Referierte Publikationen


H. Y. Wang, C. Lin, B. Liu, Z. M. Sheng, H. Y. Lu, W. J. Ma, J. H. Bin, J. Schreiber, X. T. He, J. E. Chen, M. Zepf, and X. Yan
Laser-driven three-stage heavy-ion acceleration from relativistic laser-plasma interaction
Phys. Rev. E, 89 :013107 (January 2014)
A three-stage heavy ion acceleration scheme for generation of high-energy quasimonoenergetic heavy ion beams is investigated using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation and analytical modeling. The scheme is based on the interaction of an intense linearly polarized laser pulse with a compound two-layer target (a front heavy ion layer + a second light ion layer). We identify that, under appropriate conditions, the heavy ions preaccelerated by a two-stage acceleration process in the front layer can be injected into the light ion shock wave in the second layer for a further third-stage acceleration. These injected heavy ions are not influenced by the screening effect from the light ions, and an isolated high-energy heavy ion beam with relatively low-energy spread is thus formed. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations show that ∼100 MeV/u quasimonoenergetic Fe^24+ beams can be obtained by linearly polarized laser pulses at intensities of 1.1×10^21W/cm2.
C. Gaida, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, O. d. Vries, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann
Triple-clad large-pitch fibers for compact high-power pulsed fiber laser systems
Opt. Lett., 39 :209 (January 2014)
We present a novel ytterbium (Yb)-doped large-pitch fiber design with significantly increased pump absorption and higher energy storage/gain per unit length, which enables high-peak-power fiber laser systems with smaller footprints. Up to now index matching between core and surrounding material in microstructured fibers was achieved by co-doping the active core region with fluorine. Here we carry out the index matching by passively doping the cladding with germanium, thus raising its index of refraction. Hence, the fluorine in the core can be omitted, which leads to an effective increase of the core doping concentration, while detrimental effects such as photo-darkening and lifetime quenching are avoided by maintaining the bulk Yb concentration. Experiments and simulations show that a gain higher than 50  dB/m and an output average power higher than 100 W with excellent beam quality are feasible even with a fiber length of only 40 cm.


S. Kar, K. F. Kakolee, M. Cerchez, D. Doria, A. Macchi, P. McKenna, D. Neely, J. Osterholz, K. Quinn, B. Ramakrishna, G. Sarri, O. Willi, X. H. Yuan, M. Zepf, and M. Borghesi
Experimental investigation of hole boring and light sail regimes of RPA by varying laser and target parameters
Plasma. Phys. Contr. F., 55 :124030 (December 2013)
Temporal evolution of plasma jets from micrometre-scale thick foils following the interaction of intense (3 × 10 20 W cm^−2 ) laser pulses is studied systematically by time resolved optical interferometry. The fluid velocity in the plasma jets is determined by comparing the data with 2D hydrodynamic simulation, which agrees with the expected hole-boring (HB) velocity due to the laser radiation pressure. The homogeneity of the plasma density across the jets has been found to be improved substantially when irradiating the laser at circular polarization compared to linear polarization. While overdense plasma jets were formed efficiently for micrometre thick targets, decreasing the target areal density and/or increasing the irradiance on the target have provided indication of transition from the ‘HB’ to the ‘light sail (LS)’ regime of RPA, characterized by the appearance of narrow-band spectral features at several MeV/nucleon in proton and carbon spectra.
S. Demmler, J. Rothhardt, S. Hädrich, M. Krebs, A. Hage, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann
Generation of high photon flux coherent soft x-ray radiation with few-cycle pulses
Opt. Lett., 38 :5051 (December 2013)
We present a tabletop source of coherent soft x-ray radiation with high-photon flux. Two-cycle pulses delivered by a fiber-laser-pumped optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier operating at 180 kHz repetition rate are upconverted via high harmonic generation in neon to photon energies beyond 200 eV. A maximum photon flux of 1.3 x 10^8  photons/s is achieved within a 1% bandwidth at 125 eV photon energy. This corresponds to a conversion efficiency of ~10^−9, which can be reached due to a gas jet simultaneously providing a high target density and phase matching. Further scaling potential toward higher photon flux as well as higher photon energies are discussed.
G. Sarri, W. Schumaker, A. D. Piazza, K. Poder, J. M. Cole, M. Vargas, D. Doria, S. Kushel, B. Dromey, G. Grittani, L. Gizzi, M. E. Dieckmann, A. Green, V. Chvykov, A. Maksimchuk, V. Yanovsky, Z. H. He, B. X. Hou, J. A. Nees, S. Kar, Z. Najmudin, A. G. R. Thomas, C. H. Keitel, K. Krushelnick, and M. Zepf
Laser-driven generation of collimated ultra-relativistic positron beams
Plasma. Phys. Contr. F., 55 :124017 (December 2013)
We report on recent experimental results concerning the generation of collimated (divergence of the order of a few mrad) ultra-relativistic positron beams using a fully optical system. The positron beams are generated exploiting a quantum-electrodynamic cascade initiated by the propagation of a laser-accelerated, ultra-relativistic electron beam through high- Z solid targets. As long as the target thickness is comparable to or smaller than the radiation length of the material, the divergence of the escaping positron beam is of the order of the inverse of its Lorentz factor. For thicker solid targets the divergence is seen to gradually increase, due to the increased number of fundamental steps in the cascade, but it is still kept of the order of few tens of mrad, depending on the spectral components in the beam. This high degree of collimation will be fundamental for further injection into plasma-wakefield afterburners.
A. Surzhykov, V. A. Yerokhin, T. Jahrsetz, P. Amaro, T. Stöhlker, and S. Fritzsche
Polarization correlations in the elastic Rayleigh scattering of photons by hydrogenlike ions
Phys. Rev. A, 88 :062515 (December 2013)
The (elastic) Rayleigh scattering of hard x rays by hydrogenlike ions has been investigated within the framework of second-order perturbation theory and Dirac's relativistic equation. The focus of this study was, in particular, on two questions: (i) How is the polarization of scattered photons affected if the incident light is itself (linearly) polarized, and (ii) how do the nondipole contributions to the electron-photon interaction and the relativistic contraction of the wave functions influence such a polarization transfer? Detailed calculations were performed for Ne9+, Xe53+, and U91+ targets and for photon energies up to ten times the 1s ionization threshold of the ions. From the comparison of these fully relativistic computations with the (nonrelativistic) dipole approximation we conclude that relativistic and higher-multipole effects often lead to a significant or even complete depolarization for heavy targets and at high photon energies.
D. Kraus, J. Vorberger, D. O. Gericke, V. Bagnoud, A. Blazevic, W. Cayzac, A. Frank, G. Gregori, A. Ortner, A. Otten, F. Roth, G. Schaumann, D. Schumacher, K. Siegenthaler, F. Wagner, K. Wünsch, and M. Roth
Probing the Complex Ion Structure in Liquid Carbon at 100 GPa
Phys. Rev. Lett., 111 :255501 (December 2013)
We present the first direct experimental test of the complex ion structure in liquid carbon at pressures around 100 GPa, using spectrally resolved x-ray scattering from shock-compressed graphite samples. Our results confirm the structure predicted by ab initio quantum simulations and demonstrate the importance of chemical bonds at extreme conditions similar to those found in the interiors of giant planets. The evidence presented here thus provides a firmer ground for modeling the evolution and current structure of carbon-bearing icy giants like Neptune, Uranus, and a number of extrasolar planets.
M. Kienel, A. Klenke, T. Eidam, M. Baumgartl, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann
Analysis of passively combined divided-pulse amplification as an energy-scaling concept
Opt. Express, 21 :29031 (November 2013)
The energy scaling of ultrashort-pulse systems employing simultaneously the techniques of chirped-pulse amplification and passively combined divided-pulse amplification is analyzed both experimentally and numerically. The maximum achievable efficiency is investigated and fundamental limitations originating from gain saturation, self-phase modulation and depolarization are discussed. A solution to these limitations could be an active stabilization scheme, which would allow for the operation of every single fiber amplifier at higher pulse energies.
A. Gopal, P. Singh, S. Herzer, A. Reinhard, A. Schmidt, U. Dillner, T. May, H.-G. Meyer, W. Ziegler, and G.G. Paulus
Characterization of 700  μJ T rays generated during high-power laser solid interaction
Opt. Lett., 38 :4705 (November 2013)
Laser-produced solid density plasmas are well-known as table-top sources of electromagnetic radiation. Recent studies have shown that energetic broadband terahertz pulses (T rays) can also be generated from laser-driven compact ion accelerators. Here we report the measurement of record-breaking T-Ray pulses with energies no less than 0.7 mJ. The terahertz spectrum has been characterized for frequencies ranging from 0.1–133  THz. The dependence of T-Ray yield on incident laser energy is linear and shows no tendencies of saturation. The noncollinear emission pattern and the high yield reveal that the T rays are generated by the transient field at the rear surface of the solid target.
W. Chen, G. Vorobyev, D. Guo, P.-M. Hillenbrand, F. Herfurth, S. Hagmann, U. Spillmann, S. Trotsenko, A. Gumberidze, and T. Stöhlker
Charge transfer of slow highly charged xenon ions in collisions with magnesium atoms
Phys. Rev. A, 88 :052703 (November 2013)
We report an experimental study of the charge-transfer process in collisions of Xe^q+ ions (16≤q≤20) with magnesium atoms at an energy of 5.5q keV. With charge-selective and time-coincidence techniques, we separated the pure capture and capture accompanied by transfer-ionization processes. The experimental data indicate that the magnesium target is around two times more likely to lose two electrons than one in the collision. This finding is very different compared to the calculation based on the extended classic over-the-barrier model. The Xe^q+-Mg collision also behaves very differently from “traditional” collisions between highly charged ions and noble gases. We suggest a one-step dielectronic mechanism for the capture process. The data also show that autoionization dominates the relaxation process after the capture, and fluctuation of the autoionization fraction versus the projectile charge state indicates that for the relaxation processes, the projectile core structure plays a more important role than the detailed characteristics of the projectile states where the target electrons are initially captured.
A. Klenke, M. Kienel, T. Eidam, S. Hädrich, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann
Divided-pulse nonlinear compression
Opt. Lett., 38 :4593 (November 2013)
We report on the nonlinear pulse compression of temporally divided pulses, which is presented in a proof-of-principle experiment. A single 320 fs pulse is divided into four replicas, spectrally broadened in a solid-core fiber, and subsequently recombined. This approach makes it possible to reduce the nonlinearities in the fiber and therefore to use total input peak power of about 13.3 MW, which is more than three times higher than the self-focusing threshold. Finally, the combined output pulse could be compressed to sub-100 fs pulse duration. This general and universal approach holds promise for overcoming fundamental limitations of the pulse peak power that lead to destruction of the fiber or ionization limitations in high-energy hollow-core compression.
J. Körner, J. Hein, H. Liebetrau, R. Seifert, D. Klöpfel, M. Kahle, M. Loeser, M. Siebold, U. Schramm, and M.C. Kaluza
Efficient burst mode amplifier for ultra-short pulses based on cryogenically cooled Yb3+:CaF2
Opt. Express, 21 :29006 (November 2013)
We present a novel approach for the amplification of high peak power femtosecond laser pulses at a high repetition rate. This approach is based on an all-diode pumped burst mode laser scheme. In this scheme, pulse bursts with a total duration between 1 and 2 ms are be generated and amplified. They contain 50 to 2000 individual pulses equally spaced in time. The individual pulses have an initial duration of 350 fs and are stretched to 50 ps prior to amplification. The amplifier stage is based on Yb3+:CaF2 cooled to 100 K. In this amplifier, a total output energy in excess of 600 mJ per burst at a repetition rate of 10 Hz is demonstrated. For lower repetition rates the total output energy per burst can be scaled up to 915 mJ using a longer pump duration. This corresponds to an efficiency as high as 25% of extracted energy from absorbed pump energy. This is the highest efficiency, which has so far been demonstrated for a pulsed Yb3+:CaF2 amplifier.
