Referierte Publikationen


W. Chen, G. Vorobyev, D. Guo, F. Herfurth, P.-M. Hillenbrand, U. Spillmann, S. Trotsenko, A. Gumberidze, and T. Stöhlker
Metal vapor target for precise studies of ion-atom collisions
Rev. Sci. Instrum., 85 :053513 (May 2014)
Although different ion-atom collisions have been studied in various contexts, precise values of cross-sections for many atomic processes were seldom obtained. One of the main uncertainties originates from the value of target densities. In this paper, we describe a unique method to measure a target density precisely with a combination of physical vapor deposition and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. This method is preliminarily applied to a charge transfer cross-section measurement in collisions between highly charged ions and magnesium vapor. The final relative uncertainty of the target density is less than 2.5%. This enables the precise studies of atomic processes in ion-atom collisions, even though in the trial test the deduction of precise capture cross-sections was limited by other systematic errors.
D. Banaś, P. Jagodzinski, M. Pajek, A. Gumberidze, A. Surzhykov, and T. Stöhlker
Monte-Carlo simulations of the radiative recombination of ions with electrons in cold magnetized plasma
Phys. Scripta, 2014 :014001 (May 2014)
We report here on the results of Monte-Carlo simulations of the radiative recombination of highly charged ions with low-energy electrons in the presence of a guiding magnetic field. The simulations are based on a semi-classical geometrical model, recently proposed by our group, which has been developed in order to explain systematic discrepancies, the so-called ‘enhancement effect’, of the radiative recombination rates measured in the guiding magnetic field of electron coolers with respect to theoretical calculations. With the simulations, we demonstrate that the enhancement of radiative recombination rates in the magnetic field could be caused by ‘transverse’ collisions with the impact parameter in the μm range and the impact parameter cut-off value depending on the strength of the guiding B -field in magnetized plasma. In this paper, the methodology of the simulations, the obtained B -field dependence of the radiative recombination enhancement and the observed impact parameter cut-off will be discussed.
O. Matula, A. G. Hayrapetyan, V. G. Serbo, A. Surzhykov, and S. Fritzsche
Radiative capture of twisted electrons by bare ions
New J. Phys., 16 :053024 (May 2014)
Recent advances in the production of twisted electron beams with a subnanometer spot size offer unique opportunities to explore the role of orbital angular momentum in basic atomic processes. In the present work, we address one of these processes: radiative recombination of twisted electrons with bare ions. On the basis of the density matrix formalism and the non-relativistic Schrödinger theory, analytical expressions are derived for the angular distribution and the linear polarization of photons emitted due to the capture of twisted electrons into the ground state of (hydrogen-like) ions. We show that these angular and polarization distributions are sensitive to both the transverse momentum and the topological charge of the electron beam. To observe in particular the value of this charge, we propose an experiment that makes use of the coherent superposition of two twisted beams.
H.-J. Otto, A. Klenke, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann
Scaling the mode instability threshold with multicore fibers
Opt. Lett., 39 :2680 (May 2014)
Mode instabilities (MIs) have quickly become the most limiting effect for the average power scaling of nearly diffraction-limited beams from state-of-the-art fiber laser systems. In this work it is shown that, by using an advanced multicore photonic crystal fiber design, the threshold power of MIs can be increased linearly with the number of cores. An average output power of 536 W, corresponding to 4 times the threshold power of a single core, is demonstrated.
A. Hoffmann, M. Zürch, M. Gräfe, and C. Spielmann
Spectral broadening and compression of sub-millijoule laser pulses in hollow-core fibers filled with sulfur hexafluoride
Opt. Express, 22 :12038 (May 2014)
Spectral broadening in gas-filled hollow-core fibers is discussed for sulfur hexafluoride, a molecular gas with Raman activity. Experimental results for compressed pulses are presented for input pulses longer than the Raman period and shorter than the dephasing time at a central wavelength of 800 nm and 400 nm, respectively. For both wavelengths we compress the pulses by a factor of three and maintain a good pulse quality. The obtained results are of interest for compressing pulses generated with Yb doped lasers.
