Referierte Publikationen


N. A. Zubova, Y. S. Kozhedub, V. M. Shabaev, I. I. Tupitsyn, A. V. Volotka, G. Plunien, C. Brandau, and T. Stöhlker
Relativistic calculations of the isotope shifts in highly charged Li-like ions
Phys. Rev. A, 90 :062512 (December 2014)
Relativistic calculations of the isotope shifts of energy levels in highly charged Li-like ions are performed. The nuclear recoil (mass shift) contributions are calculated by merging the perturbative and large-scale configuration-interaction Dirac-Fock-Sturm (CI-DFS) methods. The nuclear size (field shift) contributions are evaluated by the CI-DFS method including the electron-correlation, Breit, and QED corrections. The nuclear deformation and nuclear polarization corrections to the isotope shifts in Li-like neodymium, thorium, and uranium are also considered. The results of the calculations are compared with the theoretical values obtained with other methods.
D. Jakubassa-Amundsen, R. Müller, A. Surzhykov, and V. Yerokhin
Relativistic theory for radiative forward electron emission in heavy ion-atom encounters
Eur. Phys. J. D, 68 :367 (December 2014)
The forward electron emission with simultaneous photon production during the scattering of relativistic, highly stripped projectiles from light target atoms is calculated within the Dirac theory. The method of calculation is a simplification of the impulse approximation and is based on the relation of the cross section for radiative capture to continuum of loosely bound electrons to the frame-transformed electron bremsstrahlung cross section. It is demonstrated that such an approximation is well justified in a large region of energies and photon emission angles, with the exception of the extreme forward and backward emission and the soft-photon energy limit. The cusp spectrum and the corresponding angular distribution are compared to recent experimental data for the collision system 90.38 MeV/amu U88+ + N2.
M. Gräfe, A. Hoffmann, and C. Spielmann
Ultrafast fluorescence spectroscopy for axial resolution of flurorophore distributions
Appl. Phys. B, 117 :833 (December 2014)
A new method for determining the fluorophore distribution along the propagation axis of an ultrashort optical pulse is presented. The axial resolution is obtained by temporal gating of the backward emitted fluorescence via optical parametric amplification, and we demonstrated a resolution in the order of a few 100 μm. With this approach, sampling of the fluorophore concentration of thin layers without using optics with a large numerical aperture will be possible, such as investigating the human retina via time-resolved fluorescence measurements. Additionally, we verified the gain is orders of magnitude higher for coherent seeding, making optical parametric gating very interesting for discriminating between coherently and incoherently scattered light for other multimodal imaging applications.
H.-J. Otto, F. Stutzki, N. Modsching, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann
2  kW average power from a pulsed Yb-doped rod-type fiber amplifier
Opt. Lett., 39 :6446 (November 2014)
This Letter reports on a fiber-laser system that, employing a 1 m long rod-type photonic-crystal fiber as its main-amplifier, emits a record average output power of 2 kW, by amplifying stretched ps-pulses. A further increase of the output power was only limited by the available laser-diode pump power. The energy of the pulses is 100 μJ, corresponding to MW-level peak powers extracted directly from the fiber of the main amplifier. The corresponding M2 at the maximum output power is <3, due to the onset of mode instabilities. The Letter covers the influence of this effect on the evolution of the beam quality with the output power. The numerical results show that the M2 value settles at around 3, even if the output average power is further increased.
D. Tiedemann, K. E. Stiebing, D. F. A. Winters, W. Quint, V. Varentsov, A. Warczak, A. Malarz, and T. Stöhlker
A pulsed supersonic gas jet target for precision spectroscopy at the HITRAP facility at GSI
Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A, 764 :387 (November 2014)
A pulsed supersonic gas jet target for experiments at the HITRAP facility at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt has been designed and built as a multi-purpose installation for key experiments on fundamental atomic physics in strong fields. This setup is currently installed at the Institut für Kernphysik of Goethe-University, Frankfurt am Main (IKF), in order to explore its operation prior to its installation at the HITRAP facility. Design and performance of the target are described. The measured target densities of 5.9×10^12 atoms/cm3 for helium and 8.1×10^12 atoms/cm³ for argon at the stagnation pressure of 30 bar match the required values. The target-beam diameter of 0.9 mm and the pulsed operation mode (jet built-up-time ≤15 ms) are well suited for the use at HITRAP.
