time-frequency spectra of the resulting many-body quantum wave packets for a period of 175 fs along different reaction coordinates. Our experiment proves that by measuring specific fragments associated with the glycine dication as a function of the pump-probe delay, one can selectively probe electronic coherences at early times associated with a few distinguishable components of the broad electronic wave packet created initially by the pump pulse in the cation. The corresponding coherent superpositions formed by subsets of electronic eigenstates and evolving along parallel dynamical pathways show different phases and time periods in the range of (-0.3 +/- 0.1 ) pi <= phi <= ( 0.1 +/- 0.2 ) pi and 18.2(-1.4)(+1.7) <= T <= 23.9(-1.1)(+1.2 )fs. Furthermore, for long delays, the data allow us to pinpoint the driving vibrational modes of chemical dynamics mediating charge-induced bond cleavage along different reaction coordinates. (C) 2022 Author(s).
K. S. Schulze
Determination of the reflectivity of crystals by ptychography
AIP Adv., 12 :125219 (November 2022)
B. Minneker, B. Boening, and S. Fritzsche
Generalized nondipole strong-field approximation of high-order harmonic generation
Phys. Rev. A, 106 :053109 (November 2022)
The strong-field approximation (SFA) is a widely used theoretical framework that describes the process of high-order harmonic generation of atoms and molecules. Here, we propose a generalization of the dipole SFA towards weakly relativistic contributions to the laser-electron interaction. These weakly relativistic contributions are closely related to the spatial structure of the light field and imply a correction of the relativistic order 1/c. Within this generalized nondipole SFA (GN-SFA), we demonstrate how to obtain explicit results and discuss their physical aspects. This approach enables one to investigate the nondipole effects of linear polarized plane waves as well as the influence of structured light fields, such as twisted light, that have not yet been captured by the currently available models. In order to utilize our generalized nondipole SFA, we consider a linearly polarized plane wave and demonstrate the decrease of the harmonic yield that is directly related to the nondipole effects of the laser field. Furthermore, we discuss the GN-SFA with regard to other nondipole SFA approaches by determining their physical and mathematical context. Finally, the GN-SFA is a powerful theoretical framework that extends the nonrelativistic SFA rigorously to the weakly relativistic regime and therefore will be a useful model for further theoretical investigations.
R. Weissenbilder, S. Carlstrom, L. Rego, C. Guo, C. M. Heyl, P. Smorenburg, E. Constant, C. L. Arnold, and A. L'Huillier
How to optimize high-order harmonic generation in gases
Nat. Rev. Phys., 4 :713 (November 2022)
High-order harmonic generation (HHG) in gases leads to short-pulse extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation that is useful in a number of applications, such as attosecond science and nanoscale imaging. However, this process depends on many parameters, and there is still no consensus on how to choose the target geometry to optimize the source efficiency. We review the physics of HHG with emphasis on the macroscopic aspects of the nonlinear interaction, discussing the influence of length of medium, pressure, and intensity of the driving laser on the HHG conversion efficiency. Efficient HHG can be realized over a large range of pressures and medium lengths, if these follow a certain hyperbolic equation. This explains the large versatility in gas target designs for efficient HHG and provides design guidance for future high-flux XUV sources.
M. Lenski, T. Heuermann, M. Gebhardt, Z. Wang, C. Gaida, C. Jauregui, and J. Limpert
Inband-pumped, high-power thulium-doped fiber amplifiers for an ultrafast pulsed operation
Opt. Express, 30 :44270 (November 2022)
We investigate the influence of the pump wavelength on the high-power amplification of large-mode area, thulium-doped fibers which are suitable for an ultrashort pulsed operation in the 2 mu m wavelength region. By pumping a standard, commercially available photonic crystal fiber in an amplifier configuration at 1692 nm, a slope efficiency of 80 % at an average output power of 60 W could be shown. With the help of simulations we investigate the effect of cross-relaxations on the efficiency and the thermal behavior. We extend our investigations to a rod-type, large-pitch fiber with very large mode area, which is exceptionally suited for high-energy ultrafast operation. Pumping at 1692 nm leads to a slope efficiency of 74% with a average output power of 67 W, instead of the 38 % slope efficiency obtained when pumping at 793 nm. These results pave the way to highly efficient 2 mu m fiber-based CPA systems.