P. Hansinger, G. Maleshkov, I. L. Garanovich, D. V. Skryabin, D. N. Neshev, A. Dreischuh, and G.G. Paulus
Vortex algebra by multiply cascaded four-wave mixing of femtosecond optical beams
Opt. Express, 22 :11079 (May 2014)
Experiments performed with different vortex pump beams show for the first time the algebra of the vortex topological charge cascade, that evolves in the process of nonlinear wave mixing of optical vortex beams in Kerr media due to competition of four-wave mixing with self-and cross-phase modulation. This leads to the coherent generation of complex singular beams within a spectral bandwidth larger than 200nm. Our experimental results are in good agreement with frequency-domain numerical calculations that describe the newly generated spectral satellites.
N. I. Shvetsov-Shilovski, E. Räsänen, G.G. Paulus, and L. B. Madsen
Asymmetric photoelectron momentum distributions due to quantum interference in strong-field ionization by a few-cycle pulse
Phys. Rev. A, 89 :043431 (April 2014)
We calculate the left-right asymmetry of the photoelectron momentum distributions generated in a hydrogen atom exposed to an intense few-cycle laser pulse as a function of both the carrier-envelope phase and the laser intensity. We present results of the numerical solution of the three-dimensional time-dependent Schrodingere equation, semiclassical simulations accounting for both laser and Coulomb fields, and the strong-field approximation. We predict pronounced oscillations of the asymmetry parameter as a function of the intensity for a particular range of the carrier-envelope phase. In order to reveal the mechanism underlying these oscillations, we investigate in detail the electron momentum distributions in the one-dimensional case. We show that quantum interference among a large set of both bound and continuum field-free states is responsible for the oscillatory behavior of the left-right asymmetry.
K. S. Schulze, B. Marx, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, T. Stöhlker, and G.G. Paulus
Determination of the polarization state of x rays with the help of anomalous transmission
Appl. Phys. Lett., 104 :151110 (April 2014)
Besides intensity and direction, the polarization of an electromagnetic wave provides characteristic information on the crossed medium. Here, we present two methods for the determination of the polarization state of x rays by polarizers based on anomalous transmission (Borrmann effect). Using a polarizer-analyzer setup, we have measured a polarization purity of less than 1.5 × 10^−5, three orders of magnitude better than obtained in earlier work. Using the analyzer crystal in multiple-beam case with slightly detuned azimuth, we show how the first three Stokes parameters can be determined with a single angular scan. Thus, polarization analyzers based on anomalous transmission make it possible to detect changes of the polarization in a range from degrees down to arcseconds.
A. Artemyev, V. Serbo, and A. Surzhykov
Double lepton pair production with electron capture in relativistic heavy-ion collisions
Eur. Phys. J. C, 74 :2829 (April 2014)
We present a theoretical study of a double lepton-pair production in ultra-relativistic collision between two bare ions. Special emphasis is placed to processes in which creation of (at least one) e+e− pair is accompanied by the capture of an electron into a bound ionic state. To evaluate the probability and cross section of these processes we employ two approaches based on (i) the first-order perturbation theory and multipole expansion of Dirac wavefunctions, and (ii) the equivalent photon approximation. With the help of such approaches, detailed calculations are made for the creation of two bound–free e+e− pairs as well as of bound–free e+e− and free–free μ+μ− pairs in collisions of bare lead ions, Pb 82+ . The results of the calculations indicate that observation of the double lepton processes may become feasible at the LHC facility.
