B. Minneker,
B. Boening,
and S. Fritzsche

Phys. Rev. A,

**Generalized nondipole strong-field approximation of high-order harmonic generation**Phys. Rev. A,

**106**:053109 (November 2022)## Abstract:

The strong-field approximation (SFA) is a widely used theoretical framework that describes the process of high-order harmonic generation of atoms and molecules. Here, we propose a generalization of the dipole SFA towards weakly relativistic contributions to the laser-electron interaction. These weakly relativistic contributions are closely related to the spatial structure of the light field and imply a correction of the relativistic order 1/c. Within this generalized nondipole SFA (GN-SFA), we demonstrate how to obtain explicit results and discuss their physical aspects. This approach enables one to investigate the nondipole effects of linear polarized plane waves as well as the influence of structured light fields, such as twisted light, that have not yet been captured by the currently available models. In order to utilize our generalized nondipole SFA, we consider a linearly polarized plane wave and demonstrate the decrease of the harmonic yield that is directly related to the nondipole effects of the laser field. Furthermore, we discuss the GN-SFA with regard to other nondipole SFA approaches by determining their physical and mathematical context. Finally, the GN-SFA is a powerful theoretical framework that extends the nonrelativistic SFA rigorously to the weakly relativistic regime and therefore will be a useful model for further theoretical investigations.