P. Pfäfflein, S. Allgeier, S. Bernitt, A. Fleischmann, M. Friedrich, C. Hahn, D. Hengstler, M. O. Herdrich, A. Kalinin, F. M. Kröger, P. Kuntz, M. Lestinsky, B. Loeher, E. B. Menz, T. Over, U. Spillmann, G. Weber, B. Zhu, C. Enss, and T. Stöhlker
Integration of maXs-type microcalorimeter detectors for high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy into the experimental environment at the CRYRING@ESR electron cooler
Phys. Scripta, 97 :114005 (November 2022)
We report on the first integration of novel magnetic microcalorimeter detectors (MMCs), developed within SPARC (Stored Particles Atomic Physics Research Collaboration), into the experimental environment of storage rings at GSI(6), Darmstadt, namely at the electron cooler of CRYRING@ESR. Two of these detector systems were positioned at the 0 degrees and 180 degrees view ports of the cooler section to obtain high-resolution x-ray spectra originating from a stored beam of hydrogen-like uranium interacting with the cooler electrons. While previous test measurements with microcalorimeters at the accelerator facility of GSI were conducted in the mode of well-established stand-alone operation, for the present experiment we implemented several notable modifications to exploit the full potential of this type of detector for precision x-ray spectroscopy of stored heavy ions. Among these are a new readout system compatible with the multi branch system data acquisition platform of GSI, the synchronization of a quasi-continuous energy calibration with the operation cycle of the accelerator facility, as well as the first exploitation of the maXs detectors time resolution to apply coincidence conditions for the detection of photons and charge-changed ions.
S. Zähter, O. N. Rosmej, P. Beloiu, A. Bogdanov, A. Golubev, M. Gyrdymov, J. Jacoby, A. Kantsyrev, R. Loetzsch, M. Nicolai, V. Panyushkin, A. Skobliakov, P. M. Tavana, I. Uschmann, N. Zahn, and C. Spielmann
Monitoring of the heavy-ion beam distribution using poly- and monochromatic x-ray fluorescence imaging
Rev. Sci. Instrum., 93 :113301 (November 2022)
In this work, the first proof of the principal of an in situ diagnostics of the heavy-ion beam intensity distribution in irradiation of solid targets is proposed. In this scheme, x-ray fluorescence that occurs in the interaction of heavy-ions with target atoms is used for imaging purposes. The x-ray conversion to optical radiation and a transport-system was developed, and its first test was performed in experiments at the Universal Linear Accelerator in Darmstadt, Germany. The Au-beam intensity distribution on thin foils and Cu-mesh targets was imaged using multiple x-ray pinholes (polychromatic imaging) and 2D monochromatic imaging of Cu Kα radiation by using a toroidally bent silicon crystal. The presented results are of importance for application in experiments on the investigation of the equation of states of high energy density matter using high intensity GeV/u heavy-ion beams of ≥10^10 particles/100 ns.
S. Fritzsche, and J. Hofbrucker
Biharmonic (omega, 2 omega) ionization of atoms by elliptically-polarized light. Carving the photoelectron angular distributions
New J. Phys., 24 :103031 (October 2022)
The biharmonic (omega, 2 omega) photoionization of atomic inner-shell electrons opens up new perspectives for studying nonlinear light-atom interactions at intensities in the transition regime from weak to strong-field physics. In particular, the control of the frequency and polarization of biharmonic beams enables one to carve the photoelectron angular distribution and to enhance the resolution of ionization measurements by the (simultaneous) absorption of photons. Apart from its quite obvious polarization dependence, the photoelectron angular distributions are sensitive also to the (relative) intensity, the phase difference and the temporal structure of the incoming beam components, both at resonant and nonresonant frequencies. Here, we describe and analyze several characteristic features of biharmonic ionization in the framework of second-order perturbation theory and (so-called) ionization pathways, as they are readily derived from the interaction of inner-shell electrons with the electric-dipole field of the incident beam. We show how the photoelectron angular distribution and elliptical dichroism can be shaped in rather an unprecedented way by just tuning the properties of the biharmonic field. Since such fields are nowadays accessible from high-harmonic sources or free-electron lasers, these and further investigations might help extract photoionization amplitudes or the phase difference of incoming beams.
F. Liu, S. Li, Z. Chen, B. Böning, and S. Fritzsche
Nonsequential double ionization of Ne with elliptically polarized laser pulses
Phys. Rev. A, 106 :043120 (October 2022)
We show through simulation that the improved quantitative rescattering model (QRS) can successfully predict the nonsequential double ionization (NSDI) process by intense elliptically polarized laser pulses. Using the QRS model, we calculate the correlated two-electron and ion momentum distributions of NSDI in Ne exposed to intense elliptically polarized laser pulses with a wavelength of 788 nm at a peak intensity of 5.0 x 10(14) W/cm(2). We analyze the asymmetry in the doubly charged ion momentum spectra observed by Kang et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 223204 (2018)] in going from linearly to elliptically polarized laser pulses. Our model reproduces the experimental data well. Furthermore, we find that the ellipticity-dependent asymmetry arises from the drift velocity along the minor axis of the elliptic polarization. We explain how the correlated electron momentum distributions along the minor axis provide access to the subcycle dynamics of recollision. From these findings, we expect that we can extend the QRS model for NSDI toward more complicated laser fields in the future.
V. Shumakova, V. Pecile, J. Fellinger, M. Leskowschek, P. Aldia, A. Mayer, L. Perner, S. Salman, M. Fan, P. Balla, S. Schilt, C. Heyl, I. Hartl, G. Porat, and O. Heckl
Spectrally tunable high-power Yb:fiber chirped-pulse amplifier
Photon. Res., 10 :2309 (October 2022)
Tailoring the properties of the driving laser to the need of applications often requires compromises among laser stability, high peak and average power levels, pulse duration, and spectral bandwidth. For instance, spectroscopy with optical frequency combs in the extreme/visible ultraviolet spectral region requires a high peak power of the near-IR driving laser, and therefore high average power, pulse duration of a few tens of fs, and maximal available spectral bandwidth. Contrarily, the parametric conversion efficiency is higher for pulses with a duration in the 100-fs range due to temporal walk-off and coating limitations. Here we suggest an approach to adjust the spectral characteristics of high-power chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) to the requirements of different nonlinear frequency converters while preserving the low-phase-noise (PN) properties of the system. To achieve spectral tunability, we installed a mechanical spectral shaper in a free-space section of the stretcher of an in-house-developed ytterbium-fiber-based CPA system. The CPA system delivers 100 W of average power at a repetition rate of 132.4 MHz. While gaining control over the spectral properties, we preserve the relative-intensity-noise and PN properties of the system. The high-power CPA can easily be adjusted to deliver either a spectrum ideal for mid-IR light generation (full width at half maximum of similar to 11 nm, compressed pulse duration of 230 fs) or a spectrum ideal for highly nonlinear processes such as high-harmonic generation (-10 dB level of >50 nm, transform-limited pulse duration of similar to 65 fs).
B. Böning, and S. Fritzsche
Steering the longitudinal photoelectron momentum in the above-threshold ionization with two not-quite-collinear laser beams
Phys. Rev. A, 106 :043102 (October 2022)
Strong-field atomic processes, driven by long-wavelength laser beams, are known to be affected by magnetic forces. In such beams, the Lorentz force pushes the photoelectrons along the beam direction and prevents their rescattering or recombination with the parent ions. In high-order harmonic generation (HHG), therefore, the yield of energetic photons is markedly suppressed, rendering x-ray radiation sources from high harmonics so far impractical. To compensate these magnetic forces and to reenable HHG at long wavelengths, a setup of two not quite collinear beams has been suggested recently but not much analyzed beyond classical arguments and with respect to accessible laser parameters. Using the nondipole strong-field approximation, we here investigate when the longitudinal momentum of the photoelectrons vanishes and how this noncollinear setup explicitly depends on the wavelength and intensity of the driving beams. We also demonstrate that an optimal crossing angle delta 0 between these beams always exists for which the fraction of the returning electrons is maximized. This rather simple steering of the longitudinal momentum will allow an efficient HHG with driving beams deep in the midinfrared.
J. Abel, F. Wiesner, J. Nathanael, J. Reinhard, M. Wünsche, G. Schmidl, A. Gawlik, U. Huebner, J. Plentz, C. Rödel, G. Paulus, and S. Fuchs
Absolute EUV reflectivity measurements using a broadband high-harmonic source and an in situ single exposure reference scheme
Opt. Express, 30 :35671 (September 2022)
We present a tabletop setup for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) reflection spectroscopy in the spectral range from 40 to 100 eV by using high-harmonic radiation. The simultaneous measurements of reference and sample spectra with high energy resolution provide precise and robust absolute reflectivity measurements, even when operating with spectrally fluctuating EUV sources. The stability and sensitivity of EUV reflectivity measurements are crucial factors for many applications in attosecond science, EUV spectroscopy, and nano-scale tomography. We show that the accuracy and stability of our in situ referencing scheme are almost one order of magnitude better in comparison to subsequent reference measurements. We demonstrate the performance of the setup by reflective near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure measurements of the aluminum L2/3 absorption edge in alpha-Al2O3 and compare the results to synchrotron measurements.
L. Hoffmann, S. Jamnuch, C. Schwartz, T. Helk, S. Raj, H. Mizuno, R. Mincigrucci, L. Foglia, E. Principi, R. Saykally, W. Drisdell, S. Fatehi, T. Pascal, and M. Zuerch
Saturable Absorption of Free-Electron Laser Radiation by Graphite near the Carbon K-Edge
Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, 13 :8963 (September 2022)
The interaction of intense light with matter gives rise to competing nonlinear responses that can dynamically change material properties. Prominent examples are saturable absorption (SA) and two-photon absorption (TPA), which dynamically increase and decrease the transmission of a sample depending on pulse intensity, respectively. The availability of intense soft X-ray pulses from free-electron lasers (FELs) has led to observations of SA and TPA in separate experiments, leaving open questions about the possible interplay between and relative strength of the two phenomena. Here, we systematically study both phenomena in one experiment by exposing graphite films to soft X-ray FEL pulses of varying intensity. By applying real-time electronic structure calculations, we find that for lower intensities the nonlinear contribution to the absorption is dominated by SA attributed to ground-state depletion; our model suggests that TPA becomes more dominant for larger intensities (>1014 W/cm(2)). Our results demonstrate an approach of general utility for interpreting FEL spectroscopies.
J. Wang, M. Zepf, Y. Leng, R. Li, and S. Rykovanov
Self-torqued harmonics and attosecond pulses driven by time-delayed relativistic vortex lasers
Phys. Rev. A, 106 :033515 (September 2022)
Light carrying time-varying orbital angular momentum (OAM) is a recently discovered type of structured electromagnetic field compared with a typical vortex field whose OAM is static. Such so-called self-torqued light is employed for manipulating the fast magnetic, topological, and quantum excitations and increasing its intensity and having access to shorter pulse durations would be of great benefit. Here we theoretically and numerically demonstrate the generation of intense self-torqued harmonics and attosecond pulses in the relativistic regime, driven by two time-delayed relativistic vortex lasers with different OAMs l1 and l2. The OAM of the nth harmonic spans nl1 to nl2, and the OAM of the attosecond pulses changes from l1 to l2. Such intense self-torqued harmonics and attosecond pulses may offer alternative possibilities in ultrafast spectroscopy.
L. Yue, R. Hollinger, C. Uzundal, B. Nebgen, Z. Gan, E. Najafidehaghani, A. George, C. Spielmann, D. Kartashov, A. Turchanin, D. Qiu, M. Gaarde, and M. Zuerch
Signatures of Multiband Effects in High-Harmonic Generation in Monolayer MoS2 br
Phys. Rev. Lett., 129 :147401 (September 2022)
High-harmonic generation (HHG) in solids has been touted as a way to probe ultrafast dynamics and crystal symmetries in condensed matter systems. Here, we investigate the polarization properties of highorder harmonics generated in monolayer MoS2, as a function of crystal orientation relative to the midinfrared laser field polarization. At several different laser wavelengths we experimentally observe a prominent angular shift of the parallel-polarized odd harmonics for energies above approximately 3.5 eV, and our calculations indicate that this shift originates in subtle differences in the recombination dipole strengths involving multiple conduction bands. This observation is material specific and is in addition to the angular dependence imposed by the dynamical symmetry properties of the crystal interacting with the laser field, and may pave the way for probing the vectorial character of multiband recombination dipoles.
S. Fritzsche, and B. Boening
Strong-Field Ionization Amplitudes for Atomic Many-Electron Targets
Atoms, 10 :70 (September 2022)
The strong-field approximation (SFA) has been widely applied in the literature to model the ionization of atoms and molecules by intense laser pulses. A recent re-formulation of the SFA in terms of partial waves and spherical tensor operators helped adopt this approach to account for realistic atomic potentials and pulses of different shape and time structure. This re-formulation also enables one to overcome certain limitations of the original SFA formulation with regard to the representation of the initial-bound and final-continuum wave functions of the emitted electrons. We here show within the framework of JAC, the Jena Atomic Calculator, how the direct SFA ionization amplitude can be readily generated and utilized in order to compute above-threshold ionization (ATI) distributions for many-electron targets and laser pulses of given frequency, intensity, polarization, pulse duration and carrier-envelope phase. Examples are shown for selected ATI energy, angular as well as momentum distributions in the strong-field ionization of atomic krypton. We also briefly discuss how this approach can be extended to incorporate rescattering and high-harmonic processes into the SFA amplitudes.