M. B. Schwab, A. Sävert, O. Jäckel, J. Polz, M. Schnell, T. Rinck, L. Veisz, M. Möller, P. Hansinger, G.G. Paulus, and M.C. Kaluza
Few-cycle optical probe-pulse for investigation of relativistic laser-plasma interactions
Appl. Phys. Lett., 103 :191118 (November 2013)
The development of a few-cycle optical probe-pulse for the investigation of laser-plasma interactions driven by a Ti:sapphire, 30 Terawatt (TW) laser system is described. The probe is seeded by a fraction of the driving laser's energy and is spectrally broadened via self-phase modulation in a hollow core fiber filled with a rare gas, then temporally compressed to a few optical cycles via chirped mirrors. Shadowgrams of the laser-driven plasma wave created in relativistic electron acceleration experiments are presented with few-fs temporal resolution, which is shown to be independent of post-interaction spectral filtering of the probe-beam.
P. Kienle, F. Bosch, P. Bühler, T. Faestermann, Y. Litvinov, N. Winckler, M. Sanjari, D. Shubina, D. Atanasov, H. Geissel, V. Ivanova, X. Yan, D. Boutin, C. Brandau, I. Dillmann, Ch. Dimopoulou, R. Hess, P.-M. Hillebrand, T. Izumikawa, R. Knöbel, J. Kurcewicz, N. Kuzminchuk, M. Lestinsky, S. Litvinov, X. Ma, L. Maier, M. Mazzocco, I. Mukha, C. Nociforo, F. Nolden, Ch. Scheidenberger, U. Spillmann, M. Steck, T. Stöhlker, B. Sun, F. Suzaki, T. Suzuki, S. Torilov, M. Trassinelli, X. Tu, M. Wang, H. Weick, D. F. A. Winters, N. Winters, P. Woods, T. Yamaguchi, G. Zhang, and T. Ohtsubo
High-resolution measurement of the time-modulated orbital electron capture and of the β+ decay of hydrogen-like 142Pm^60+ ions
Phys. Lett. B, 726 :638 (November 2013)
The periodic time modulations, found recently in the two-body orbital electron capture (EC) decay of both, hydrogen-like 140Pr58+ and 142Pm60+ ions, with periods near to 7 s7 s and amplitudes of about 20%, were re-investigated for the case of 142Pm60+ by using a 245 MHz resonator cavity with a much improved sensitivity and time resolution. We observed that the exponential EC decay is modulated with a period T=7.11(11) s, in accordance with a modulation period T=7.12(11) s as obtained from simultaneous observations with a capacitive pick-up, employed also in the previous experiments. The modulation amplitudes amount to a_R=0.107(24) and a_P=0.134(27) for the 245 MHz resonator and the capacitive pick-up, respectively. These new results corroborate for both detectors exactly our previous findings of modulation periods near to 7 s, though with distinctly smaller amplitudes. Also the three-body β+ decays have been analyzed. For a supposed modulation period near to 7 s we found an amplitude a=0.027(27), compatible with a=0a=0 and in agreement with the preliminary result a=0.030(30) of our previous experiment. These observations could point at weak interaction as origin of the observed 7 s-modulation of the EC decay. Furthermore, the data suggest that interference terms occur in the two-body EC decay, although the neutrinos are not directly observed.
