Referierte Publikationen

2012

B. Döbrich, and A. Eichhorn
Can we see quantum gravity? Photons in the asymptotic-safety scenario
J. High Energ. Phys., 156 :1 (June 2012)
Abstract:
In the search for a quantum theory of gravity it is crucial to find experimental access to quantum gravitational effects. Since these are expected to be very small at observationally accessible scales it is advantageous to consider processes with no tree-level contribution in the standard model, such as photon-photon scattering. We examine the implications of asymptotically safe quantum gravity in a setting with extra dimensions for this case, and point out that various near-future photon-collider setups, employing either electron or muon colliders, or even a purely laser-based setup, could provide a first observational window into the quantum gravity regime.
J. Bierbach, C. Rödel, M. Yeung, B. Dromey, T. Hahn, A. Pour, S. Fuchs, A. E. Paz, S. Herzer, S. Kuschel, O. Jäckel, M.C. Kaluza, G. Pretzler, M. Zepf, and G.G. Paulus
Generation of 10 µW relativistic surface high-harmonic radiation at a repetition rate of 10 Hz
New J. Phys., 14 :065005 (June 2012)
Abstract:
Experimental results on relativistic surface HHG at a repetition rate of 10 Hz are presented. Average powers in the 10 μW range are generated in the spectral range of 51 to 26 nm (24 - 48 eV). The surface harmonic radiation is produced by focusing the second-harmonic of a high-power laser onto a rotating glass surface to moderately relativistic intensities of 3 × 10^19 W cm^−2. The harmonic emission exhibits a divergence of 26 mrad. Together with absolute photon numbers recorded by a calibrated spectrometer, this allows for the determination of the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) yield. The pulse energies of individual harmonics are reaching up to the μJ level, equivalent to an efficiency of 10^−5. The capability of producing stable and intense high-harmonic radiation from relativistic surface plasmas may facilitate experiments on nonlinear ionization or the seeding of free-electron lasers.
C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, H.-J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann
Physical origin of mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems
Opt. Express, 20 :12912 (June 2012)
Abstract:
Mode instabilities, i.e. the rapid fluctuations of the output beam of an optical fiber that occur after a certain output power threshold is reached, have quickly become one of the most limiting effects for the further power scaling of fiber laser systems. Even though much work has been done over the last year, the exact origin of the temporal dynamics of this phenomenon is not fully understood yet. In this paper we show that the origin of mode instabilities can be explained by taking into account the interplay between the temporal evolution of the three-dimensional temperature profile inside of the active fiber and the related waveguide changes that it produces via the thermo-optical effect. In particular it is proposed that non-adiabatic waveguide changes play an important role in allowing energy transfer from the fundamental mode into the higher order mode. As it is discussed in the paper, this description of mode instabilities can explain many of the experimental observations reported to date.
R. Märtin, G. Weber, R. Barday, Y. Fritzsche, U. Spillmann, W. Chen, R. D. DuBois, J. Enders, M. Hegewald, S. Hess, A. Surzhykov, D. B. Thorn, S. Trotsenko, M. Wagner, D. F. A. Winters, V. A. Yerokhin, and T. Stöhlker
Polarization Transfer of Bremsstrahlung Arising from Spin-Polarized Electrons
Phys. Rev. Lett., 108 :26480 (June 2012)
Abstract:
We report on a study of the polarization transfer between transversely polarized incident electrons and the emitted x rays for electron-atom bremsstrahlung. By means of Compton polarimetry we performed for the first time an energy-differential measurement of the complete properties of bremsstrahlung emission related to linear polarization, i.e., the degree of linear polarization as well as the orientation of the polarization axis. For the high-energy end of the bremsstrahlung continuum the experimental results for both observables show a high sensitivity on the initial electron spin polarization and prove that the polarization orientation is virtually independent of the photon energy.
M. Baumgartl, C. Lecaplain, A. Hideur, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann
66 W average power from a microjoule-class sub-100 fs fiber oscillator
Opt. Lett., 37 :1640 (May 2012)
Abstract:
Performance scaling of passively mode-locked ultrashort-pulse fiber oscillators in terms of average power, peak power, and pulse energy is demonstrated. A very-large-mode-area fiber laser in an all-positive group-velocity-dispersion ring cavity configuration with intracavity spectral filter, mode-locked by nonlinear polarization evolution, emits 66 W of average power at 76 MHz repetition rate, corresponding to 0.9 μJ pulse energy. The pulses are dechirped to 91 fs outside the cavity with an average power of 60 W remaining after the compressor. The generated pulse peak power is as high as 7 MW.
B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. Jones, G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. Kling
Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization
Nat. Commun., 3 :813 (May 2012)
Abstract:
Despite their broad implications for phenomena such as molecular bonding or chemical reactions, our knowledge of multi-electron dynamics is limited and their theoretical modelling remains a most difficult task. From the experimental side, it is highly desirable to study the dynamical evolution and interaction of the electrons over the relevant timescales, which extend into the attosecond regime. Here we use near-single-cycle laser pulses with well-defined electric field evolution to confine the double ionization of argon atoms to a single laser cycle. The measured two-electron momentum spectra, which substantially differ from spectra recorded in all previous experiments using longer pulses, allow us to trace the correlated emission of the two electrons on sub-femtosecond timescales. The experimental results, which are discussed in terms of a semiclassical model, provide strong constraints for the development of theories and lead us to revise common assumptions about the mechanism that governs double ionization.
G. Weber, H. Bräuning, S. Fritzsche, A. Gumberidze, R. Märtin, R. Reuschl, M. Schwemlein, U. Spillmann, A. Surzhykov, D. F. A. Winters, and T. Stöhlker
Compton polarimeters for the study of hard X-rays arising from energetic collisions of electrons and ions with matter
AIP Conf. Proc., 1438 :73 (May 2012)
Abstract:
Novel position-sensitive x-ray detectors are presented that, when applied as Compton polarimeters, enable precise and efficient linear polarization studies of hard x-rays up to several 100 keV. We give an analytical formula which yields a rough estimate of the polarimeter efficiencies of such detector systems. Moreover, we briefly summarize a recent linear polarization measurement of the Lyman-α1 radiation in a H-like high-Z system, namely U91+.
T. Gottschall, M. Baumgartl, A. Sagnier, J. Rothhardt, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann
Fiber-based source for multiplex-CARS microscopy based on degenerate four-wave mixing
Opt. Express, 20 :12004 (May 2012)
Abstract:
We present a fiber-based laser source for multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy. This source is very compact and potentially alignment-free. The corresponding pump and Stokes pulses for the CARS process are generated by degenerate four-wave mixing (FWM) in photonic-crystal fibers. In addition, an ytterbium-doped fiber laser emitting spectrally narrow 100 ps pulses at 1035 nm wavelength serves as pump for the FWM frequency conversion. The FWM process delivers narrow-band pulses at 648 nm and drives a continuum-like spectrum ranging from 700 to 820 nm. With the presented source vibrational resonances with energies between 1200 cm^(−1) and 3200 cm^(−1) can be accessed with a resolution of 10 cm^(−1). Additionally, the temporal characteristics of the FWM output have been investigated by a cross-correlation setup, revealing the suitability of the emitted pulses for CARS microscopy. This work marks a significant step towards a simple and powerful all-fiber, maintenance-free multiplex-CARS source for real-world applications outside a laboratory environment.
A. Przystawik, A. Kickermann, A. Al-Shemmary, S. Düsterer, A. M. Ellis, K. von Haeften, M. Harmand, S. Ramakrishna, H. Redlin, L. Schroedter, M. Schulz, T. Seideman, N. Stojanovic, J. Szekely, F. Tavella, S. Toleikis, and T. Laarmann
Generation of the simplest rotational wave packet in a diatomic molecule: Tracing a two-level superposition in the time domain
Phys. Rev. A, 85 :052503 (May 2012)
Abstract:
We introduce a time-domain approach to explore rotational dynamics caused by intramolecular coupling or the interaction with dissipative media. It pushes the time resolution toward the ultimate limit determined by the rotational period. Femtosecond pulses create a coherent superposition of two rotational states of carbon monoxide. The wave-packet motion is observed by subsequent Coulomb explosion, which results in a time-dependent asymmetry of spatial fragmentation patterns. The asymmetry oscillation prevails for at least 1 ns, covering more than 300 periods with no decoherence. Long time scans will allow weak perturbations of the order of ΔE/E = 10^(−4) to be discerned. Our conclusions are confirmed by a fully quantum-mechanical model.
J. Rothhardt, A. M. Heidt, S. Hädrich, S. Demmler, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann
High stability soliton frequency-shifting mechanisms for laser synchronization applications
J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, 29 :1257 (May 2012)
Abstract:
We analyze frequency-shifting mechanisms in photonic crystal fibers (PCFs). In contrast to the generally used approach of launching pulses in the negative group velocity dispersion (GVD) region of PCFs, we suggest employing a fiber with a higher zero dispersion wavelength that is pumped in the positive GVD region. Results of a numerical optimization reveal that the amplitude stability of the frequency-shifted pulses can be improved by more than 1 order of magnitude and the timing jitter arising from input fluctuations by 2 orders of magnitude by a proper choice of the fiber dispersion. The presented approach and optimization will improve the performance of timing- and amplitude-sensitive applications, such as nonlinear microscopy and spectroscopy or optical synchronization for optical parametric chirped pulse amplification significantly.
M. Baumgartl, B. Ortac, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann
Impact of dispersion on pulse dynamics in chirped-pulse fiber lasers
Appl. Phys. B, 107 :263 (May 2012)
Abstract:
We report on a systematic study of an environmentally stable mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser operating in the chirped-pulse regime. The linear cavity chirped-pulse fiber laser is constructed with a saturable absorber mirror as nonlinear mode-locking mechanism and a nonlinearity-free transmission-grating-based stretcher/compressor for dispersion management. Mode-locked operation and pulse dynamics from strong normal to strong anomalous total cavity dispersion in the range of +2.5 to -1.6 ps^2 is experimentally studied. Strongly positively chirped pulses from 4.3 ps (0.01 ps^2) to 39 ps (2.5 ps^2) are obtained at normal net-cavity dispersion. In the anomalous dispersion regime, the laser generates average soliton feature negatively chirped pulses with autocorrelation pulse durations from 0.8 ps (−0.07 ps^2) to 3.9 ps (-1.6 ps^2). The lowered peak power due to the pulse stretching allows one to increase the double pulse threshold. Based on the numerical simulation, different regimes of mode locking are obtained by varying the intra-cavity dispersion, and the characteristics of average soliton, stretched-pulse, wave-breaking-free and chirped-pulse regimes are discussed.
Ph. A. Korneev, S. V. Popruzhenko, S. P. Goreslavski, T.-M. Yan, D. Bauer, W. Becker, M. Kübel, M. F. Kling, C. Rödel, M. Wünsche, and G.G. Paulus
Interference Carpets in Above-Threshold Ionization: From the Coulomb-Free to the Coulomb-Dominated Regime
Phys. Rev. Lett., 108 :223601 (May 2012)
Abstract:
The velocity map recorded in above-threshold ionization of xenon at 800 nm exhibits a distinct carpetlike pattern of maxima and minima for emission in the direction approximately perpendicular to the laser polarization. The pattern is well reproduced by a numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. In terms of the simple-man model and the strong-field approximation, it is explained by the constructive and destructive interference of the contribution of the long and the short orbit. Strictly perpendicular emission is caused by ionization at the two peaks of the laser field per cycle, which results in a 2ℏω separation of the above-threshold ionization rings.
G. Weber, R. Märtin, A. Surzhykov, M. Yasuda, V. A. Yerokhin, and T. Stöhlker
PEBSI – A Monte Carlo simulator for bremsstrahlung arising from electrons colliding with thin solid-state targets
Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. B, 279 :155 (May 2012)
Abstract:
We present a Monte Carlo code dedicated to the simulation of bremsstrahlung arising in collisions of polarized electrons with thin target foils. The program consists of an electron transport algorithm taking into account elastic electron-nucleus scattering and inelastic collisions with target electrons as well as a treatment of polarized-electron bremsstrahlung emission. Good agreement is found between the predictions of the electron transport code and data stemming from other simulation programs and experiments. In addition, we present first results from the bremsstrahlung simulation which indicate a significant decrease in the degree of linear polarization of bremsstrahlung even for the thinnest gold targets considered.
M. Grieser, Yu. A. Litvinov, R. Raabe, K. Blaum, Y. Blumenfeld, P. A. Butler, F. Wenander, P. J. Woods, M. Aliotta, A. Andreyev, A. Artemyev, D. Atanasov, T. Aumann, D. Balabanski, A. Barzakh, L. Batist, A.-P. Bernardes, D. Bernhardt, J. Billowes, S. Bishop, M. Borge, I. Borzov, F. Bosch, A. J. Boston, C. Brandau, W. Catford, R. Catherall, J. Cederkall, D. Cullen, T. Davinson, I. Dillmann, C. Dimopoulou, G. Dracoulis, Ch. E. Düllmann, P. Egelhof, A. Estrade, D. Fischer, K. Flanagan, L. Fraile, M. A. Fraser, S. J. Freeman, H. Geissel, J. Gerl, P. Greenlees, R. E. Grisenti, D. Habs, R. von Hahn, S. Hagmann, M. Hausmann, J. J. He, M. Heil, M. Huyse, D. Jenkins, A. Jokinen, B. Jonson, D. T. Joss, Y. Kadi, N. Kalantar-Nayestanaki, B. P. Kay, O. Kiselev, H.-J. Kluge, M. Kowalska, C. Kozhuharov, S. Kreim, T. Kröll, J. Kurcewicz, M. Labiche, R. C. Lemmon, M. Lestinsky, G. Lotay, X. W. Ma, M. Marta, J. Meng, D. Mücher, I. Mukha, A. Müller, A. Murphy, G. Neyens, T. Nilsson, C. Nociforo, W. Nörtershäuser, R. D. Page, M. Pasini, N. Petridis, N. Pietralla, M. Pfützner, Z. Podolyak, P. Regan, M. W. Reed, R. Reifarth, P. Reiter, R. Repnow, K. Riisager, B. Rubio, M. S. Sanjari, D. W. Savin, C. Scheidenberger, S. Schippers, D. Schneider, R. Schuch, D. Schwalm, L. Schweikhard, D. Shubina, E. Siesling, H. Simon, J. Simpson, J. Smith, K. Sonnabend, M. Steck, T. Stora, T. Stöhlker, B. Sun, A. Surzhykov, F. Suzaki, O. Tarasov, S. Trotsenko, X. L. Tu, P. Van Duppen, C. Volpe, D. Voulot, P. M. Walker, E. Wildner, N. Winckler, D. F. A. Winters, A. Wolf, H. S. Xu, A. Yakushev, T. Yamaguchi, Y. J. Yuan, Y. H. Zhang, and K. Zuber
Storage ring at HIE-ISOLDE Technical design report
Eur. Phys. J. ST, 207 :1 (May 2012)
Abstract:
We propose to install a storage ring at an ISOL-type radioactive beam facility for the first time. Specifically, we intend to setup the heavy-ion, low-energy ring TSR at the HIE-ISOLDE facility in CERN, Geneva. Such a facility will provide a capability for experiments with stored secondary beams that is unique in the world. The envisaged physics programme is rich and varied, spanning from investigations of nuclear ground-state properties and reaction studies of astrophysical relevance, to investigations with highly-charged ions and pure isomeric beams. The TSR might also be employed for removal of isobaric contaminants from stored ion beams and for systematic studies within the neutrino beam programme. In addition to experiments performed using beams recirculating within the ring, cooled beams can also be extracted and exploited by external spectrometers for high-precision measurements. The existing TSR, which is presently in operation at the Max-Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, is well-suited and can be employed for this purpose. The physics cases as well as technical details of the existing ring facility and of the beam and infrastructure requirements at HIE-ISOLDE are discussed in the present technical design report.
J. Habib, O. Guilbaud, B. Zielbauer, D. Zimmer, M. Pittman, S. Kazamias, C. Montet, T. Kühl, and D. Ros
Low energy prepulse for 10 Hz operation of a soft-x-ray laser
Opt. Express, 20 :10128 (April 2012)
Abstract:
The influence on Nickel-like Molybdenum soft-x-ray laser performance and stability of a low energy laser prepulse arriving prior to the main laser pumping pulses is experimentally investigated. A promising regime for 10 Hz operation has been observed. A four times increase in soft-x-ray laser operation time with a same target surface is demonstrated. This soft-x-ray laser operation mode corresponds to an optimum delay between the prepulse and the main pulses and to a prepulse energy greater than 20 mJ. We also show that this regime is not associated with a weaker degradation of the target or any reduced ablation rate. Therefore the role of preplasma density gradient in this effect is discussed.
J. Rothhardt, S. Demmler, S. Hädrich, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann
Octave-spanning OPCPA system delivering CEP-stable few-cycle pulses and 22 W of average power at 1 MHz repetition rate
Opt. Express, 20 :10870 (April 2012)
Abstract:
We report on an OPCPA system delivering CEP-stable pulses with a pulse duration of only 1.7 optical cycles at 880 nm wavelength. This pulse duration is achieved by the generation, optical parametric amplification and compression of a full optical octave of bandwidth. The system is pumped by a high average power Yb-fiber laser system, which allows for operation of the OPCPA at up to 1 MHz repetition rate and 22 W of average output power. Further scaling towards single-cycle pulses, higher energy and output power is discussed.
T. Rathje, N. Johnson, M. Möller, F. Süssmann, D. Adolph, M. Kübel, R. Kienberger, M. F. Kling, G.G. Paulus, and A. M. Sayler
Review of attosecond resolved measurement and control via carrier-envelope phase tagging with above-threshold ionization
J. Phys. B, 45 :074003 (April 2012)
Abstract:
A precise, real-time, single-shot carrier–envelope phase (CEP) tagging technique for few-cycle pulses was developed and combined with cold-target recoil-ion momentum spectroscopy and velocity-map imaging to investigate and control CEP-dependent processes with attosecond resolution. The stability and precision of these new techniques have allowed for the study of intense, few-cycle, laser-matter dynamics with unprecedented detail. Moreover, the same stereo above-threshold ionization (ATI) measurement was expanded to multi-cycle pulses and allows for CEP locking and pulse-length determination. Here we review these techniques and their first applications to waveform characterization and control, non-sequential double ionization of argon, ATI of xenon and electron emission from SiO_2 nanospheres.
J. Limpert, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, and A. Tünnermann
Yb-doped large-pitch fibres: effective single-mode operation based on higher-order mode delocalisation
Light Sci. Appl., 1 :e8 (April 2012)
Abstract:
Rare earth-doped fibres are a diode-pumped, solid-state laser architecture that is highly scalable in average power. The performance of pulsed fibre laser systems is restricted due to nonlinear effects. Hence, fibre designs that allow for very large mode areas at high average powers with diffraction-limited beam quality are of enormous interest. Ytterbium-doped, rod-type, large-pitch fibres (LPF) enable extreme fibre dimensions, i.e., effective single-mode fibres with mode sizes exceeding 100 times the wavelength of the guided radiation, by exploiting the novel concept of delocalisation of higher-order transverse modes. The non-resonant nature of the operating principle makes LPF suitable for high power extraction. This design allows for an unparalleled level of performance in pulsed fibre lasers.
F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, A. Liem, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann
26 mJ, 130 W Q-switched fiber-laser system with near-diffraction-limited beam quality
Opt. Lett., 37 :1073 (March 2012)
Abstract:
We demonstrate a Q-switched fiber laser system emitting sub-60 ns pulses with 26 mJ pulse energy and near-diffraction-limited beam quality (M^2 < 1.3). In combination with a repetition rate of 5 kHz, a corresponding average output power of 130 W is achieved. This record performance is enabled by a large-pitch fiber with a core diameter of 135 µm. This fiber allows for effective single-mode operation with mode field diameters larger than 90 µm even at average output powers exceeding 100 W.
E. Seres, J. Seres, and C. Spielmann
Extreme ultraviolet light source based on intracavity high harmonic generation in a mode locked Ti:sapphire oscillator with 9.4 MHz repetition rate
Opt. Express, 20 :6185 (March 2012)
Abstract:
We report on the realization of an intracavity high harmonic source with a cutoff above 30 eV. The EUV source is based on a high power, hard-aperture, Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti:sapphire oscillator with a repetition rate of 9.4 MHz. The laser is operated in the net negative dispersion regime resulting in intracavity pulses as short as 17 fs with 1 µJ pulse energy. In a second intracavity focus, intensity more than 10^(14) W/cm^2 has been achieved, which is sufficient for high harmonic generation in a Xenon gas jet.
B. Aurand, C. Rödel, H. Zhao, S. Kuschel, M. Wünsche, O. Jäckel, M. Heyer, F. Wunderlich, M.C. Kaluza, G.G. Paulus, and T. Kühl
Note: A large aperture four-mirror reflective wave-plate for high-intensity short-pulse laser experiments
Rev. Sci. Instrum., 83 :036104 (March 2012)
Abstract:
We report on a four-mirror reflective wave-plate system based on a phase-shifting mirror (PSM) for a continuous variation of elliptical polarization without changing the beam position and direction. The system presented and characterized here can replace a conventional retardation plate providing all advantages of a PSM, such as high damage-threshold, large scalability, and low dispersion. This makes reflective wave-plates an ideal tool for ultra-high power laser applications.
S. Fuchs, A. Blinne, C. Rödel, U. Zastrau, V. Hilbert, M. Wünsche, J. Bierbach, E. Frumker, E. Förster, and G.G. Paulus
Optical coherence tomography using broad-bandwidth XUV and soft X-ray radiation
Appl. Phys. B, 106 :789 (March 2012)
Abstract:
We present a novel approach to extend optical coherence tomography (OCT) to the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) and soft X-ray (SXR) spectral range. With a simple setup based on Fourier-domain OCT and adapted for the application of XUV and SXR broadband radiation, cross-sectional images of semiconductors and organic samples becomes feasible with current synchrotron or laser-plasma sources. For this purpose, broadband XUV radiation is focused onto the sample surface, and the reflected spectrum is recorded by an XUV spectrometer. The proposed method has the particular advantage that the axial spatial resolution only depends on the spectral bandwidth. As a consequence, the theoretical resolution limit of XUV coherence tomography (XCT) is in the order of nanometers, e.g., 3 nm for wavelengths in the water window (280 - 530 eV). We proved the concept of XCT by calculating the reflectivity of one-dimensional silicon and boron carbide samples containing buried layers and found the expected properties with respect to resolution and penetration depth confirmed.
I. I. Tupitsyn, Y. S. Kozhedub, V. M. Shabaev, A. I. Bondarev, G. B. Deyneka, I. A. Maltsev, S. Hagmann, G. Plunien, and T. Stöhlker
Relativistic calculations of the K-K charge transfer and K-vacancy production probabilities in low-energy ion-atom collisions
Phys. Rev. A, 85 :032712 (March 2012)
Abstract:
The previously developed technique for evaluation of charge transfer and electron-excitation processes in low-energy heavy-ion collisions [ Tupitsyn et al. Phys. Rev. A 82 042701 (2010)] is extended to collisions of ions with neutral atoms. The method employs the active-electron approximation, in which only the active-electron participates in the charge transfer and excitation processes while the passive electrons provide the screening density-functional theory (DFT) potential. The time-dependent Dirac wave function of the active electron is represented as a linear combination of atomic-like Dirac-Fock-Sturm orbitals, localized at the ions (atoms). The screening DFT potential is calculated using the overlapping densities of each ion (atom), derived from the atomic orbitals of the passive electrons. The atomic orbitals are generated by solving numerically the one-center Dirac-Fock and Dirac-Fock-Sturm equations by means of a finite-difference approach with the potential taken as the sum of the exact reference ion (atom) Dirac-Fock potential and of the Coulomb potential from the other ion within the monopole approximation. The method developed is used to calculate the K-K charge transfer and K-vacancy production probabilties for the Ne(1s^(2) 2s^(2) 2p^(6))-F^(8+)(1s) collisions at the F^(8+)(1s) projectile energies 130 and 230 keV/u. The obtained results are compared with experimental data and other theoretical calculations. The K-K charge transfer and K-vacancy production probabilities are also calculated for the Xe-Xe^(53+)(1s) collision.
R. Lötzsch, I. Uschmann, and E. Förster
Spatially resolved twin domain distribution and lattice parameter variations in the near-surface region of SrTiO_3 single crystals
Appl. Phys. B, 106 :563 (March 2012)
Abstract:
We investigated the twin domain distribution and lattice parameter variations associated with the displacive phase transition in SrTiO_3 by means of X-ray diffraction with high spatial resolution. By using 4.5-keV photons, the probed region is the first micrometer near the surface. We find a very inhomogeneous domain distribution, showing both regions with large monodomains and highly twinned regions, as well as large needle domains. Also, the lattice parameters in these different regions vary substantially.
U. Zastrau, T. Burian, J. Chalupsky, T. Döppner, T. W. J. Dzelzainis, R. R. Fäustlin, C. Fortmann, E. Galtier, S. H. Glenzer, G. Gregori, L. Juha, H. J. Lee, R. W. Lee, C. L. S. Lewis, N. Medvedev, B. Nagler, A. J. Nelson, D. Riley, F. B. Rosmej, S. Toleikis, T. Tschentscher, I. Uschmann, S. M. Vinko, J. S. Wark, T. Whitcher, and E. Förster
XUV spectroscopic characterization of warm dense aluminum plasmas generated by the free-electron-laser FLASH
Laser Part. Beams, 30 :45 (March 2012)
Abstract:
We report on experiments aimed at the generation and characterization of solid density plasmas at the free-electron laser FLASH in Hamburg. Aluminum samples were irradiated with XUV pulses at 13.5 nm wavelength (92 eV photon energy). The pulses with duration of a few tens of femtoseconds and pulse energy up to 100 µJ are focused to intensities ranging between 10^(13) and 10^(17) W/cm^2. We investigate the absorption and temporal evolution of the sample under irradiation by use of XUV and optical spectroscopy. We discuss the origin of saturable absorption, radiative decay, bremsstrahlung and atomic and ionic line emission. Our experimental results are in good agreement with simulations.