Z. W. Wu, N. M. Kabachnik, A. Surzhykov, C. Z. Dong, and S. Fritzsche
Determination of small level splittings in highly charged ions via angle-resolved measurements of characteristic x rays
Phys. Rev. A, 90 :052515 (November 2014)
The angular distribution and the photon-photon angular correlation have been investigated for the x-ray emission from two-step radiative cascades that proceed via overlapping intermediate resonances. In particular, density matrix theory is applied in order to explore how the splitting of these intermediate levels affects the subsequent x-ray emission and whether measurements of photon angular distributions may help reveal level crossings in highly charged ions, if analyzed along isoelectronic sequences. Detailed computations within the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock method were performed especially for the two-step 1s2p2J_i=1/2,3/2→1s2s2pJ=1/2,3/2+γ1→1s22sJ_f=1/2+γ1+γ2 cascade of lithiumlike ions, for which a level crossing of the two 1s2s2pJ=1/2,3/2 intermediate resonances occurs in the range 74≤Z≤79. For this cascade, a remarkably strong depolarization effect, associated with the finite lifetime of these intermediate levels, is found for the angular distribution and the photon-photon correlation function for all level splittings Δω≲0.2a.u.≈5.4 eV. We therefore suggest that accurate angle-resolved measurements of the x-ray emission may serve also as a tool for determining small level splittings in excited highly charged ions.
L. Senje, M. Yeung, B. Aurand, S. Kuschel, C. Rödel, F. Wagner, K. Li, B. Dromey, V. Bagnoud, P. Neumayer, M. Roth, C.-G. Wahlström, M. Zepf, T. Kuehl, and D. Jung
Diagnostics for studies of novel laser ion acceleration mechanisms
Rev. Sci. Instrum., 85 :113302 (November 2014)
Diagnostic for investigating and distinguishing different laser ion acceleration mechanisms has been developed and successfully tested. An ion separation wide angle spectrometer can simultaneously investigate three important aspects of the laser plasma interaction: (1) acquire angularly resolved energy spectra for two ion species, (2) obtain ion energy spectra for multiple species, separated according to their charge to mass ratio, along selected axes, and (3) collect laser radiation reflected from and transmitted through the target and propagating in the same direction as the ion beam. Thus, the presented diagnostic constitutes a highly adaptable tool for accurately studying novel acceleration mechanisms in terms of their angular energy distribution, conversion efficiency, and plasma density evolution.
D. Denis-Petit, M. Comet, T. Bonnet, F. Hannachi, F. Gobet, M. Tarisien, M. Versteegen, G. Gosselin, V. Méot, P. Morel, J.-C. Pain, F. Gilleron, A. Frank, V. Bagnoud, A. Blazevic, F. Dorchies, O. Peyrusse, W. Cayzac, and M. Roth
Identification of X-ray spectra in the Na-like to O-like rubidium ions in the range of 3.8–7.3 Å
J. Quant. Spectros. Radiat. Transfer, 148 :70 (November 2014)
Abstract The X-rays emitted by a rubidium plasma source created by the PHELIX laser at an intensity of about 6×1014 W/cm2 were studied. The lines have been measured using Bragg crystals in the wavelength range between 3.8 and 7.3 Å and identified by means of a numerical method developed to describe highly charged rubidium ions in LTE plasma. The experimental plasma temperature, density and charge state distributions have been estimated using non-LTE codes such as CHIVAS and AVERROES. The LTE plasma temperature and density used in the calculations are those allowing to reproduce the calculated NLTE charge state distribution. In order to optimize the use of computational resources, a criterion is established to select the configurations contributing most to the spectra among all those obtained in detailed level accounting based on the MCDF code. Seventy Rb X-rays have been identified among which forty-nine are reported for the first time. The capabilities of our method are demonstrated by the good agreement of our identifications with previously published data when available.