R. Riedel, M. Schulz, M. J. Prandolini, A. Hage, H. Höppner, T. Gottschall, J. Limpert, M. Drescher, and F. Tavella
Long-term stabilization of high power optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifiers
Opt. Express, 21 :28987 (November 2013)
The long-term stability of optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifiers is hindered by thermal path length drifts affecting the temporal pump-to-signal overlap. A kilowatt-pumped burst amplifier is presented delivering broadband 1.4 mJ pulses with a spectral bandwidth supporting sub-7 fs pulse duration. Active temporal overlap control can be achieved by feedback of optical timing signals from cross-correlation or spectral measurements. Using a balanced optical cross-correlator, we achieve a pump-to-signal synchronization with a residual jitter of only (46 ± 2) fs rms. Additionally, we propose passive pump-to-signal stabilization with an intrinsic jitter of (7.0 ± 0.5) fs rms using white-light continuum generation.
F. Bosch, Y. A. Litvinov, and T. Stöhlker
Nuclear physics with unstable ions at storage rings
Prog. Part. Nucl. Phys., 73 :84 (November 2013)
During the last two decades, ion storage-cooler rings have been proven as powerful devices for addressing precision experiments in the realm of atomic physics, nuclear physics and nuclear astrophysics. Most important, in particular for stored unstable nuclides, is the unrivalled capability of ion cooler-rings to generate brilliant beams of highest phase–space density owing to sophisticated cooling techniques, and to store them for extended periods of time by preserving their charge state. This report focuses on nuclear physics and nuclear astrophysics experiments with in-flight produced exotic ions that were injected into storage-cooler rings. Those experiments were conducted within the last decade mainly at the only operating facilities that are capable to provide and to store exotic ions, namely the ESR in Darmstadt, Germany and the CSRe-ring in Lanzhou, China. The majority of nuclear physics experiments performed at these equipments concerns ground-state properties of nuclei far from stability, such as masses and lifetimes. The rich harvest of these measurements is presented. In particular it is shown that storage-cooler rings are ideal, if not the only, devices where two-body beta decays of exotic highly-charged ions, such as bound-state beta decay and orbital electron capture, can be studied in every detail, based on “single-ion decay spectroscopy”. Furthermore, experiments at the border between atomic and nuclear physics are discussed which render valuable information on nuclear properties by exploiting one of the most precise tools of atomic spectroscopy on stored ions, the “dielectronic recombination”. Ion storage rings with cooled exotic beams and equipped with thin internal gas targets deliver also unrivalled opportunities for addressing with highest precision key reactions in the fields of nuclear astrophysics and nuclear structure. First very promising experiments exploring the potential of ion cooler-rings in this realm have been already conducted. However, in view of the small nuclear cross sections, many of fervently desired experiments in this field will still suffer from the insufficient number of exotic ions that can be delivered and stored at the time being. The realistic hope on a breakthrough in this field is based on the ion storage rings to come, with their estimated improvements in the intensity of exotic ion beams by many orders of magnitude.
L. B. Fletcher, E. Galtier, P. Heimann, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, J. Welch, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, and S. H. Glenzer
Plasmon measurements with a seeded x-ray laser
J. Instrum., 8 :C11014 (November 2013)
Plasmon measurements hold great promise for providing highly accurate data on the physical properties of plasmas in the high-energy density physics regime. To this end we demonstrate in recent experiments at the Linac Coherent Light Source the first spectrally-resolved measurements of plasmons using a seeded 8-keV x-ray laser beam. Forward x-ray Thomson scattering spectra from isochorically heated solid aluminum show a well-resolved plasmon feature that is down-shifted in energy by 19 eV from the incident 8 keV elastic scattering feature. In this spectral range, the simultaneously measured backscatter spectrum shows no spectral features indicating observation of collective plasmon oscillations on a scattering length comparable to the screening length. This technique is a prerequisite for Thomson scattering measurements in compressed matter where the plasmon shift is a sensitive function of the free electron density and where the plasmon intensity provides information on temperature.
S. Kuhn, A. Herrmann, J. Hein, M.C. Kaluza, and C. Russel
Sm3+-doped La2O3–Al2O3–SiO2-glasses: structure, fluorescence and thermal expansion
J. Mater. Sci., 48 :8014 (November 2013)
This paper reports on the effect of the chemical composition on the glass structure, the coefficients of thermal expansion and the fluorescence properties of Sm3+-doped La2O3–Al2O3–SiO2-glasses. The silica concentration was varied between 50 and 70 mol% and the La2O3:Al2O3 ratio between 50:50 and 30:70. The glass formation and the densities are evaluated and FTIR reflectance spectra, coefficients of thermal expansion and fluorescence lifetimes are determined. It is shown that high SiO2 concentrations and low La2O3:Al2O3 ratios result in relatively high fluorescence lifetime (2.19 ms, 4G5/2) and low coefficients of thermal expansion (4.6 × 10^−6 / K). The coefficients of thermal expansion and the fluorescence lifetimes show a linear dependency on the ratio LaO3/2/(AlO3/2 + SiO2).
O. Matula, A. G. Hayrapetyan, V. G. Serbo, A. Surzhykov, and S. Fritzsche
Atomic ionization of hydrogen-like ions by twisted photons: angular distribution of emitted electrons
J. Phys. B, 46 :205002 (October 2013)
We investigate the angular distribution of electrons that are emitted in the ionization of hydrogen-like ions by twisted photons. Analysis is performed based on the first-order perturbation theory and the non-relativistic Schrödinger equation. Special attention is paid to the dependence of the electron emission pattern on the impact parameter b of the ion with respect to the centre of the twisted wave front. In order to explore such a dependence, detailed calculations were carried out for the photoionization of the 1s ground and 2 p_y excited states of neutral hydrogen atoms. Based on these calculations, we argue that for relatively small impact parameters, the electron angular distributions may be strongly affected by altering the position of the atom within the wave front. In contrast, if the atom is placed far from the front centre, the emission pattern of the electrons is independent of the impact parameter b and resembles that observed in the photoionization by plane wave photons.
U. Zastrau, A. Woldegeorgis, E. Förster, R. Loetzsch, H. Marschner, and I. Uschmann
Characterization of strongly-bent HAPG crystals for von-Hámos x-ray spectrographs
J. Instrum., 8 :P10006 (October 2013)
The properties of two strongly bent Highly Annealed Pyrolytic Graphite (HAPG) crystals with different thicknesses of 40 μm and 100 μm are studied at all possible reflection orders using x-rays at 4.5 keV and 8 keV photon energies. Typical reflecting areas within 50% reflectivity drop boundaries have sizes of about ≤ 1 mm. These domains are mis-oriented by ≤ 1 minutes of arc to each other. The mosaicity was measured to be ~ 0.06° on a 1 × 1 mm 2 scale, whereas it amounts to ~ 0.14° when the probed area becomes > 2 × 1 mm 2 . We find that the integrated reflectivity of the reflection (004) is in good agreement with the kinematical diffraction theory, while a maximum value of 2.3 mrad is achieved for 8 keV and reflection (002). The highest spectral resolution is obtained with an x-ray source of ≤ 50 μm size and a 40 μm thin graphite coating, which amounts to E /Δ E ≥ 1000 for 4.5 keV and 8 keV. In the case of 8 keV and reflection (008), the resolving power exceeds E /Δ E = 2000. In von-Hámos geometry, it was found that > 60% of the reflected photons are confined in a central 500 μm wide profile where high spectral resolution is pertained. Ray tracing simulations reveal that in order to pertain a certain resolution, a larger mosaicity would result in less contributing photons. Thus the efficiency of the crystal drops significantly when the mosaicity is increased and could not be increased by large crystal opening angles.
