Referierte Publikationen


Y. Litvinov, S. Bishop, K. Blaum, F. Bosch, C. Brandau, L. Chen, I. Dillmann, P. Egelhof, H. Geissel, R. Grisenti, S. Hagmann, M. Heil, A. Heinz, N. Kalantar-Nayestanaki, R. Knöbel, C. Kozhuharov, M. Lestinsky, X. Ma, T. Nilsson, F. Nolden, A. Ozawa, R. Raabe, M. Reed, R. Reifarth, M. Sanjari, D. Schneider, H. Simon, M. Steck, T. Stöhlker, B. Sun, X. Tu, T. Uesaka, P. Walker, M. Wakasugi, H. Weick, N. Winckler, P. Woods, H. Xu, T. Yamaguchi, Y. Yamaguchi, and Y. Zhang
Nuclear physics experiments with ion storage rings
Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. B, 317 :603 (August 2013)
In the last two decades a number of nuclear structure and astrophysics experiments were performed at heavy-ion storage rings employing unique experimental conditions offered by such machines. Furthermore, building on the experience gained at the two facilities presently in operation, several new storage ring projects were launched worldwide. This contribution is intended to provide a brief review of the fast growing field of nuclear structure and astrophysics research at storage rings.
A. Gopal, S. Herzer, A. Schmidt, P. Singh, A. Reinhard, W. Ziegler, D. Brömmel, A. Karmakar, P. Gibbon, U. Dillner, T. May, H.-G. Meyer, and G.G. Paulus
Observation of Gigawatt-Class THz Pulses from a Compact Laser-Driven Particle Accelerator
Phys. Rev. Lett., 111 :074802 (August 2013)
We report the observation of subpicosecond terahertz (T-ray) pulses with energies ≥ 460  μJ from a laser-driven ion accelerator, thus rendering the peak power of the source higher even than that of state-of-the-art synchrotrons. Experiments were performed with intense laser pulses (up to 5 × 10^19  W/cm^2) to irradiate thin metal foil targets. Ion spectra measured simultaneously showed a square law dependence of the T-ray yield on particle number. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations show the presence of transient currents at the target rear surface which could be responsible for the strong T-ray emission.
C. Jauregui, H.-J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann
Passive mitigation strategies for mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems
Opt. Express, 21 :19375 (August 2013)
Mode instabilities have quickly become the most limiting effect when it comes to scaling the output average power of fiber laser systems. In consequence, there is an urgent need for effective strategies to mitigate it and, thus, to increase the power threshold at which it appears. Passive mitigation strategies can be classified into intrinsic, which are related to the fiber design, and extrinsic, which require a modification of the setup. In order to evaluate the impact of mitigation strategies, a means to calculate its power threshold and predict its behavior is required. In this paper we present a simple semi-analytic formula that is able to predict the changes of the mode instability threshold by analyzing the strength of the thermally-induced waveguide perturbations. Furthermore, we propose two passive mitigation strategies, one intrinsic and one extrinsic, that should lead to a significant increase of the power threshold of mode instabilities.
S. Mondal, R. Ma, K. Motomura, H. Fukuzawa, A. Yamada, K. Nagaya, S. Yase, Y. Mizoguchi, M. Yao, A. Rouzée, A. Hundertmark, M. J. J. Vrakking, P. Johnsson, M. Nagasono, K. Tono, T. Togashi, Y. Senba, H. Ohashi, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, I. P. Sazhina, S. Fritzsche, N. M. Kabachnik, and K. Ueda
Photoelectron angular distributions for the two-photon sequential double ionization of xenon by ultrashort extreme ultraviolet free electron laser pulses
J. Phys. B, 46 :164022 (August 2013)
Xenon atoms are double-ionized by sequential two-photon absorption by ultrashort extreme ultraviolet free-electron laser pulses with a photon energy of 23.0 and 24.3 eV, produced by the SPring-8 Compact SASE Source test accelerator. The angular distributions of photoelectrons generated by two-photon double ionization are obtained using velocity map imaging. The results are reproduced reasonably well by the present theoretical calculations within the multi-configurational Dirac–Fock approach.
H. Gies, F. Karbstein, and N. Seegert
Quantum Reflection as a New Signature of Quantum Vacuum Nonlinearity
New J. Phys., 15 :083002 (August 2013)
We show that photons subject to a spatially inhomogeneous electromagnetic field can experience quantum reflection. Based on this observation, we propose quantum reflection as a novel means to probe the nonlinearity of the quantum vacuum in the presence of strong electromagnetic fields.