S. Tashenov, T. Bäck, R. Barday, B. Cederwall, J. Enders, A. Khaplanov, Y. Fritzsche, A. Surzhykov, V. A. Yerokhin, and D. Jakubassa-Amundsen
Electron polarimetry with bremsstrahlung
J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., 488 :012057 (April 2014)
Due to the spin-orbit interaction, the electron scattering from the nucleus is sensitive to the spin orientation of that electron. This is used for polarimetry of electron beams in the Mott method. The spin-orbit interaction was also observed in bremsstrahlung. In this article we analyze its potential for polarimetry as an alternative to the Mott method. It can simultaneously measure all three electron polarization components. It should work in the energy range of 50 keV up to several MeV and can be applied at beam intensities higher than 100 nA. It needs a thin heavy element target, two or four x-ray detectors and one x-ray linear polarimeter.
T. G. White, N. J. Hartley, B. Borm, B. J. B. Crowley, J. W. O. Harris, D. C. Hochhaus, T. Kaempfer, K. Li, P. Neumayer, L. K. Pattison, F. Pfeifer, S. Richardson, A. P. L. Robinson, I. Uschmann, and G. Gregori
Electron-Ion Equilibration in Ultrafast Heated Graphite
Phys. Rev. Lett., 112 :145005 (April 2014)
We have employed fast electrons produced by intense laser illumination to isochorically heat thermal electrons in solid density carbon to temperatures of ∼10 000  K. Using time-resolved x-ray diffraction, the temperature evolution of the lattice ions is obtained through the Debye-Waller effect, and this directly relates to the electron-ion equilibration rate. This is shown to be considerably lower than predicted from ideal plasma models. We attribute this to strong ion coupling screening the electron-ion interaction.
X. Xie, S. Roither, M. Schöffler, E. Lötstedt, D. Kartashov, L. Zhang, G. Paulus, A. Iwasaki, A. Baltuska, K. Yamanouchi, and M. Kitzler
Electronic Predetermination of Ethylene Fragmentation Dynamics
Phys. Rev. X, 4 :021005 (April 2014)
We experimentally investigate the dependence of the fragmentation behavior of the ethylene dication on the intensity and duration of the laser pulses that initiate the fragmentation dynamics by strong-field double ionization. Using coincidence momentum imaging for the detection of ionic fragments, we disentangle the different contributions of ionization from lower-valence orbitals and field-driven excitation dynamics to the population of certain dissociative excited ionic states that are connected to one of several possible fragmentation pathways towards a given set of fragment ions. We find that the excitation probability to a particular excited state and therewith the outcome of the fragmentation reaction strongly depend on the parameters of the laser pulse. This, in turn, opens up new possibilities for controlling the outcome of fragmentation reactions of polyatomic molecules in that it may allow one to selectively enhance or suppress individual fragmentation channels, which was not possible in previous attempts of controlling fragmentation processes of polyatomic molecules with strong laser fields.
O. Culfa, G. J. Tallents, E. Wagenaars, C. P. Ridgers, R. J. Dance, A. K. Rossall, R. J. Gray, P. McKenna, C. D. R. Brown, S. F. James, D. J. Hoarty, N. Booth, A. P. L. Robinson, K. L. Lancaster, S. A. Pikuz, A. Ya. Faenov, T. Kämpfer, K. S. Schulze, I. Uschmann, and N. C. Woolsey
Hot electron production in laser solid interactions with a controlled pre-pulse
Phys. Plasmas, 21 :043106 (April 2014)
Hot electron generation plays an important role in the fast ignition approach to inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and other applications with ultra-intense lasers. Hot electrons of temperature up to 10–20 MeV have been produced by high contrast picosecond duration laser pulses focussed to intensities of ∼10^20 W cm^(−2) with a deliberate pre-pulse on solid targets using the Vulcan Petawatt Laser facility. We present measurements of the number and temperature of hot electrons obtained using an electron spectrometer. The results are correlated to the density scale length of the plasma produced by a controlled pre-pulse measured using an optical probe diagnostic. 1D simulations predict electron temperature variations with plasma density scale length in agreement with the experiment at shorter plasma scale lengths ( <7.5μ<7.5μ<7.5μ m), but with the experimental temperatures (13–17 MeV) dropping below the simulation values (20–25 MeV) at longer scale lengths. The experimental results show that longer interaction plasmas produced by pre-pulses enable significantly greater number of hot electrons to be produced.