D. Banaś, M. Pajek, A. Gumberidze, A. Surzhykov, and T. Stöhlker
Differential L-shell radiative recombination rate coefficients for bare uranium ions interacting with low-energy electrons
Eur. Phys. J. ST, 222 :2317 (October 2013)
Results of the calculations of differential L−shell radiative recombination (RR) rate coefficients for bare uranium ions colliding with free electrons using the nonrelativistic dipole approximation and fully relativistic calculations are reported. The rate coefficients were obtained for very low, in the range of meV, relative electron-ion energies. We demonstrate that even for such low relative ion-electron energies the relativistic effects significantly modify the differential RR rate coefficients for the L−subshells and, as a result, the measurements of the relative electron energy dependence of the L-RR rates could be used for studying of the relativistic effects. These effects are strongest for the L_3-subshell, which is discussed here in more details.
S. Busold, D. Schumacher, O. Deppert, C. Brabetz, S. Frydrych, F. Kroll, M. Joost, H. Al-Omari, A. Blazevic, B. Zielbauer, I. Hofmann, V. Bagnoud, T. E. Cowan, and M. Roth
Focusing and transport of high-intensity multi-MeV proton bunches from a compact laser-driven source
Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams, 16 :101302 (October 2013)
Laser ion acceleration provides for compact, high-intensity ion sources in the multi-MeV range. Using a pulsed high-field solenoid, for the first time high-intensity laser-accelerated proton bunches could be selected from the continuous exponential spectrum and delivered to large distances, containing more than 109 particles in a narrow energy interval around a central energy of 9.4 MeV and showing ≤ 30  mrad envelope divergence. The bunches of only a few nanoseconds bunch duration were characterized 2.2 m behind the laser-plasma source with respect to arrival time, energy width, and intensity as well as spatial and temporal bunch profile.
C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann
High-power fibre lasers
Nat. Photonics, 7 :861 (October 2013)
Fibre lasers are now associated with high average powers and very high beam qualities. Both these characteristics are required by many industrial, defence and scientific applications, which explains why fibre lasers have become one of the most popular laser technologies. However, this success, which is largely founded on the outstanding characteristics of fibres as an active medium, has only been achieved through researchers around the world striving to overcome many of the limitations imposed by the fibre architecture. This Review focuses on these limitations, both past and current, and the creative solutions that have been proposed for overcoming them. These solutions have enabled fibre lasers to generate the highest diffraction-limited average power achieved to date by solid-state lasers.
S. Hädrich, A. Klenke, A. Hoffmann, T. Eidam, T. Gottschall, J. Rothhardt, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann
Nonlinear compression to sub-30-fs, 0.5  mJ pulses at 135  W of average power
Opt. Lett., 38 :3866 (October 2013)
Incorporation of coherent combination into a state-of-the-art fiber-chirped pulse amplification system obtains 1.1 mJ, 340 fs pulses with up to 280 W of average power at 250 kHz repetition rate. Propagation of this laser pulse inside a krypton-filled hollow-core fiber results in significant spectral broadening. Chirped mirrors are used to compress the pulses to 26 fs, 540 μJ (135 W) leading to a peak power of more than 11 GW. This unprecedented combination of high peak and average power ultrashort pulses opens up new possibilities in multidimensional surface science and coherent soft x-ray generation.
F. Karbstein
Photon polarization tensor in a homogeneous magnetic or electric field
Phys. Rev. D, 88 :085033 (October 2013)
We revisit the photon polarization tensor in a homogeneous external magnetic or electric field. The starting point of our considerations is the momentum space representation of the one-loop photon polarization tensor in the presence of a homogeneous electromagnetic field, known in terms of a double parameter integral. Our focus is on explicit analytical insights for both on- and off-the-light-cone dynamics in a wide range of well-specified physical parameter regimes, ranging from the perturbative to the manifestly nonperturbative strong field regime. The basic ideas underlying well-established approximations to the photon polarization tensor are carefully examined and critically reviewed. In particular, we systematically keep track of all contributions, both the ones to be neglected and those to be taken into account explicitly, to all orders. This allows us to study their ranges of applicability in a much more systematic and rigorous way. We point out the limitations of such approximations and manage to go beyond at several instances.