D. Shubina, R. B. Cakirli, Yu. A. Litvinov, K. Blaum, C. Brandau, F. Bosch, J. J. Carroll, R. F. Casten, D. M. Cullen, I. J. Cullen, A. Y. Deo, B. Detwiler, C. Dimopoulou, F. Farinon, H. Geissel, E. Haettner, M. Heil, R. S. Kempley, C. Kozhuharov, R. Knöbel, J. Kurcewicz, N. Kuzminchuk, S. A. Litvinov, Z. Liu, R. Mao, C. Nociforo, F. Nolden, Z. Patyk, W. R. Plass, A. Prochazka, M. W. Reed, M. S. Sanjari, C. Scheidenberger, M. Steck, T. Stöhlker, B. Sun, T. P. D. Swan, G. Trees, P. M. Walker, H. Weick, N. Winckler, M. Winkler, P. J. Woods, T. Yamaguchi, and C. Zhou
Schottky mass measurements of heavy neutron-rich nuclides in the element range 70 ≤ Z ≤ 79 at the GSI Experimental Storage Ring
Phys. Rev. C, 88 :024310 (August 2013)
Storage-ring mass spectrometry was applied to neutron-rich 197Au projectile fragments. Masses of 181,183Lu, 185,186Hf, 187,188Ta, 191W, and 192,193Re nuclei were measured for the first time. The uncertainty of previously known masses of 189,190W and 195Os nuclei was improved. Observed irregularities on the smooth two-neutron separation energies for Hf and W isotopes are linked to the collectivity phenomena in the corresponding nuclei.
A. Rouzée, P. Johnsson, L. Rading, A. Hundertmark, W. Siu, Y. Huismans, S. Düsterer, H. Redlin, F. Tavella, N. Stojanovic, A. Al-Shemmary, F. Lépine, D. M. P. Holland, T. Schlatholter, R. Hoekstra, H. Fukuzawa, K. Ueda, and M. J. J. Vrakking
Towards imaging of ultrafast molecular dynamics using FELs
J. Phys. B, 46 :164029 (August 2013)
The dissociation dynamics induced by a 100 fs, 400 nm laser pulse in a rotationally cold Br2 sample was characterized by Coulomb explosion imaging (CEI) using a time-delayed extreme ultra-violet (XUV) FEL pulse, obtained from the Free electron LASer in Hamburg (FLASH). The momentum distribution of atomic fragments resulting from the 400 nm-induced dissociation was measured with a velocity map imaging spectrometer and used to monitor the internuclear distance as the molecule dissociated. By employing the simultaneously recorded in-house timing electro-optical sampling data, the time resolution of the final results could be improved to 300 fs, compared to the inherent 500 fs time-jitter of the FEL pulse. Before dissociation, the Br 2 molecules were transiently ‘fixed in space’ using laser-induced alignment. In addition, similar alignment techniques were used on CO2 molecules to allow the measurement of the photoelectron angular distribution (PAD) directly in the molecular frame (MF). Our results on MFPADs in aligned CO2 molecules, together with our investigation of the dissociation dynamics of the Br2 molecules with CEI, show that information about the evolving molecular structure and electronic geometry can be retrieved from such experiments, therefore paving the way towards the study of complex non-adiabatic dynamics in molecules through XUV time-resolved photoion and photoelectron spectroscopy.
K. Heeg, H.-C. Wille, K. Schlage, T. Guryeva, D. Schumacher, I. Uschmann, K. S. Schulze, B. Marx, T. Kämpfer, G. Paulus, R. Röhlsberger, and J. Evers
Vacuum-Assisted Generation and Control of Atomic Coherences at X-Ray Energies
Phys. Rev. Lett., 111 :073601 (August 2013)
The control of light-matter interaction at the quantum level usually requires coherent laser fields. But already an exchange of virtual photons with the electromagnetic vacuum field alone can lead to quantum coherences, which subsequently suppress spontaneous emission. We demonstrate such spontaneously generated coherences (SGC) in a large ensemble of nuclei operating in the x-ray regime, resonantly coupled to a common cavity environment. The observed SGC originates from two fundamentally different mechanisms related to cooperative emission and magnetically controlled anisotropy of the cavity vacuum. This approach opens new perspectives for quantum control, quantum state engineering and simulation of quantum many-body physics in an essentially decoherence-free setting.
S. Salem, T. Stöhlker, A. Bräuning-Demian, S. Hagmann, C. Kozhuharov, D. Liesen, and A. Gumberidze
Angular distribution of photons for the simultaneous excitation and ionization of He-like uranium ions in relativistic ion-atom collisions
Phys. Rev. A, 88 :012701 (July 2013)
Simultaneous ionization and excitation processes are studied for initially He-like uranium ions in collisions with xenon gaseous targets at relativistic energy, 220MeV/u. The virtue of investigating the process of simultaneous excitation and ionization is that one electron ends up in the continuum, while the other electron ends up in a hydrogen-like final state. Experimentally, this process can be identified by observing the radiative decay of the excited levels in coincidence with ions that lost one electron (U91+). In particular, owing to the large fine-structure splitting of H-like U, the angular distribution of photons for the simultaneous ionization and excitation into the different total angular momentum j=1/2 and j=3/2 states of the L shell is determined directly from the obser-ved yields of Lyα1 and Lyα2 radiation at various observation angles. The experimental data show a progress for the dependence of the alignment on the collision impact parameter. It is shown that the current results confirm the theoretical predictions based on the independent-particle approximation and first-order perturbation, for which the simultaneous ionization and excitation processes occur at small impact parameter.
D. Seipt, and B. Kämpfer
Asymmetries of azimuthal photon distributions in nonlinear Compton scattering in ultrashort intense laser pulses
Phys. Rev. A, 88 :012127 (July 2013)
Nonlinear Compton scattering in ultrashort intense laser pulses is discussed with the focus on angular distributions of the emitted photon energy. This is an observable which is easily accessible experimentally. Asymmetries of the azimuthal distributions are predicted for both linear and circular polarization. We present a systematic survey of the influence of the laser intensity, the carrier envelope phase, and the laser polarization on the emission spectra for single-cycle and few-cycle laser pulses. For linear polarization, the dominant direction of the emission changes from a perpendicular pattern with respect to the laser polarization at low-intensity to a dominantly parallel emission for high-intensity laser pulses.
N. Sirse, J. P. Booth, P. Chabert, A. Surzhykov, and P. Indelicato
Chlorine atom densities in the (3p^5)^2P_1/2^0 excited spin-orbit state measured by two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence in a chlorine inductively coupled plasma
J. Phys. D, 46 :295203 (July 2013)
Chlorine atom densities in the (3p^5)^2P_1/2^0 spin–orbit excited state were measured by two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence (TALIF) in an inductively coupled plasma discharge in pure Cl2. The atoms were excited by two photons at 235.702 nm to the (4p)^4S_3/2^0 state and detected by fluorescence to the (4s) ^4P_5/2 state at 726 nm. The population of this state relative to that in the (3p^5)^2P_3/2^0 ground state, n_P_1/2/n_P_3/2 was determined from the relative TALIF signal intensity from the two states, combined with new calculations of the two-photon absorption cross-sections. n_P_1/2/n_P_3/2 was found to increase continuously with radio-frequency power (50–500 W), whereas with Cl2 pressure (5–90 mTorr) it passes through a maximum at 10 mTorr, reaching ~30% at 500 W. This maximum corresponds to the maximum of electron density in the discharge. Combining this density ratio measurement with previous measurements of the absolute ground state chlorine atom density [1] allows the absolute spin-orbit excited state density to be estimated. A significant fraction of the total chlorine atom density is in this excited state which should be included in plasma chemistry models.
H.-J. Otto, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann
Controlling mode instabilities by dynamic mode excitation with an acousto-optic deflector
Opt. Express, 21 :17285 (July 2013)
We demonstrate an approach to actively stabilize the beam profile of a fiber amplifier above the mode instability threshold. Both the beam quality and the pointing stability are significantly increased at power levels of up to three times the mode instabilities threshold. The physical working principle is discussed at the light of the recently published theoretical explanations of mode instabilities.