T. Jahrsetz, S. Fritzsche, and A. Surzhykov
Inelastic Raman scattering of light by hydrogenlike ions
Phys. Rev. A, 89 :042501 (April 2014)
The inelastic Raman scattering of light by hydrogenlike ions has been studied by means of second-order perturbation theory and the relativistic Coulomb Green's-function approach. In particular, we investigate the total and angle-differential Raman cross sections as well as the magnetic sublevel population of the residual (excited) ions. Detailed calculations are performed for the inelastic scattering of photons by neutral hydrogen as well as hydrogenlike xenon and uranium ions, accompanied by the 1s1/2→2s1/2, 1s1/2→2p1/2, and 1s1/2→2p3/2 transitions. Moreover, we discuss how the Raman scattering is affected by relativistic and resonance effects as well as the higher-multipole contributions to the electron-photon interaction.
A. Hayrapetyan, O. Matula, A. Aiello, A. Surzhykov, and S. Fritzsche
Interaction of Relativistic Electron-Vortex Beams with Few-Cycle Laser Pulses
Phys. Rev. Lett., 112 :134801 (April 2014)
We study the interaction of relativistic electron-vortex beams (EVBs) with laser light. Exact analytical solutions for this problem are obtained by employing the Dirac-Volkov wave functions to describe the (monoenergetic) distribution of the electrons in vortex beams with well-defined orbital angular momentum. Our new solutions explicitly show that the orbital angular momentum components of the laser field couple to the total angular momentum of the electrons. When the field is switched off, it is shown that the laser-driven EVB coincides with the field-free EVB as reported by Bliokh et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 174802 (2011)]. Moreover, we calculate the probability density for finding an electron in the beam profile and demonstrate that the center of the beam is shifted with respect to the center of the field-free EVB.
H. Dachraoui, d. Laan, N. Müller, T. Milde, M. Porer, R. Manzke, R. Huber, S. Fritzsche, and U. Heinzmann
Mapping spin-orbit activated interchannel coupling
Europhys. Lett., 106 :13001 (April 2014)
Recent advances in the generation of femtosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses have opened up the possibility to study final-state wave functions in photoemission experiments. Here, we investigate, for the first time using femtosecond time-resolved core-level spectroscopy, the feasibility of observing the buildup of a state correlation in a direct time domain. Giant changes in the ratio of photoemission cross-sections of spin-orbit split core states, the branching ratio, are identified. Multi-configuration Dirac-Fock calculations show that the origin of the branching ratio deviation is due to strong core-valence interactions. The possibility to tune this interaction by charge transfer offers intriguing opportunities to study correlation effects in solid and molecular systems in the future.
X. Gong, M. Kunitski, K. J. Betsch, Q. Song, L. Ph. H. Schmidt, T. Jahnke, N. Kling, O. Herrwerth, B. Bergues, A. Senftleben, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, G.G. Paulus, I. Ben-Itzhak, M. Lezius, M. F. Kling, H. Zeng, R. R. Jones, and J. Wu
Multielectron effects in strong-field dissociative ionization of molecules
Phys. Rev. A, 89 :043429 (April 2014)
We study triple-ionization-induced, spatially asymmetric dissociation of N_2 using angular streaking in an elliptically polarized laser pulse in conjunction with few-cycle pump-probe experiments. The kinetic-energyrelease dependent directional asymmetry in the ion sum-momentum distribution reflects the internuclear distance dependence of the fragmentation mechanism. Our results show that for 5-35 fs near-infrared laser pulses with intensities reaching 10^(15) W/cm^(2), charge exchange between nuclei plays aminor role in the triple ionization of N_2. We demonstrate that angular streaking provides a powerful tool for probing multielectron effects in strong-field dissociative ionization of small molecules.
T. Ma, L. Fletcher, A. Pak, D. A. Chapman, R. W. Falcone, C. Fortmann, E. Galtier, D. O. Gericke, G. Gregori, J. Hastings, O. L. Landen, S. Le Pape, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, P. Neumayer, D. Turnbull, J. Vorberger, T. G. White, K. Wünsch, U. Zastrau, S. H. Glenzer, and T. Döppner
Observations of strong ion-ion correlations in dense plasmasa)
Phys. Plasmas, 21 :056302 (April 2014)
Using simultaneous spectrally, angularly, and temporally resolved x-ray scattering, we measure the pronounced ion-ion correlation peak in a strongly coupled plasma. Laser-driven shock-compressed aluminum at ∼3× solid density is probed with high-energy photons at 17.9 keV created by molybdenum He-α emission in a laser-driven plasma source. The measured elastic scattering feature shows a well-pronounced correlation peak at a wave vector of k=4 Å^(−1). The magnitude of this correlation peak cannot be described by standard plasma theories employing a linear screened Coulomb potential. Advanced models, including a strong short-range repulsion due to the inner structure of the aluminum ions are however in good agreement with the scattering data. These studies have demonstrated a new highly accurate diagnostic technique to directly measure the state of compression and the ion-ion correlations. We have since applied this new method in single-shot wave-number resolved S(k) measurements to characterize the physical properties of dense plasmas.
F. Karbstein
Quark-antiquark static energy from a restricted Fourier transform
J. High Energ. Phys., 04 :144 (April 2014)
We provide a fully analytical determination of the perturbative quark-antiquark static energy in position space as defined by a restricted Fourier transformation from momentum to position space. Such a determination is complicated by the fact that the static energy genuinely decomposes into a strictly perturbative part (made up of contributions ∼α_s^n, with n∈ℕ) which is conventionally evaluated in momentum space, and a so-called ultrasoft part (including terms ∼α_s^n+mln^m(α_s), with n≥3 and m∈ℕ) which, conversely, is naturally evaluated in position space. Our approach facilitates the explicit determination of the static energy in position space at the accuracy with which the perturbative potential in momentum space is known, i.e., presently up to order α_s^4.
X. Xie, K. Doblhoff-Dier, H. Xu, S. Roither, M. Schöffler, D. Kartashov, S. Erattupuzha, T. Rathje, G. Paulus, K. Yamanouchi, A. Baltuska, S. Gräfe, and M. Kitzler
Selective Control over Fragmentation Reactions in Polyatomic Molecules Using Impulsive Laser Alignment
Phys. Rev. Lett., 112 :163003 (April 2014)
We investigate the possibility of using molecular alignment for controlling the relative probability of individual reaction pathways in polyatomic molecules initiated by electronic processes on the few-femtosecond time scale. Using acetylene as an example, it is shown that aligning the molecular axis with respect to the polarization direction of the ionizing laser pulse does not only allow us to enhance or suppress the overall fragmentation yield of a certain fragmentation channel but, more importantly, to determine the relative probability of individual reaction pathways starting from the same parent molecular ion. We show that the achieved control over dissociation or isomerization pathways along specific nuclear degrees of freedom is based on a controlled population of associated excited dissociative electronic states in the molecular ion due to relatively enhanced ionization contributions from inner valence orbitals.
N. Tahir, V. Kim, B. Schlitt, W. Barth, L. Groening, I. Lomonosov, A. Piriz, T. Stöhlker, and H. Vormann
Three-dimensional thermal simulations of thin solid carbon foils for charge stripping of high current uranium ion beams at a proposed new heavy-ion linac at GSI
Phys. Rev. ST AB, 17 :041003 (April 2014)
This paper presents an extensive numerical study of heating of thin solid carbon foils by 1.4  MeV/u uranium ion beams to explore the possibility of using such a target as a charge stripper at the proposed new Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung high energy heavy–ion linac. These simulations have been carried out using a sophisticated 3D computer code that accounts for physical phenomena that are important in this problem. A variety of beam and target parameters have been considered. The results suggest that within the considered parameter range, the target will be severely damaged by the beam. Thus, a carbon foil stripper does not seem to be a reliable option for the future Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung high energy heavy–ion linac, in particular, at FAIR design beam intensities.