M. A. Valialshchikov, D. Seipt, V. Yu. Kharin, and S. G. Rykovanov
Towards high photon density for Compton scattering by spectral chirp
[The results presented in this paper are based on work performed before Feb 24th 2022.]
Phys. Rev. A, 106 :L031501 (September 2022)
Scattering of intense laser pulses on high-energy electron beams allows one to produce a large number of x and gamma rays. For temporally pulsed lasers, the resulting spectra are broadband which severely limits practical applications. One could use linearly chirped laser pulses to compensate for that broadening. We show for laser pulses chirped in the spectral domain that there is the optimal chirp parameter at which the spectra have the brightest peak. Additionally, we use catastrophe theory to analytically find this optimal chirp value.
F. Wiesner, S. Skruszewicz, C. Rödel, J. Abel, J. Reinhard, M. Wünsche, J. Nathanael, M. Grünewald, U. Hübner, G. Paulus, and S. Fuchs
Characterization of encapsulated graphene layers using extreme ultraviolet coherence tomography
Opt. Express, 30 :32267 (August 2022)
Many applications of two-dimensional materials such as graphene require the encapsulation in bulk material. While a variety of methods exist for the structural and functional characterization of uncovered 2D materials, there is a need for methods that image encapsulated 2D materials as well as the surrounding matter. In this work, we use extreme ultraviolet coherence tomography to image graphene flakes buried beneath 200 nm of silicon. We show that we can identify mono-, bi-, and trilayers of graphene and quantify the thickness of the silicon bulk on top by measuring the depth-resolved reflectivity. Furthermore, we estimate the quality of the graphene interface by incorporating a model that includes the interface roughness. These results are verified by atomic force microscopy and prove that extreme ultraviolet coherence tomography is a suitable tool for imaging 2D materials embedded in bulk materials.
F. Karbstein, D. Ullmann, E. Mosman, and M. Zepf
Direct Accessibility of the Fundamental Constants Governing Light-by-Light Scattering
Phys. Rev. Lett., 129 :061802 (August 2022)
Quantum field theory predicts that the vacuum exhibits a nonlinear response to strong electromagnetic fields. This fundamental tenet has remained experimentally challenging and is yet to be tested in the laboratory. We present proof of concept and detailed theoretical analysis of an experimental setup for precision measurements of the quantum vacuum signal generated by the collision of a brilliant x-ray probe with a high-intensity pump laser. The signal features components polarized parallel and perpendicularly to the incident x-ray probe. Our proof-of-concept measurements show that the background can be efficiently suppressed by many orders of magnitude which should not only facilitate a detection of the perpendicularly polarized component of the nonlinear vacuum response, but even make the parallel polarized component experimentally accessible for the first time. Remarkably, the angular separation of the signal from the intense x-ray probe enables precision measurements even in the presence of pump fluctuations and alignment jitter. This provides direct access to the low-energy constants governing light-by-light scattering.
S. Röder, Y. Zobus, C. Brabetz, and V. Bagnoud
How the laser beam size conditions the temporal contrast in pulse stretchers of chirped-pulse amplification lasers
HPLaser, 10 :34 (August 2022)
In this work, we propose and verify experimentally a model that describes the concomitant influence of the beam size and optical roughness on the temporal contrast of optical pulses passing through a pulse stretcher in chirped-pulse amplification laser systems. We develop an analytical model that is capable of predicting the rising edge caused by the reflection from an optical element in a pulse stretcher, based on the power spectral density of the surface and the spatial beam profile on the surface. In an experimental campaign, we characterize the temporal contrast of a laser pulse that passed through either a folded or an unfolded stretcher design and compare these results with the analytical model. By varying the beam size for both setups, we verify that optical elements in the near- and the far-field act opposed to each with respect to the temporal contrast and that the rising edge caused by a surface benefits from a larger spatial beam size on that surface.