S. Busold, K. Philipp, A. Otten, and M. Roth
Image plate characterization and absolute calibration to low kilo-electron-volt electrons
Rev. Sci. Instrum., 85 :113306 (November 2014)
We report on the characterization of an image plate and its absolute calibration to electrons in the low keV energy range (1–30 keV). In our case, an Agfa MD4.0 without protection layer was used in combination with a Fuji FLA7000 scanner. The calibration data are compared to other published data and a consistent picture of the sensitivity of image plates to electrons is obtained, which suggests a validity of the obtained calibration up to 100 keV.
S. G. Rykovanov, C. G. R. Geddes, J.-L. Vay, C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, and W. P. Leemans
Quasi-monoenergetic femtosecond photon sources from Thomson Scattering using laser plasma accelerators and plasma channels
J. Phys. B, 47 :234013 (November 2014)
Narrow bandwidth, high energy photon sources can be generated by Thomson scattering of laser light from energetic electrons, and detailed control of the interaction is needed to produce high quality sources. We present analytic calculations of the energy-angular spectra and photon yield that parametrize the influences of the electron and laser beam parameters to allow source design. These calculations, combined with numerical simulations, are applied to evaluate sources using conventional scattering in vacuum and methods for improving the source via laser waveguides or plasma channels. We show that the photon flux can be greatly increased by using a plasma channel to guide the laser during the interaction. Conversely, we show that to produce a given number of photons, the required laser energy can be reduced by an order of magnitude through the use of a plasma channel. In addition, we show that a plasma can be used as a compact beam dump, in which the electron beam is decelerated in a short distance, thereby greatly reducing radiation shielding. Realistic experimental errors such as transverse jitter are quantitatively shown to be tolerable. Examples of designs relevant to nuclear resonance fluorescence and photofission are provided.
G. Sarri, D. Corvan, W. Schumaker, J. Cole, A. Di Piazza, H. Ahmed, C. Harvey, C. Keitel, K. Krushelnick, S. Mangles, Z. Najmudin, D. Symes, A. Thomas, M. Yeung, Z. Zhao, and M. Zepf
Ultrahigh Brilliance Multi-MeV γ-Ray Beams from Nonlinear Relativistic Thomson Scattering
Phys. Rev. Lett., 113 :224801 (November 2014)
We report on the generation of a narrow divergence (θγ<2.5  mrad), multi-MeV (Emax≈18  MeV) and ultrahigh peak brilliance (>1.8×10^20  photons s^−1 mm^−2  mrad^−2 0.1% BW) γ-ray beam from the scattering of an ultrarelativistic laser-wakefield accelerated electron beam in the field of a relativistically intense laser (dimensionless amplitude a0≈2). The spectrum of the generated γ-ray beam is measured, with MeV resolution, seamlessly from 6 to 18 MeV, giving clear evidence of the onset of nonlinear relativistic Thomson scattering. To the best of our knowledge, this photon source has the highest peak brilliance in the multi-MeV regime ever reported in the literature.
S. Breitkopf, T. Eidam, A. Klenke, L. v. Grafenstein, H. Carstens, S. Holzberger, E. Fill, T. Schreiber, F. Krausz, A. Tünnermann, I. Pupeza, and J. Limpert
A concept for multiterawatt fibre lasers based on coherent pulse stacking in passive cavities
Light Sci. Appl., 3 :e211 (October 2014)
Since the advent of femtosecond lasers, performance improvements have constantly impacted on existing applications and enabled novel applications. However, one performance feature bearing the potential of a quantum leap for high-field applications is still not available: the simultaneous emission of extremely high peak and average powers. Emerging applications such as laser particle acceleration require exactly this performance regime and, therefore, challenge laser technology at large. On the one hand, canonical bulk systems can provide pulse peak powers in the multi-terawatt to petawatt range, while on the other hand, advanced solid-state-laser concepts such as the thin disk, slab or fibre are well known for their high efficiency and their ability to emit high average powers in the kilowatt range with excellent beam quality. In this contribution, a compact laser system capable of simultaneously providing high peak and average powers with high wall-plug efficiency is proposed and analysed. The concept is based on the temporal coherent combination (pulse stacking) of a pulse train emitted from a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser system in a passive enhancement cavity. Thus, the pulse energy is increased at the cost of the repetition rate while almost preserving the average power. The concept relies on a fast switching element for dumping the enhanced pulse out of the cavity. The switch constitutes the key challenge of our proposal. Addressing this challenge could, for the first time, allow the highly efficient dumping of joule-class pulses at megawatt average power levels and lead to unprecedented laser parameters.
F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann
Designing advanced very-large-mode-area fibers for power scaling of fiber-laser systems
Optica, 1 :233 (October 2014)
Fiber lasers are a highly regarded solid-state laser concept due to their high efficiency, beam quality, and easy thermal management. Unfortunately, the performance of high-power fiber-laser systems is challenged by the onset of detrimental nonlinear effects. Their impact can be reduced dramatically by employing fibers with larger mode-field areas. Even though this is an efficient way to mitigate nonlinear effects, maintaining effective single-mode operation, and with it high beam quality, becomes increasingly difficult as the core is enlarged. In this paper the demands and challenges for the design of a very-large-mode-area (VLMA) fiber are discussed. The benefits of using higher-order mode delocalization as the working principle of active double-clad VLMA fibers are described. Finally, a new low-symmetry large-pitch fiber, which is expected to improve the performance of state-of-the-art fiber-laser systems by increasing higher-order mode delocalization, is proposed and thoroughly analyzed.
P.-M. Hillenbrand, S. Hagmann, A. B. Voitkiv, B. Najjari, D. Banaś, K.-H. Blumenhagen, C. Brandau, W. Chen, E. De Filippo, A. Gumberidze, D. L. Guo, C. Kozhuharov, M. Lestinsky, Yu. A. Litvinov, A. Müller, H. Rothard, S. Schippers, M. S. Schöffler, U. Spillmann, S. Trotsenko, X. L. Zhu, and T. Stöhlker
Electron-loss-to-continuum cusp in U⁸⁸⁺ + N₂ collisions
Phys. Rev. A, 90 :042713 (October 2014)
The electron loss to the continuum has been studied for the collision system U88+ + N2→U89+ + [N2]∗ + e− at the low-relativistic projectile energy of 90 MeV/u. Using a magnetic electron spectrometer, the energy distribution of cusp electrons emitted at an angle of 0∘ with respect to the projectile beam was measured in coincidence with the up-charged projectile. At the experimental collision energy ionization of the berylliumlike U88+ projectile proceeds predominantly from the L shell, but a contribution from the K shell could also be identified experimentally. The measurement is shown to be in accordance with fully relativistic Dirac calculations applying first-order perturbation theory. Furthermore, the underlying continuum electron distribution in the projectile frame is illustrated.
W. Becker, S. P. Goreslavski, D. B. Milošević, and G.G. Paulus
Low-energy electron rescattering in laser-induced ionization
J. Phys. B, 47 :204022 (October 2014)
The low-energy structure (LES) in the energy spectrum of above-threshold ionization of rare-gas atoms is reinvestigated from three different points of view. First, the role of forward rescattering in the completely classical simple-man model (SMM) is considered. Then, the corresponding classical electronic trajectories are retrieved in the quantum-mechanical ionization amplitude derived in the strong-field approximation augmented to allow for rescattering. Third, classical trajectories in the presence of both the laser field and the Coulomb field are scrutinized in order to see how they are related to the LES. It is concluded that the LES is already rooted in the SMM. The Coulomb field enhances the structure so that it can successfully compete with other contributions and become visible in the total spectrum.
Y. S. Kozhedub, V. M. Shabaev, I. I. Tupitsyn, A. Gumberidze, S. Hagmann, G. Plunien, and T. Stöhlker
Relativistic calculations of x-ray emission following a Xe-Bi 83+ collision
Phys. Rev. A, 90 :042709 (October 2014)
We study the x-ray emission following the collision of a Bi83+ ion with a neutral Xe atom at the projectile energy 70 MeV/u. The collisional and post-collisional processes are treated separately. The probabilities of various many-electron processes at the collision are calculated within a relativistic independent electron model using the coupled-channel approach with atomiclike Dirac-Fock-Sturm orbitals. The analysis of the post-collisional processes resulting in the x-ray emission is based on the fluorescence yields, the radiation, and Auger decay rates, and allows one to derive intensities of the x-ray emission and compare them with experimental data. A reasonable agreement between the theoretical results and the recent experimental data is observed. The role of the relativistic effects is investigated.
H. Liebetrau, M. Hornung, A. Seidel, M. Hellwing, A. Kessler, S. Keppler, F. Schorcht, J. Hein, and M.C. Kaluza
Ultra-high contrast frontend for high peak power fs-lasers at 1030 nm
Opt. Express, 22 :24776 (October 2014)
We present the results from a new frontend within a double-chirped pulse amplification architecture (DCPA) utilizing crossed-polarized wave generation (XPW) for generating ultra-high contrast, 150 μJ-level, femtosecond seed pulses at 1030 nm. These pulses are used in the high energy class diode-pumped laser system Polaris at the Helmholtz Institute in Jena. Within this frontend, laser pulses from a 75 MHz oscillator-pulse train are extracted at a repetition rate of 1 Hz, temporally stretched, amplified and then recompressed reaching a pulse energy of 2 mJ, a bandwidth of 12 nm and 112 fs pulse duration at a center wavelength of 1030 nm. These pulses are temporally filtered via XPW in a holographic-cut BaF2 crystal, resulting in 150 μJ pulse energy with an efficiency of 13 %. Due to this non-linear filtering, the relative intensity of the amplified spontaneous emission preceding the main pulse is suppressed to 2×10^−13. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the lowest value achieved in a high peak power laser system operating at 1030 nm center wavelength.
J. Rothhardt, S. Hädrich, A. Klenke, S. Demmler, A. Hoffmann, T. Gotschall, T. Eidam, M. Krebs, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann
53 W average power few-cycle fiber laser system generating soft x rays up to the water window
Opt. Lett., 39 :5224 (September 2014)
We report on a few-cycle laser system delivering sub-8-fs pulses with 353 µJ pulse energy and 25 GW of peak power at up to 150 kHz repetition rate. The corresponding average output power is as high as 53 W, which represents the highest average power obtained from any few-cycle laser architecture so far. The combination of both high average and high peak power provides unique opportunities for applications. We demonstrate high harmonic generation up to the water window and record-high photon flux in the soft x-ray spectral region. This tabletop source of high-photon flux soft x rays will, for example, enable coherent diffractive imaging with sub-10-nm resolution in the near future.
U. Zastrau, L. Fletcher, E. Förster, E. Galtier, E. Gamboa, S. Glenzer, P. Heimann, H. Marschner, B. Nagler, A. Schropp, O. Wehrhan, and H. Lee
Bent crystal spectrometer for both frequency and wavenumber resolved x-ray scattering at a seeded free-electron laser
Rev. Sci. Instrum., 85 :093106 (September 2014)
We present a cylindrically curved GaAs x-ray spectrometer with energy resolution ΔE/E = 1.1 × 10^−4 and wave-number resolution of Δk/k = 3 × 10^−3, allowing plasmon scattering at the resolution limits of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) x-ray free-electron laser. It spans scattering wavenumbers of 3.6 to 5.2/Å in 100 separate bins, with only 0.34% wavenumber blurring. The dispersion of 0.418 eV/13.5 μm agrees with predictions within 1.3%. The reflection homogeneity over the entire wavenumber range was measured and used to normalize the amplitude of scattering spectra. The proposed spectrometer is superior to a mosaic highly annealed pyrolytic graphite spectrometer when the energy resolution needs to be comparable to the LCLS seeded bandwidth of 1 eV and a significant range of wavenumbers must be covered in one exposure.
A. Alejo, S. Kar, H. