Referierte Publikationen


J. Rothhardt, S. Hädrich, H. Carstens, N. Herrick, S. Demmler, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann
1 MHz repetition rate hollow fiber pulse compression to sub-100-fs duration at 100 W average power
Opt. Lett., 36 :4605 (December 2011)
We report on nonlinear pulse compression at very high average power. A high-power fiber chirped pulse amplification system based on a novel large pitch photonic crystal fiber delivers 700 fs pulses with 200 μJ pulse energy at a 1 MHz repetition rate, resulting in 200 W of average power. Subsequent spectral broadening in a xenon-filled hollow-core fiber and pulse compression with chirped mirrors is employed for pulse shortening and peak power enhancement. For the first time, to our knowledge, more than 100 W of average power are transmitted through a noble-gas-filled hollow fiber. After pulse compression of 81 fs, 93 μJ pulses are obtained at a 1 MHz repetition rate.
A. Klenke, E. Seise, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann
Basic considerations on coherent combining of ultrashort laser pulses
Opt. Express, 19 :25379 (December 2011)
Coherent combining is a novel approach to scale the performance of laser amplifiers. The use of ultrashort pulses in a coherent combining setup results in new challenges compared to continuous wave operation or to pulses on the nanosecond timescale, because temporal and spectral effects such as self-phase modulation, dispersion and the optical path length difference between the pulses have to be considered. In this paper the impact of these effects on the combining process has been investigated and simple analytical equations for the evaluation of this impact have been obtained. These formulas provide design guidelines for laser systems using coherent combining. The results show that, in spite of the temporal and spectral effects mentioned above, for a carefully adjusted and stabilized system an excellent efficiency of the combining process can still be achieved.
N. I. Shvetsov-Shilovski, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, and G.G. Paulus
Carrier-envelope phase effect in the yield of sequential ionization by an intense few-cycle laser pulse
New J. Phys., 13 :123015 (December 2011)
The relative yield of highly charged atomic ions produced by a short (4–6 fs at FWHM) intense (10^14 – 5 × 10^18 W cm^(−2)) laser pulse was investigated by numerical solution of the rate equations. We predict oscillations of the ion yield as a function of the absolute phase. A distinctive property of this phase dependence is that it can only be observed when at least two ions have comparable yields. It is shown that with currently available laser systems the effect should be experimentally detectable for various rare gas atoms: Xe, Kr, Ar and Ne.
M. Grech, S. Skupin, A. Diaw, T. Schlegel, and V. T. Tikhonchuk
Energy dispersion in radiation pressure accelerated ion beams
New J. Phys., 13 :123003 (December 2011)
We address the problem of energy dispersion of radiation pressure accelerated (RPA) ion beams emerging from a thin target. Two different acceleration regimes, namely phase-stable acceleration and multistage acceleration, are considered by means of analytical modeling and one-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. Our investigations offer a deeper understanding of RPA and allow us to derive some guidelines for generating monoenergetic ion beams.
F. Stutzki, H. Otto, F. Jansen, C. Gaida, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann
High-speed modal decomposition of mode instabilities in high-power fiber lasers
Opt. Lett., 36 :4572 (December 2011)
A high-speed mode analysis technique is required to gain fundamental understanding of mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems. In this work a technique, purely based on the intensity profile of the beam, is demonstrated to be ideally suited to analyze fiber laser dynamics. This technique, together with a high-speed camera, has been applied to the study of the temporal dynamics of mode instabilities at high average powers with up to 20,000 frames per second. These measurements confirm that energy transfer between the fluctuating transversal modes takes place in millisecond-time-scale.
A. Klenke, E. Seise, S. Demmler, J. Rothhardt, S. Breitkopf, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann
Coherently-combined two channel femtosecond fiber CPA system producing 3 mJ pulse energy
Opt. Express, 19 :24280 (November 2011)
We present a fiber CPA system consisting of two coherently combined fiber amplifiers, which have been arranged in an actively stabilized Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Pulse durations as short as 470 fs and pulse energies of 3 mJ, corresponding to 5.4 GW of peak power, have been achieved at an average power of 30 W.
A. Willner, F. Tavella, M. Yeung, T. Dzelzainis, C. Kamperidis, M. Bakarezos, D. Adams, R. Riedel, M. Schulz, M. C. Hoffmann, W. Hu, J. Rossbach, M. Drescher, V. S. Yakovlev, N. A. Papadogiannis, M. Tatarakis, B. Dromey, and M. Zepf
Efficient control of quantum paths via dual-gas high harmonic generation
New J. Phys., 13 :113001 (November 2011)
The accurate control of the relative phase of multiple distinct sources of radiation produced by high harmonic generation is of central importance in the continued development of coherent extreme UV (XUV) and attosecond sources. Here, we present a novel approach which allows extremely accurate phase control between multiple sources of high harmonic radiation generated within the Rayleigh range of a single-femtosecond laser pulse using a dual-gas, multi-jet array. Fully ionized hydrogen acts as a purely passive medium and allows highly accurate control of the relative phase between each harmonic source. Consequently, this method allows quantum path selection and rapid signal growth via the full coherent superposition of multiple HHG sources (the so-called quasi-phase-matching). Numerical simulations elucidate the complex interplay between the distinct quantum paths observed in our proof-of-principle experiments.
N. Petridis, A. Kalinin, U. Popp, V. Gostishchev, Y. Litvinov, C. Dimopoulou, F. Nolden, M. Steck, C. Kozhuharov, D. B. Thorn, A. Gumberidze, S. Trotsenko, S. Hagmann, U. Spillmann, D. F. A. Winters, R. Dörner, T. Stöhlker, and R. E. Grisenti
Energy loss and cooling of relativistic highly charged uranium ions interacting with an internal hydrogen droplet target beam
Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A, 656 :1 (November 2011)
We present measurements of the energy loss of relativistic highly charged uranium ions interacting with a target beam of near-liquid density hydrogen droplets at the experimental storage ring (ESR) at GSI. Our results reveal that a liquid droplet target beam virtually behaves like a homogeneous gas jet target with respect to both energy loss and ion beam cooling. We also provide first results on ion beam cooling efficiency at high hydrogen area target densities, which are consistent with numerical estimations based on a simple model of the cooling force.
A. V. Maiorova, V. M. Shabaev, A. V. Volotka, V. A. Zaytsev, G. Plunien, and T. Stöhlker
Parity nonconservation effect in resonance recombination of polarized electrons with heavy hydrogen-like ions
J. Phys. B, 44 :225003 (November 2011)
Parity nonconservation (PNC) effect in recombination of a polarized electron with a heavy H-like ion in the case of resonance with a doubly excited state of the corresponding He-like ion is studied. It is assumed that photons of the energy corresponding to the one-photon decay of the doubly excited state into the 2 1S0 or 2 3P0 state are detected at a given angle with respect to the incident electron momentum. Calculations are performed for helium-like thorium (Z = 90) and gadolinium (Z = 64), where the 2 1^S_0 and 2 3^P_0 levels are near to cross and, therefore, the PNC effect is strongly enhanced.
L. Willingale, A. G. R. Thomas, P. M. Nilson, M.C. Kaluza, S. Bandyopadhyay, A. E. Dangor, R. G. Evans, P. Fernandes, M. G. Haines, C. Kamperidis, R. J. Kingham, S. Minardi, M. Notley, C. P. Ridgers, W. Rozmus, M. Sherlock, M. Tatarakis, M. S. Wei, Z. Najmudin, and K. Krushelnick
Proton probe measurement of fast advection of magnetic fields by hot electrons
Plasma Phys. Contr. F., 53 :124026 (November 2011)
A laser generated proton beam was used to measure the megagauss strength self-generated magnetic fields from a nanosecond laser interaction with an aluminum target. At intensities of 10^15  W cm^−2 , the significant hot electron production and strong heat fluxes result in non-local transport becoming important to describe the magnetic field dynamics. Two-dimensional implicit Vlasov–Fokker–Planck modeling shows that fast advection of the magnetic field from the focal region occurs via the Nernst effect at significantly higher velocities than the sound speed, v_N / c_s ≈ 10.
E. Seise, A. Klenke, S. Breitkopf, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann
88 W 0.5 mJ femtosecond laser pulses from two coherently combined fiber amplifiers
Opt. Lett., 36 :3858 (October 2011)
The generation of 0.5 mJ femtosecond laser pulses by coherent combining of two high power high energy fiber chirped-pulse amplifiers is reported. The system is running at a repetition frequency of 175 kHz producing 88 W of average power after the compressor unit. Polarizing beam splitters have been used to realize an amplifying Mach–Zehnder interferometer, which has been stabilized with a Hänsch–Couillaud measurement system. The stabilized system possesses a measured residual rms phase difference fluctuation between the two branches as low as λ/70 rad at the maximum power level. The experiment proves that coherent addition of femtosecond fiber lasers can be efficiently and reliably performed at high B-integral and considerable thermal load in the individual amplifiers.
A. Willner, F. Tavella, M. Yeung, T. Dzelzainis, C. Kamperidis, M. Bakarezos, D. Adams, M. Schulz, R. Riedel, M. C. Hoffmann, W. Hu, J. Rossbach, M. Drescher, N. A. Papadogiannis, M. Tatarakis, B. Dromey, and M. Zepf
Coherent Control of High Harmonic Generation via Dual-Gas Multijet Arrays
Phys. Rev. Lett., 107 :175002 (October 2011)
High harmonic generation (HHG) is a central driver of the rapidly growing field of ultrafast science. We present a novel quasiphase-matching (QPM) concept with a dual-gas multijet target leading, for the first time, to remarkable phase control between multiple HHG sources (>2) within the Rayleigh range. The alternating jet structure with driving and matching zones shows perfect coherent buildup for up to six QPM periods. Although not in the focus of the proof-of-principle studies presented here, we achieved competitive conversion efficiencies already in this early stage of development.
S. Khan, Y. Cheng, M. Möller, K. Zhao, B. Zhao, M. Chini, G. Paulus, and Z. Chang
Ellipticity dependence of 400 nm-driven high harmonic generation
Appl. Phys. Lett., 99 :161106 (October 2011)
We studied the dependence of high harmonic generation efficiency on the ellipticity of 400 nm driving laser pulses at 7.7 × 10^14 W/cm2 and compared it with the 800 nm driving laser under the same conditions. The measured decrease of high harmonic yield with the ellipticity of the 400 nm laser is ∼1.5 times slower that of the 800 nm, which agrees well with theoretical predictions based on a semi-classical model. The results indicate that it is feasible to use the generalized double optical gating with 400 nm lasers for extracting single attosecond pulses with high efficiency.
S. Demmler, J. Rothhardt, A. M. Heidt, A. Hartung, E. G. Rohwer, H. Bartelt, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann
Generation of high quality, 1.3 cycle pulses by active phase control of an octave spanning supercontinuum
Opt. Express, 19 :20151 (October 2011)
Nonlinear pulse compression based on the generation of ultra-broadband supercontinuum (SC) in an all-normal dispersion photonic crystal fiber (ANDi PCF) is demonstrated. The highly coherent and smooth octave-spanning SC spectra are generated using 6 fs, 3 nJ pulses from a Ti:Sapphire oscillator for pumping a 13 mm piece of ANDi PCF. Applying active phase control has enabled the generation of 4.5 fs pulses. Additional spectral amplitude shaping has increased the bandwidth of the SC spectra further leading to nearly transform-limited pulses with a duration of 3.64 fs, which corresponds to only 1.3 optical cycles at a central wavelength of 810 nm. This is the shortest pulse duration achieved via compression of SC spectra generated in PCF to date. Due to the high stability and the smooth spectral intensity and phase distribution of the generated SC, an excellent temporal pulse quality exhibiting a pulse contrast of 14 dB with respect to the pre- and post-pulses is achieved.
U. Zastrau, V. Hilbert, C. Brown, T. Döppner, S. Dziarzhytski, E. Förster, S. H. Glenzer, S. Göde, G. Gregori, M. Harmand, D. Hochhaus, T. Laarmann, H. J. Lee, K. -H. Meiwes-Brör, P. Neumayer, A. Przystawik, P. Radcliffe, M. Schulz, S. Skruszewicz, F. Tavella, J. Tiggesbaeumker, S. Toleikis, and T. White
In-situ determination of dispersion and resolving power in simultaneous multiple-angle XUV spectroscopy
J. Instrum., 6 :P10001 (October 2011)
We report on the simultaneous determination of non-linear dispersion functions and resolving power of three flat-field XUV grating spectrometers. A moderate-intense short-pulse infrared laser is focused onto technical aluminum which is commonly present as part of the experimental setup. In the XUV wavelength range of 10-19 nm, the spectrometers are calibrated using Al-Mg plasma emission lines. This cross-calibration is performed in-situ in the very same setup as the actual main experiment. The results are in excellent agreement with ray-tracing simulations. We show that our method allows for precise relative and absolute calibration of three different XUV spectrometers.
B. Aurand, J. Seres, V. Bagnoud, B. Ecker, D. C. Hochhaus, P. Neumayer, E. Seres, C. Spielmann, B. Zielbauer, D. Zimmer, and T. Kühl
Laser driven X-ray parametric amplification in neutral gases-a new brilliant light source in the XUV
Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A, 653 :130 (October 2011)
In this paper we present the experimental setup and results showing a new type of strong-field parametric amplification of high-order harmonic radiation. With a simple semi-classical model, we can identify the most important experimental parameters, the spectral range and the small signal gain in gases. Using a single stage amplifier, a small signal gain of 8000 has been obtained in argon for the spectral range of 40 - 50 eV, using 350 fs, 7 mJ pulses at 1.05 μm. An outlook for an experiment employing a double stage gas system will be given.
D. Ros, K. Cassou, B. Cros, S. Daboussi, J. Demailly, O. Guilbaud, S. Kazamias, J.-C. Lagron, G. Maynard, O. Neveu, M. Pittman, B. Zielbauer, D. Zimmer, T. Kühl, S. Lacombe, E. Porcel, M.-A. d. Penhoat, P. Zeitoun, and G. Mourou
LASERIX: An open facility for developments of EUV and soft X-ray lasers and applications—Developments of XUV sources using high power laser facilities: ILE, ELI
Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A, 653 :76 (October 2011)
LASERIX is a high-power laser facility leading to High-repetition-rate XUV laser pumped by Titanium:Sapphire laser. The aim of this laser facility is to offer Soft XRLs in the 30–7 nm range and auxiliary IR beam, which could also be used to produce synchronized XUV sources. In this contribution, the main results concerning both the development of XUV sources and their use for applications (irradiation of DNA samples) are presented, as well the present status and some perspectives for LASERIX.
A. Gumberidze, S. Fritzsche, S. Hagmann, C. Kozhuharov, X. Ma, M. Steck, A. Surzhykov, A. Warczak, and T. Stöhlker
Magnetic-sublevel population and alignment for the excitation of H- and He-like uranium in relativistic collisions
Phys. Rev. A, 84 :042710 (October 2011)
We have measured the alignment of the L-shell magnetic substates following the K-shell excitation of hydrogen- and helium-like uranium in relativistic collisions with a low-Z gaseous target. Within this experiment, the population distribution for the L-shell magnetic sublevels has been obtained via an angular differential study of the decay photons associated with the subsequent deexcitation process. The results show a very distinctive behavior for the H- and He-like heavy systems. In particular, for K → L excitation of He-like uranium, a considerable alignment of the L-shell levels was observed. A comparison of our experimental findings with recent rigorous relativistic predictions provides a good qualitative and a reasonable quantitative agreement, emphasizing the importance of the magnetic-interaction and many-body effects in the strong-field domain of high-Z ions.
F. Hebenstreit, R. Alkofer, and H. Gies
Particle Self-Bunching in the Schwinger Effect in Spacetime-Dependent Electric Fields
Phys. Rev. Lett., 107 :180403 (October 2011)
Nonperturbative electron-positron pair creation (the Schwinger effect) is studied based on the Dirac-Heisenberg-Wigner formalism in 1+1 dimensions. An ab initio calculation of the Schwinger effect in the presence of a simple space- and time-dependent electric field pulse is performed for the first time, allowing for the calculation of the time evolution of observable quantities such as the charge density, the particle number density or the total number of created particles. We predict a new self-bunching effect of charges in phase space due to the spatial and temporal structure of the pulse.
N. Medvedev, U. Zastrau, E. Förster, D. O. Gericke, and B. Rethfeld
Short-Time Electron Dynamics in Aluminum Excited by Femtosecond Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation
Phys. Rev. Lett., 107 :165003 (October 2011)
The femtosecond dynamics of the electrons in aluminum after an intense extreme ultraviolet pulse is investigated by Monte Carlo simulations. Transient distributions of the conduction band electrons show an almost thermalized, low-energy part and a high-energy tail. Constructing emission spectra from these data, we find excellent agreement with measurements. The radiative decay mainly reflects the colder part of the distribution, whereas the highly excited electrons dominate the bremsstrahlung spectrum. For the latter, we also find good agreement between predicted and measured energy scales.
R. J. Gray, X. H. Yuan, D. C. Carroll, C. M. Brenner, M. Coury, M. N. Quinn, O. Tresca, B. Zielbauer, B. Aurand, V. Bagnoud, J. Fils, T. Kühl, X. X. Lin, C. Li, Y. T. Li, M. Roth, D. Neely, and P. McKenna
Surface transport of energetic electrons in intense picosecond laser-foil interactions
Appl. Phys. Lett., 99 :171502 (October 2011)
The angular distribution of energetic electrons emitted from thin foil targets irradiated by intense, picosecond laser pulses is measured as a function of laser incidence angle, intensity, and polarization. Although the escaping fast electron population is found to be predominantly transported along the target surface for incidence angles ≥ 65°, in agreement with earlier work at lower intensities, rear-surface proton acceleration measurements reveal that a significant electron current is also transported longitudinally within the target, irrespective of incident angle. These findings are of interest to many applications of laser-solid interactions, including advanced schemes for inertial fusion energy.
O. Tresca, D. C. Carroll, X. H. Yuan, B. Aurand, V. Bagnoud, C. M. Brenner, M. Coury, J. Fils, R. J. Gray, T. Kühl, C. Li, Y. T. Li, X. X. Lin, M. N. Quinn, R. G. Evans, B. Zielbauer, M. Roth, D. Neely, and P. McKenna
Controlling the properties of ultraintense laser–proton sources using transverse refluxing of hot electrons in shaped mass-limited targets
Plasma Phys. Contr. F., 53 :105008 (September 2011)
We report on the transverse refluxing of energetic electrons in mass-limited foil targets irradiated with high intensity (1 × 10^19  W cm^−2), picosecond laser pulses. It is shown experimentally that the maximum energies of protons accelerated by sheath fields formed at the rear and at the edges of the target increase with decreasing target size. This is due to the modification of the sheath field by the energetic electrons which spread laterally along the target surface and reflect from the edges. In addition, it is shown that this transverse refluxing of energetic electrons can be used to tailor the spatial-intensity distribution of the proton beam by engineering the shape and size of the target.
C. Jocher, C. Jauregui, C. Voigtländer, F. Stutzki, S. Nolte, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann
Fiber based polarization filter for radially and azimuthally polarized light
Opt. Express, 19 :19582 (September 2011)
We demonstrate a new fiber based concept to filter azimuthally or radially polarized light. This concept is based on the lifting of the modal degeneracy that takes place in high numerical aperture fibers. In such fibers, the radially and azimuthally polarized modes can be spectrally separated using a fiber Bragg grating. As a proof of principle, we filter azimuthally polarized light in a commercially available fiber in which a fiber Bragg grating has been written by a femtosecond pulsed laser.
S. Hädrich, M. Krebs, J. Rothhardt, H. Carstens, S. Demmler, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann
Generation of µW level plateau harmonics at high repetition rate
Opt. Express, 19 :19374 (September 2011)
The process of high harmonic generation allows for coherent transfer of infrared laser light to the extreme ultraviolet spectral range opening a variety of applications. The low conversion efficiency of this process calls for optimization or higher repetition rate intense ultrashort pulse lasers. Here we present state-of-the-art fiber laser systems for the generation of high harmonics up to 1 MHz repetition rate. We perform measurements of the average power with a calibrated spectrometer and achieved µW harmonics between 45 nm and 61 nm (H23-H17) at a repetition rate of 50 kHz. Additionally, we show the potential for few-cycle pulses at high average power and repetition rate that may enable water-window harmonics at unprecedented repetition rate.
D. Adolph, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, K. Rühle, and G.G. Paulus
Improved carrier-envelope phase locking of intense few-cycle laser pulses using above-threshold ionization
Opt. Lett., 36 :3639 (September 2011)
A robust nonoptical carrier-envelope phase (CEP) locking feedback loop, which utilizes a measurement of the left–right asymmetry in the above-threshold ionization (ATI) of Xe, is implemented, resulting in a significant improvement over the standard slow-loop f-to-2f technique. This technique utilizes the floating average of a real-time, every-single-shot CEP measurement to stabilize the CEP of few-cycle laser pulses generated by a standard Ti:sapphire chirped-pulse amplified laser system using a hollow-core fiber and chirped mirror compression scheme. With this typical commercially available laser system and the stereographic ATI method, we are able to improve short-term (minutes) CEP stability after a hollow-core fiber from 450 to 290 mrad rms and long-term (hours) stability from 480 to 370 mrad rms.