Referierte Publikationen


W. Nörtershäuser, R. Sanchez, G. Ewald, A. Dax, J. Behr, P. Bricault, B. A. Bushaw, J. Dilling, M. Dombsky, G. W. F. Drake, S. Götte, H.-J. Kluge, T. Kühl, J. Lassen, C. D. P. Levy, K. Pachucki, M. Pearson, M. Puchalski, A. Wojtaszek, Z.-C. Yan, and C. Zimmermann
Isotope-shift measurements of stable and short-lived lithium isotopes for nuclear-charge-radii determination
Phys. Rev. A, 83 :012516 (January 2011)
Changes in the mean square nuclear charge radii along the lithium isotopic chain were determined using a combination of precise isotope shift measurements and theoretical atomic structure calculations. Nuclear charge radii of light elements are of high interest due to the appearance of the nuclear halo phenomenon in this region of the nuclear chart. During the past years we have developed a laser spectroscopic approach to determine the charge radii of lithium isotopes which combines high sensitivity, speed, and accuracy to measure the extremely small field shift of an 8-ms-lifetime isotope with production rates on the order of only 10 000 atoms/s. The method was applied to all bound isotopes of lithium including the two-neutron halo isotope 11^Li at the on-line isotope separators at GSI, Darmstadt, Germany, and at TRIUMF, Vancouver, Canada. We describe the laser spectroscopic method in detail, present updated and improved values from theory and experiment, and discuss the results.
A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, W. Müller, K. Rühle, R. Kienberger, and G.G. Paulus
Precise, real-time, every-single-shot, carrier-envelope phase measurement of ultrashort laser pulses
Opt. Lett., 36 :1 (January 2011)
In this Letter we demonstrate a method for real-time determination of the carrier-envelope phase of each and every single ultrashort laser pulse at kilohertz repetition rates. The technique expands upon the recent work of Wittmann and incorporates a stereographic above-threshold laser-induced ionization measurement and electronics optimized to produce a signal corresponding to the carrier-envelope phase within microseconds of the laser interaction, thereby facilitating data-tagging and feedback applications. We achieve a precision of 113 mrad (6.5°) over the entire 2π range.
B. Botermann, C. Novotny, D. Bing, C. Geppert, G. Gwinner, T. W. Hänsch, G. Huber, S. Karpuk, T. Kühl, W. Nörtershäuser, S. Reinhardt, G. Saathoff, D. Schwalm, T. Stöhlker, and A. Wolf
Preparatory measurements for a test of time dilation in the ESR
Can. J. Phys., 89 :85 (January 2011)
We present preparatory measurements for an improved test of time dilation at the experimental storage ring (ESR) at GSI in Darmstadt. A unique combination of particle accelerator experiments and laser spectroscopy is used to perform this test with the highest precision. 7^Li+ ions are accelerated to 34% of the speed of light at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and stored in the experimental storage ring. The forward and backward Doppler shifts of an electric dipole transition of these ions are measured with laser spectroscopy techniques. From these Doppler shifts, both the ion velocity β = ν/c and the time dilation factor can be derived for testing Special Relativity. Two laser systems have been developed to drive the 3^S_1 → 3^P_2 transition in 7^Li+. Moreover, a detector system composed of photomultipliers, both to monitor the exact laser ion beam overlap as well as to optimize fluorescence detection, has been set up and tested. We investigate optical-optical double-resonance spectroscopy on a closed Λ-type three-level system to overcome Doppler broadening. A residual, broadened fluorescence background caused by velocity-changing processes in the ion beam is identified, and a background subtraction scheme implemented. At the present stage the experimental sensitivity, although already comparable with previous measurements on slower ion beams at the TSR storage ring that led to  < 8.4 × 10^–8, suffer from a poor signal-to-noise ratio. Modifications of the ion source as well as the detection system are discussed that promise to improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude.