A. Kessler, M. Hornung, S. Keppler, F. Schorcht, M. Hellwing, H. Liebetrau, J. Körner, A. Sävert, M. Siebold, M. Schnepp, J. Hein, and M.C. Kaluza
16.6 J chirped femtosecond laser pulses from a diode-pumped Yb:CaF2 amplifier
Opt. Lett., 39 :1333 (March 2014)
We report the amplification of laser pulses at a center wavelength of 1034 nm to an energy of 16.6 J from a fully diode-pumped amplifier using Yb:CaF2 as the active medium. Pumped by a total optical power of 300 kW from high-power laser diodes, a gain factor of g=6.1 was achieved in a nine-pass amplifier configuration agreeing with numerical simulations. A measured spectral bandwidth of 10 nm full width at half-maximum promises a bandwidth-limited compression of the pulses down to a duration of 150 fs. These are, to our knowledge, the most energetic laser pulses achieved from a diode-pumped chirped-pulse amplifier so far.
E. Stambulchik, E. Kroupp, Y. Maron, U. Zastrau, I. Uschmann, and G.G. Paulus
Absorption-aided x-ray emission tomography of planar targets
Phys. Plasmas, 21 :033303 (March 2014)
Suggested is a tomography-like method for studying properties of solid-density plasmas with cylindrical symmetry, such as formed in the interaction of high-power lasers with planar targets. The method is based on simultaneous observation of the target x-ray fluorescence at different angles. It can be applied for validation of existing hypotheses and lately for reconstruction of the plasma properties with three-dimensional resolution. The latter becomes straightforward if the resonance x-ray self-absorption is negligible. The utility of the method is demonstrated by examples.
J. Rothhardt, M. Krebs, S. Hädrich, S. Demmler, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann
Absorption-limited and phase-matched high harmonic generation in the tight focusing regime
New J. Phys., 16 :033022 (March 2014)
High harmonic generation (HHG) at a high repetition rate requires tight focusing of the moderate peak power driving pulses. So far the conversion efficiencies that have been achieved in this regime are orders of magnitude behind the values that have been demonstrated with loose focusing of high energy (high peak power) lasers. In this contribution, we discuss the scaling laws for the main physical quantities of HHG and in particular analyze the limiting effects: dephasing, absorption and plasma defocusing. It turns out that phase-matched and absorption-limited HHG can be achieved even for very small focal spot sizes using a target gas provided with an adequately high density. Experimentally, we investigate HHG in a gas jet of argon, krypton and xenon. By analyzing the pressure dependence we are able to disentangle the dephasing and absorption effects and prove that the generated high order harmonics are phase-matched and absorption-limited. The obtained conversion efficiency is as high as 8 × 10^−6 for the 17th harmonic generated in xenon and 1.4 × 10^−6 for the 27th harmonic generated in argon. Our findings pave the way for highly efficient harmonic generation at megahertz repetition rates.
S. Busold, D. Schumacher, O. Deppert, C. Brabetz, F. Kroll, A. Blazevic, V. Bagnoud, and M. Roth
Commissioning of a compact laser-based proton beam line for high intensity bunches around 10 MeV
Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams, 17 :031302 (March 2014)
We report on the first results of experiments with a new laser-based proton beam line at the GSI accelerator facility in Darmstadt. It delivers high current bunches at proton energies around 9.6 MeV, containing more than 10^9 particles in less than 10 ns and with tunable energy spread down to 2.7% (ΔE/E0 at FWHM). A target normal sheath acceleration stage serves as a proton source and a pulsed solenoid provides for beam collimation and energy selection. Finally a synchronous radio frequency (rf) field is applied via a rf cavity for energy compression at a synchronous phase of −90  deg. The proton bunch is characterized at the end of the very compact beam line, only 3 m behind the laser matter interaction point, which defines the particle source.