S. Hosseini, A. Iliyasu, T. Akilan, A. Salama, E. Eftekhari-Zadeh, and K. Hirota
Accurate Flow Regime Classification and Void Fraction Measurement in Two-Phase Flowmeters Using Frequency-Domain Feature Extraction and Neural Networks
Separations, 9 :160 (July 2022)
Two-phase flow is very important in many areas of science, engineering, and industry. Two-phase flow comprising gas and liquid phases is a common occurrence in oil and gas related industries. This study considers three flow regimes, including homogeneous, annular, and stratified regimes ranging from 5-90% of void fractions simulated via the Mont Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) Code. In the proposed model, two NaI detectors were used for recording the emitted photons of a cesium 137 source that pass through the pipe. Following that, fast Fourier transform (FFT), which aims to transfer recorded signals to frequency domain, was adopted. By analyzing signals in the frequency domain, it is possible to extract some hidden features that are not visible in the time domain analysis. Four distinctive features of registered signals, including average value, the amplitude of dominant frequency, standard deviation (STD), and skewness were extracted. These features were compared to each other to determine the best feature that can offer the best separation. Furthermore, artificial neural network (ANN) was utilized to increase the efficiency of two-phase flowmeters. Additionally, two multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural networks were adopted for classifying the considered regimes and estimating the volumetric percentages. Applying the proposed model, the outlined flow regimes were accurately classified, resulting in volumetric percentages with a low root mean square error (RMSE) of 1.1%.
Z. Yang, Z. He, G. Xiong, K. Yao, Y. Yang, B. Wei, Y. Zou, Z. Wu, Z. Tian, Y. Ma, C. Wu, X. Gao, and Z. Hu
Apparent change of the 3C/3D line intensity ratio in neonlike ions
Opt. Express, 30 :25326 (July 2022)
The resonance 3C ([(2p(5))(1/2)3d(3/2)](J=1)->[2p(6)](J=0)) to intercombination 3D ([(2p(5))(3/2) 3d(5/2)](J=1)->[2p(6)](J=0)) line intensity ratio of neonlike ions has been studied. The measured line intensity ratio for neonlike Xe44+ ions shows an apparent change, which is reproduced by the calculations using the relativistic configuration interaction plus many-body perturbation theory. It is clearly elucidated that the change in the 3C/3D line intensity ratio is caused by strong configuration mixing between the upper levels of the 3D and 3F ([(2p(5))(1/2)3s](J=1)->[2p(6)](J=0)) lines. The present measurement allows us to discuss the 3C/3D line intensity ratio for the highest-Z ions hitherto, which suggests that the experiment-theory discrepancy in the 3C/3D line intensity ratio of neonlike ions diminishes with increasing atomic number Z and further trends to vanish at higher-Z ions. Furthermore, the present study provides benefits to better understand configuration mixing effect in the radiative opacity of hot plasmas. (C) 2022 Optica Publishing Group under the terms of the Optica Open Access Publishing Agreement
Y. Hikosaka, and S. Fritzsche
Coster-Kronig and super Coster-Kronig transitions from the Xe 4s core-hole state
Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 24 :17535 (July 2022)
Coster-Kronig and super Coster-Kronig transitions from the Xe 4s core-hole state are investigated by coincidence detection of all the emitted electrons and product ions. The branching ratios of the transitions are determined by analyzing the coincidence data and comparing them to calculations. Subsequent decay pathways following these first-step Auger decays are also clarified.
S. Ringleb, M. Kiffer, N. Stallkamp, S. Kumar, J. Hofbrucker, B. Reich, B. Arndt, G. Brenner, M. Ruiz-Lopez, S. Düsterer, M. Vogel, K. Tiedtke, W. Quint, T. Stöhlker, and G.G. Paulus
High-intensity laser experiments with highly charged ions in a Penning trap
Phys. Scripta, 97 :084002 (July 2022)
We have conceived and built the HILITE (High-Intensity Laser-Ion Trap Experiment) Penning-trap setup for the production, confinement and preparation of pure ensembles of highly charged ions in a defined quantum state as a target for various high-intensity lasers. This enables a broad suite of laser-ion interaction studies at high photon energies and/or intensities, such as non-linear photo-ionisation studies. The setup has now been used to perform experiments at one such laser facility, namely the FLASH Free-Electron Laser at DESY in Hamburg, Germany. We describe the experimental possibilities of the apparatus, the results of the first measurements and future experiments at other laser facilities.