M. Tiegel, A. Herrmann, C. Russel, J. Körner, D. Klöpfel, J. Hein, and M.C. Kaluza
Magnesium aluminosilicate glasses as potential laser host material for ultrahigh power laser systems
J. Mater. Chem. C, 1 :5031 (July 2013)
Magnesium aluminosilicate glasses doped with 0.2 mol% Sm2O3 (1 x 10^20 Sm3+ cm^-3) have been prepared in a very broad compositional range. The effect of the MgO, Al2O3 and SiO2 concentrations as well as the effect of partial substitution of MgO by CaO, SrO, BaO, ZnO or MgF2 have been studied. Increasing the network modifier concentration results in decreasing the glass transformation temperature and increasing the coefficient of thermal expansion due to the formation of non-bridging oxygen sites and decreasing glass network connectivity. Although the network connectivity is changed substantially by the addition of network modifier oxides, the maximum phonon energy and the fluorescence lifetime of Sm3+ are not affected. Equimolar replacement of up to 9 mol% MgO by MgF2 results in increasing Sm3+ fluorescence lifetimes without increasing the coefficient of thermal expansion or decreasing the glass forming ability. Glasses with fairly small thermal expansion coefficients (≤ 3.2 x 10^-6 K^-1), low thermal stress values (≤ 0.5 MPa K^-1), broad fluorescence emission peaks and fluorescence lifetimes in the range from 2.4 to 2.8 ms are obtained. Such glasses are interesting candidates for laser host materials in ultrahigh peak power laser systems.
S. Banerjee, J. Koerner, M. Siebold, Q. Yang, K. Ertel, P. D. Mason, P. J. Phillips, M. Loeser, H. Zhang, S. Lu, J. Hein, U. Schramm, M.C. Kaluza, and J. L. Collier
Temperature dependent emission and absorption cross section of Yb3+ doped yttrium lanthanum oxide (YLO) ceramic and its application in diode pumped amplifier
Opt. Express, 21 :726 (July 2013)
Temperature dependent absorption and emission cross-sections of 5 at-% Yb3+ doped yttrium lanthanum oxide (Yb:YLO) ceramic between 80K and 300K are presented. In addition, we report on the first demonstration of ns pulse amplification in Yb:YLO ceramic. A pulse energy of 102mJ was extracted from a multi-pass amplifier setup. The amplification bandwidth at room temperature confirms the potential of Yb:YLO ceramic for broad bandwidth amplification at cryogenic temperatures.
A. Klenke, S. Breitkopf, M. Kienel, T. Gottschall, T. Eidam, S. Hädrich, J. Rothhardt, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann
530 W, 1.3 mJ, four-channel coherently combined femtosecond fiber chirped-pulse amplification system
Opt. Lett., 38 :2283 (June 2013)
We report on a femtosecond fiber laser system comprising four coherently combined large-pitch fibers as the main amplifier. With this system, a pulse energy of 1.3 mJ and a peak power of 1.8 GW are achieved at 400 kHz repetition rate. The corresponding average output power is as high as 530 W. Additionally, an excellent beam quality and efficiency of the combination have been obtained. To the best of our knowledge, such a parameter combination, i.e., gigawatt pulses with half a kilowatt average power, has not been demonstrated so far with any other laser architecture.
V. Rodriguez, A. Bernhard, A. Keilmann, P. Peiffer, R. Rossmanith, C. Widmann, T. Baumbach, M. Nicolai, and M.C. Kaluza
Development of a Superconducting Transverse-Gradient Undulator for Laser-Wakefield Accelerators
IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond., 23 :4101505 (June 2013)
Relativistic electrons with small energy spread propagating through undulators produce monochromatic radiation with high spectral intensity. The working principle of undulators requires a small energy spread of the electron beam in the order of ΔE/E ~ 0.1%. Laser-wakefield accelerators can produce electron bunches with an energy of several 100 MeV within a few millimeters acceleration length, but with a relatively large energy spread (ΔE/E ~ 1 - 10%). In order to produce monochromatic undulator radiation with these electrons, a novel scheme involving transverse-gradient superconducting undulators was proposed in an earlier work. This paper reports on the design-optimization and construction of an iron-free cylindrical superconducting undulator tailored to the particular beam properties of the laser-wakefield electron accelerator at the University of Jena, Germany.
B. Marx, K. S. Schulze, I. Uschmann, T. Kämpfer, R. Lötzsch, O. Wehrhan, W. Wagner, C. Detlefs, T. Roth, J. Härtwig, E. Förster, T. Stöhlker, and G.G. Paulus
High-Precision X-Ray Polarimetry
Phys. Rev. Lett., 110 :254801 (June 2013)
The polarization purity of 6.457- and 12.914-keV x rays has been improved to the level of 2.4×10-10 and 5.7×10-10. The polarizers are channel-cut silicon crystals using six 90° reflections. Their performance and possible applications are demonstrated in the measurement of the optical activity of a sucrose solution.
S. Ying-Long, D. Chen-Zhong, M. Xiao-Yun, W. Zhong-Wen, X. Lu-You, and S. Fritzsche
Polarization of M2 Line Emitted Following Electron-Impact Excitation of Beryllium-Like Ions
Chin. Phys. Lett., 30 :063401 (June 2013)
Detailed calculations are carried out for the electron-impact excitation cross sections from the ground state to the individual magnetic sublevels of the 1s2s^(2) 2p_(3/2)J = 2 excited state of highly-charged beryllium-like ions by using a fully relativistic distorted-wave (RDW) method. The contributions of the Breit interaction to the linear polarization of the 1s2s^(2) 2p_(3/2)J = 2 → 1s^(2) 2s^(2)J = 0 magnetic quadrupole (M2) line are investigated systematically for the beryllium isoelectronic sequence with 42 ≤ Z ≤ 92. It is found that the Breit interaction depolarizes significantly the linear polarization of the M2 fluorescence radiation and that these depolarization effects increase as the incident electron energy and/or the atomic number is enlarged.
Y. Nakano, Y. Takano, T. Ikeda, Y. Kanai, S. Suda, T. Azuma, H. Bräuning, A. Bräuning-Demian, D. Dauvergne, T. Stöhlker, and Y. Yamazaki
Resonant coherent excitation of the lithiumlike uranium ion - A scheme for heavy-ion spectroscopy
Phys. Rev. A, 87 :060501 (June 2013)
We report our observation of the resonant fluorescence from highly charged uranium ions. Using the resonant coherent excitation (RCE) technique, the 2s-2p_(3/2) transition in 191.68 MeV/u Li-like U^(89+) ions was excited at 4.5 keV with a resonance width of 4.4 eV. The result demonstrated that the RCE can be applied to resonant fluorescence spectroscopy of high-Z ions up to uranium with high efficiency and resolution.
G. Sarri, W. Schumaker, A. Di Piazza, M. Vargas, B. Dromey, M. E. Dieckmann, V. Chvykov, A. Maksimchuk, V. Yanovsky, Z. H. He, B. X. Hou, J. A. Nees, A. G. R. Thomas, C. H. Keitel, M. Zepf, and K. Krushelnick
Table-Top Laser-Based Source of Femtosecond, Collimated, Ultrarelativistic Positron Beams
Phys. Rev. Lett., 110 :255002 (June 2013)
The generation of ultrarelativistic positron beams with short duration (τ_e+≃30  fs), small divergence (θ_e+≃3  mrad), and high density (n_e+≃10^14–10^15  cm−3) from a fully optical setup is reported. The detected positron beam propagates with a high-density electron beam and γ rays of similar spectral shape and peak energy, thus closely resembling the structure of an astrophysical leptonic jet. It is envisaged that this experimental evidence, besides the intrinsic relevance to laser-driven particle acceleration, may open the pathway for the small-scale study of astrophysical leptonic jets in the laboratory.
K. Baker, G. Cantatore, S. A. Cetin, M. Davenport, K. Desch, B. Döbrich, H. Gies, I. G. Irastorza, J. Jäckel, A. Lindner, T. Papaevangelou, M. Pivovaroff, G. Raffelt, J. Redondo, A. Ringwald, Y. Semertzidis, A. Siemko, M. Sulc, A. Upadhye, and K. Zioutas
The quest for axions and other new light particles
Ann. Phys. (Berlin), 525 :A93 (June 2013)
Standard Model extensions often predict low-mass and very weakly interacting particles, such as the axion. A number of small-scale experiments at the intensity/precision frontier are actively searching for these elusive particles, complementing searches for physics beyond the Standard Model at colliders. Whilst a next generation of experiments will give access to a huge unexplored parameter space, a discovery would have a tremendous impact on our understanding of fundamental physics.
M. Krebs, S. Hädrich, S. Demmler, J. Rothhardt, A. Zaïr, L. Chipperfield, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann
Towards isolated attosecond pulses at megahertz repetition rates
Nat. Photonics, 7 :555 (June 2013)
The strong-field process of high-harmonic generation is the foundation for generating isolated attosecond pulses, which are the fastest controllable events ever induced. This coherent extreme-ultraviolet radiation has become an indispensable tool for resolving ultrafast motion in atoms and molecules. Despite numerous spectacular developments in the new field of attoscience the low data-acquisition rates imposed by low-repetition-rate (maximum of 3 kHz) laser systems hamper the advancement of these sophisticated experiments. Consequently, the availability of high-repetition-rate sources will overcome a major obstacle in this young field. Here, we present the first megahertz-level source of extreme-ultraviolet continua with evidence of isolated attosecond pulses using a fibre laser-pumped optical parametric amplifier for high-harmonic generation at 0.6 MHz. This 200-fold increase in repetition rate will enable and promote a vast variety of new applications, such as attosecond-resolution coincidence and photoelectron spectroscopy, or even video-rate acquisition for spatially resolved pump–probe measurements.
D. Banaś, A. Gumberidze, S. Trotsenko, A. V. Volotka, A. Surzhykov, H. F. Beyer, F. Bosch, A. Bräuning-Demian, S. Fritzsche, S. Hagmann, C. Kozhuharov, A. Kumar, X. Ma, R. Mann, P. H. Mokler, D. Sierpowski, U. Spillmann, S. Tashenov, Z. Stachura, A. Warczak, and T. Stöhlker
Two-photon energy distribution from the decay of the 2 ¹S₀ state in He-like uranium
Phys. Rev. A, 87 :062510 (June 2013)
We have performed a measurement of the spectral shape from the two-photon decay of the 1s2s 1S0 state in He-like uranium. The two-photon emission followed the ionization of initially Li-like uranium ions in collisions with a N2 gas-jet target. The measured shape of the two-photon energy distribution shows good agreement with results of the relativistic calculations that take into account the electron-electron interaction rigorously up to the first order in quantum electrodynamic perturbation expansion. From the full width at half maximum of the measured two-photon energy distribution, we confirm the theoretically predicted modification of the shape due to the relativistic effects.
D. C. Hochhaus, B. Aurand, M. Basko, B. Ecker, T. Kühl, T. Ma, F. Rosmej, B. Zielbauer, and P. Neumayer
X-ray radiographic expansion measurements of isochorically heated thin wire targets
Phys. Plasmas, 20 :062703 (June 2013)
Solid density matter at temperatures ranging from 150 eV to < 5 eV has been created by irradiating thin wire targets with high-energy laser pulses at intensities ≈ 10^18 W/cm^2 . Energy deposition and transport of the laser-produced fast electrons are inferred from spatially resolved Kα-spectroscopy. Time resolved x-ray radiography is employed to image the target mass density up to solid density and proves isochoric heating. The subsequent hydrodynamic evolution of the target is observed for up to 3 ns and is compared to radiation-hydrodynamic simulations. At distances of several hundred micrometers from the laser interaction region, where temperatures of 5–20 eV and small temperature gradients are found, the hydrodynamic evolution of the wire is a near axially symmetric isentropic expansion, and good agreement between simulations and radiography data confirms heating of the wire over hundreds of micrometers.
A. Gumberidze, D. Thorn, C. Fontes, B. Najjari, H. Zhang, A. Surzhykov, A. Voitkiv, S. Fritzsche, D. Banaś, H. Beyer, W. Chen, R. DuBois, S. Geyer, R. Grisenti, S. Hagmann, M. Hegewald, S. Hess, C. Kozhuharov, R. Märtin, I. Orban, N. Petridis, R. Reuschl, A. Simon, U. Spillmann, M. Trassinelli, S. Trotsenko, G. Weber, D. Winters, N. Winters, D. Yu, and T. Stöhlker
Electron- and Proton-Impact Excitation of Hydrogenlike Uranium in Relativistic Collisions
Phys. Rev. Lett., 110 :213201 (May 2013)
The K shell excitation of H-like uranium (U91+) in relativistic collisions with different gaseous targets has been studied at the experimental storage ring at GSI Darmstadt. By performing measurements with different targets as well as with different collision energies, we were able to observe for the first time the effect of electron-impact excitation (EIE) process in the heaviest hydrogenlike ion. The large fine-structure splitting in H-like uranium allowed us to unambiguously resolve excitation into different L shell levels. State-of-the-art calculations performed within the relativistic framework which include excitation mechanisms due to both protons (nucleus) and electrons are in good agreement with the experimental findings. Moreover, our experimental data clearly demonstrate the importance of including the generalized Breit interaction in the treatment of the EIE process.