M. N. Quinn, X. H. Yuan, X. X. Lin, D. C. Carroll, O. Tresca, R. J. Gray, M. Coury, C. Li, Y. T. Li, C. M. Brenner, A. P. L. Robinson, D. Neely, B. Zielbauer, B. Aurand, J. Fils, T. Kühl, and P. McKenna
Refluxing of fast electrons in solid targets irradiated by intense, picosecond laser pulses
Plasma Phys. Contr. F., 53 :025007 (January 2011)
The propagation of fast electrons produced in the interaction of relativistically intense, picosecond laser pulses with solid targets is experimentally investigated using K α emission as a diagnostic. The role of fast electron refluxing within the target, which occurs when the electrons are reflected by the sheath potentials formed at the front and rear surfaces, is elucidated. The targets consist of a Cu fluorescence layer of fixed thickness at the front surface backed with a propagation layer of CH, the thickness of which is varied to control the number of times the refluxing fast electron population transits the Cu fluorescence layer. Enhancements in the K α yield and source size are measured as the thickness of the CH layer is decreased. Comparison with analytical and numerical modelling confirms that significant refluxing occurs and highlights the importance of considering this phenomenon when deriving information on fast electron transport from laser–solid interaction experiments involving relatively thin targets.
L. A. Gizzi, S. Betti, E. Förster, D. Giulietti, S. Höfer, P. Köster, L. Labate, R. Lötzsch, A. P. L. Robinson, and I. Uschmann
Role of resistivity gradient in laser-driven ion acceleration
Phys. Rev. ST AB, 14 :011301 (January 2011)
It was predicted that, when a fast electron beam with some angular spread is normally incident on a resistivity gradient, magnetic field generation can occur that can inhibit beam propagation [A. R. Bell et al. Phys. Rev. E 58 2471 (1998)]. This effect can have consequences on the laser-driven ion acceleration. In the experiment reported here, we compare ion emission from laser irradiated coated and uncoated metal foils and we show that the ion beam from the coated target has a much smaller angular spread. Detailed hybrid numerical simulations confirm that the inhibition of fast electron transport through the resistivity gradient may explain the observed effect.
N. Johnson, O. Herrwerth, A. Wirth, S. De, I. Ben-Itzhak, M. Lezius, B. Bergues, M. F. Kling, A. Senftleben, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, K. J. Betsch, R. R. Jones, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, K. Rühle, W. Müller, and G.G. Paulus
Single-shot carrier-envelope-phase-tagged ion-momentum imaging of nonsequential double ionization of argon in intense 4-fs laser fields
Phys. Rev. A, 83 :013412 (January 2011)
Single-shot carrier-envelope-phase (CEP) tagging is combined with a reaction mircoscope (REMI) to investigate CEP-dependent processes in atoms. Excellent experimental stability and data acquisition longevity are achieved. Using this approach, we study the CEP effects for nonsequential double ionization of argon in 4-fs laser fields at 750 nm and an intensity of 1.6 × 10^14 W/cm2. The Ar^(2+) ionization yield shows a pronounced CEP dependence which compares well with recent theoretical predictions employing quantitative rescattering theory [S. Micheau et al. Phys. Rev. A 79 013417 (2009)]. Furthermore, we find strong CEP influences on the Ar^(2+) momentum spectra along the laser polarization axis.


E. Seise, A. Klenke, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann
Coherent addition of fiber-amplified ultrashort laser pulses
Opt. Express, 18 :27827 (December 2010)
We report on a novel approach of performance scaling of ultrafast lasers by means of coherent combination. Pulses from a single mode-locked laser are distributed to a number of spatially separated fiber amplifiers and coherently combined after amplification. Splitting and combination is achieved by polarization cubes, i.e. the approach bases on polarization combining. A Hänsch-Couillaud detector measures the polarization state at the output. The error signal (deviation from linear polarization) is used to stabilize the synchronization of different channels. In a proof-of-principle experiment the combination of two femtosecond fiber-based CPA systems is presented. A combining efficiency as high as 97% has been achieved. The technique offers a unique scaling potential and can be applied to all ultrafast amplification schemes independent of the architecture of the gain medium.
G. Weber, H. Bräuning, A. Surzhykov, C. Brandau, S. Fritzsche, S. Geyer, S. Hagmann, S. Hess, C. Kozhuharov, R. Märtin, N. Petridis, R. Reuschl, U. Spillmann, S. Trotsenko, D. F. A. Winters, and T. Stöhlker
Direct Determination of the Magnetic Quadrupole Contribution to the Lyman-alpha(1) Transition in a Hydrogenlike Ion
Phys. Rev. Lett., 105 :243002 (December 2010)
We report the observation of an interference between the electric dipole (E1) and the magnetic quadrupole (M2) amplitudes for the linear polarization of the Ly-alpha(1) (2p(3/2) -> 1s(1/2)) radiation of hydrogenlike uranium. This multipole mixing arises from the coupling of the ion to different multipole components of the radiation field. Our observation indicates a significant depolarization of the Ly-alpha(1) radiation due to the E1-M2 amplitude mixing. It proves that a combined measurement of the linear polarization and of the angular distribution enables a very precise determination of the ratio of the E1 and the M2 transition amplitudes and the corresponding transition rates without any assumptions concerning the population mechanism for the 2p(3/2) state.
A. N. Artemyev, A. Surzhykov, P. Indelicato, G. Plunien, and T. Stöhlker
Finite basis set approach to the two-centre Dirac problem in Cassini coordinates
J. Phys. B, 43 :235207 (December 2010)
We lay out a new approach to solving the two-centre Dirac eigenvalue problem. It is based on the application of B-spline basis sets constructed in Cassini coordinates. The approach provides a very promising way for the theoretical description of various atomic processes such as charge transfer, excitation, ionization and electron-positron pair production that accompany slow collisions of heavy ions. Moreover, yielding a (quasi-) complete set of eigensolutions, the finite basis set method allows a systematic analysis of the quantum electrodynamics (QED) corrections to the energy levels of heavy quasi-molecules formed in these collisions.
J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Ecker, D. Hochhaus, D. Zimmer, V. Bagnoud, B. Aurand, B. Zielbauer, C. Spielmann, and T. Kühl
Reply to 'The super-quadratic growth of high-harmonic signal as a function of pressure'
Nat. Phys., 6 :928 (December 2010)
The high-harmonic generation (HHG) yield depends on several important experimental parameters and can be described with models including single atom response and propagation effects. In our recent paper we extended this description by adding a stimulated emission process and named it self-seeded X-ray parametric amplification (XPA).
F. Hebenstreit, R. Alkofer, and H. Gies
Schwinger pair production in space- and time-dependent electric fields: Relating the Wigner formalism to quantum kinetic theory
Phys. Rev. D, 82 :105026 (November 2010)
The nonperturbative electron-positron pair production (Schwinger effect) is considered for space- and time-dependent electric fields E(x,t). Based on the Dirac-Heisenberg-Wigner formalism, we derive a system of partial differential equations of infinite order for the 16 irreducible components of the Wigner function. In the limit of spatially homogeneous fields the Vlasov equation of quantum kinetic theory is rediscovered. It is shown that the quantum kinetic formalism can be exactly solved in the case of a constant electric field E(t)=E_0 and the Sauter-type electric field E(t)=E_0 sech^2 (t/τ). These analytic solutions translate into corresponding expressions within the Dirac-Heisenberg-Wigner formalism and allow to discuss the effect of higher derivatives. We observe that spatial field variations typically exert a strong influence on the components of the Wigner function for large momenta or for late times.
S. M. Pfotenhauer, O. Jäckel, J. Polz, S. Steinke, H. Schlenvoigt, J. Heymann, A. P. L. Robinson, and M.C. Kaluza
A cascaded laser acceleration scheme for the generation of spectrally controlled proton beams
New J. Phys., 12 :103009 (October 2010)
We present a novel, cascaded acceleration scheme for the generation of spectrally controlled ion beams using a laser-based accelerator in a 'double-stage' setup. An MeV proton beam produced during a relativistic laser-plasma interaction on a thin foil target is spectrally shaped by a secondary laser-plasma interaction on a separate foil, reliably creating well-separated quasi-monoenergetic features in the energy spectrum. The observed modulations are fully explained by a one-dimensional (1D) model supported by numerical simulations. These findings demonstrate that laser acceleration can, in principle, be applied in an additive manner.
O. Jäckel, J. Polz, S. M. Pfotenhauer, H. Schlenvoigt, H. Schwörer, and M.C. Kaluza
All-optical measurement of the hot electron sheath driving laser ion acceleration from thin foils
New J. Phys., 12 :103027 (October 2010)
We present experimental results from an all-optical diagnostic method to directly measure the evolution of the hot-electron distribution driving the acceleration of ions from thin foils using high-intensity lasers. Central parameters of laser ion acceleration such as the hot-electron density, the temperature distribution and the conversion efficiency from laser pulse energy into hot electrons become comprehensively accessible with this technique.
B. Döbrich, and H. Gies
Axion-like-particle search with high-intensity lasers
J. High Energ. Phys., 10 :22 (October 2010)
We study ALP-photon-conversion within strong inhomogeneous electromagnetic fields as provided by contemporary high-intensity laser systems. We observe that probe photons traversing the focal spot of a superposition of Gaussian beams of a single high-intensity laser at fundamental and frequency-doubled mode can experience a frequency shift due to their intermittent propagation as axion-like-particles. This process is strongly peaked for resonant masses on the order of the involved laser frequencies. Purely laser-based experiments in optical setups are sensitive to ALPs in the eV mass range and can thus complement ALP searches at dipole magnets.
D. N. Schimpf, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann
Optimization of high performance ultrafast fiber laser systems to > 10 GW peak power
J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, 27 :2051 (October 2010)
We show that the peak powers of ytterbium-doped fiber chirped pulse amplification (CPA) can be scaled by at least 1 order of magnitude (in the transform limit) as compared to current systems by using a different spectral region of operation. A simple and fast model for saturated broadband fiber CPA systems is developed and applied to study the impact of the interplay between the spectrally dependent small signal gain and the saturation on the output bandwidth. The influence of self-phase modulation on the recompression of the pulse is discussed. It can be shown that the novel operation regime exhibits superior performance even if nonlinear effects are considered. The numerical results are significant for the design of the next generation of ultrafast high power fiber lasers.
I. I. Tupitsyn, Y. S. Kozhedub, V. M. Shabaev, G. B. Deyneka, S. Hagmann, C. Kozhuharov, G. Plunien, and T. Stöhlker
Relativistic calculations of the charge-transfer probabilities and cross sections for low-energy collisions of H-like ions with bare nuclei
Phys. Rev. A, 82 :042701 (October 2010)
A method for solving the time-dependent two-center Dirac equation is developed. The time-dependent Dirac wave function is represented as a sum of atomiclike Dirac-Sturm orbitals, localized at the ions. The atomic orbitals are generated by solving numerically the one-center Dirac and Dirac-Sturm equations by means of a finite-difference approach with the Coulomb potential taken as the sum of the exact reference-nucleus potential and of the other nucleus within the monopole approximation. An original procedure for calculating the two-center integrals with these orbitals is proposed. As a first test of the approach developed here, calculations of the charge-transfer and ionization cross sections for the H(1s)-proton collisions at proton energies from 1 to 100 keV are performed. The obtained results are compared with related experimental and other theoretical data. To investigate the role of the relativistic effects, the charge-transfer cross sections in collisions of Ne9+(1s)-Ne10+ (at energies from 0.1 to 10 MeV/u) and U91+(1s)-U92+ (at energies from 6 to 10 MeV/u) are calculated for both relativistic and nonrelativistic cases.
D. B. Thorn, C. G. R. Geddes, N. H. Matlis, G. R. Plateau, E. H. Esarey, M. Battaglia, C. B. Schröder, S. Shiraishi, T. Stöhlker, C. Toth, and W. P. Leemans
Spectroscopy of betatron radiation emitted from laser-produced wakefield accelerated electrons
Rev. Sci. Instrum., 81 :10E325 (October 2010)
X-ray betatron radiation is produced by oscillations of electrons in the intense focusing field of a laser-plasma accelerator. These hard x-rays show promise for use in femtosecond-scale time-resolved radiography of ultrafast processes. However, the spectral characteristics of betatron radiation have only been inferred from filter pack measurements. In order to achieve higher resolution spectral information about the betatron emission, we used an x-ray charge-coupled device to record the spectrum of betatron radiation, with a full width at half maximum resolution of 225 eV. In addition, we have recorded simultaneous electron and x-ray spectra along with x-ray images that allow for a determination of the betatron emission source size, as well as differences in the x-ray spectra as a function of the energy spectrum of accelerated electrons.
M. Hornung, R. Bödefeld, M. Siebold, A. Kessler, M. Schnepp, R. Wachs, A. Sävert, S. Podleska, S. Keppler, J. Hein, and M.C. Kaluza
Temporal pulse control of a multi-10 TW diode-pumped Yb:Glass laser
Appl. Phys. B, 101 :93 (October 2010)
At the Institute of Optics and Quantum Electronics in Jena, Germany, the currently most powerful diode-pumped solid-state laser system with 25-TW peak power Polaris is in operation. In this paper we give an overview about the dispersion management of the chirped pulse amplification in order to minimize the pulse duration and thus to maximize the intensity available for experiments. A detailed description of the stretcher and compressor design with a novel alignment routine is given as well as measurements for the pulse duration and the temporal contrast. The far field measurement of the beam focussed by an off-axis parabola yields a nearly diffraction limited focal spot.
P. Neumayer, B. Aurand, M. Basko, B. Ecker, P. Gibbon, D. C. Hochhaus, A. Karmakar, E. Kazakov, T. Kühl, C. Labaune, O. Rosmej, An. Tauschwitz, B. Zielbauer, and D. Zimmer
The role of hot electron refluxing in laser-generated K-alpha sources
Phys. Plasmas, 17 :103103 (October 2010)
A study of the contribution of refluxing electrons in the production of K-alpha radiation from high-intensity laser irradiated thin targets has been performed. Thin copper foils both freestanding, and backed by a thick substrate were irradiated with laser pulses of energies around 100 J at intensities ranging from below 10^17 to above 10^19 W/cm2. At high laser intensities we find a strong reduction in the K-alpha yield from targets backed by the substrate. The observed yield reduction is in good agreement with a simple model using hot electron spectra from particle-in-cell simulations or directly inferred from the measured bremsstrahlung emission and can therefore be interpreted as due to the suppression of hot electron refluxing. The study shows that refluxing electrons play a dominant role in high-intensity laser driven K- alpha generation and have to be taken into account in designing targets for laser driven high-flux K-alpha sources.
V. P. Shevelko, T. Stöhlker, H. Tawara, I. Yu. Tolstikhina, and G. Weber
Electron capture in intermediate-to-fast heavy ion collisions with neutral atoms
Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. B, 268 :2611 (September 2010)
Electron capture processes of heavy ions, like Ge(q+), Xe(q+). Pb(q+), and U(q+), respectively, with the charge q approximate to 10-40, occurring in collisions with gaseous targets are considered in the E = 0.1-100 MeV/u projectile energy range. Calculations of single-electron capture cross sections are performed using the CDW and the CAPTURE computer codes These are compared with available experimental data and CTMC (Classical-Trajectory Monte Carlo) calculations. Although the overall agreement is found to be within a factor of two, In some cases of heavy many-electron projectiles, e g. U(28+) + N(2), Ar collisions, experimental cross sections at high energies are far smaller than theoretical predictions Moreover, for these collision systems the observed energy dependencies are quite different from each other. Possible reasons for this behavior and how the theoretical models can be improved are discussed.
S. Hädrich, J. Rothhardt, M. Krebs, F. Tavella, A. Willner, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann
High harmonic generation by novel fiber amplifier based sources
Opt. Express, 18 :20242 (September 2010)
Significant progress in high repetition rate ultrashort pulse sources based on fiber technology is presented. These systems enable operation at a high repetition rate of up to 500 kHz and high average power in the extreme ultraviolet wavelength range via high harmonic generation in a gas jet. High average power few-cycle pulses of a fiber amplifier pumped optical parametric chirped pulse amplifier are used to produce µW level average power for the strongest harmonic at 42.9 nm at a repetition rate of 96 kHz.
M.C. Kaluza, H.-P. Schlenvoigt, S. P. D. Mangles, A. G. R. Thomas, A. E. Dangor, H. Schwörer, W. B. Mori, Z. Najmudin, and K. M. Krushelnick
Measurement of Magnetic-Field Structures in a Laser-Wakefield Accelerator
Phys. Rev. Lett., 105 :115002 (September 2010)
Experimental measurements of magnetic fields generated in the cavity of a self-injecting laser-wakefield accelerator are presented. Faraday rotation is used to determine the existence of multimegagauss fields, constrained to a transverse dimension comparable to the plasma wavelength similar to lambda(p) and several lambda(p) longitudinally. The fields are generated rapidly and move with the driving laser. In our experiment, the appearance of the magnetic fields is correlated with the production of relativistic electrons, indicating that they are inherently tied to the growth and wave breaking of the nonlinear plasma wave. This evolution is confirmed by numerical simulations, showing that these measurements provide insight into the wakefield evolution with high spatial and temporal resolution.
D. C. Hochhaus, J. Seres, B. Aurand, B. Ecker, B. Zielbauer, D. Zimmer, C. Spielmann, and T. Kühl
Tuning the high-order harmonic lines of a Nd:Glass laser for soft X-ray laser seeding
Appl. Phys. B, 100 :711 (September 2010)
We report here more than 50% coverage of the XUV spectral range between 18 nm and 35 nm by tuning the high-order harmonics generated by a fixed frequency Nd:Glass laser system. The tuning range achieved is suitable to seed Ni-like Y, Zr and Mo soft X-ray lasers.
F. Ferro, A. Artemyev, T. Stöhlker, and A. Surzhykov
Isotopic tuning of the 2 3P0−2 1S0 and 2 3P1−2 1S0 transition energies in He-like ions for future parity-nonconservation experiments
J. Instrum., 5 :C08006 (August 2010)
Crossings of opposite-parity levels in He-like ions for particular values of the atomic number Z offer excellent conditions for precise experimental tests of parity-nonconservation (PNC). Such tests may be performed by inducing, through intense lasers, transitions that are only allowed in presence of PNC. Several spectroscopy experiments have been proposed in the past, but only now, with the advent of high-intensity laser facilities (e.g. PHELIX at GSI or POLARIS at Jena), their feasibility is within reach. In this paper, we use relativistic many-body perturbation theory (RMBPT) to calculate accurately the crossing conditions of the excited levels (1s2s) 1S0 and (1s2p) 3P0 and of (1s2s) 1S0 and (1s2p) 3P1 in intermediate and heavy He-like ions. Moreover, we show the dependence of the energy splittings upon the choice of the nuclear isotope.
M.C. Kaluza, S. P. D. Mangles, A. G. R. Thomas, Z. Najmudin, A. E. Dangor, C. D. Murphy, J. L. Collier, E. J. Divall, P. S. Foster, C. J. Hooker, A. J. Langley, J. Smith, and K. Krushelnick
Observation of a Long-Wavelength Hosing Modulation of a High-Intensity Laser Pulse in Underdense Plasma
Phys. Rev. Lett., 105 :095003 (August 2010)
We report the first experimental observation of a long-wavelength hosing modulation of a high-intensity laser pulse. Side-view images of the scattered optical radiation at the fundamental wavelength of the laser reveal a transverse oscillation of the laser pulse during its propagation through underdense plasma. The wavelength of the oscillation lambda(hosing) depends on the background plasma density n(e) and scales as lambda(hosing) similar to n(e)(-3/2). Comparisons with an analytical model and two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations reveal that this laser hosing can be induced by a spatiotemporal asymmetry of the intensity distribution in the laser focus which can be caused by a misalignment of the parabolic focusing mirror or of the diffraction gratings in the pulse compressor.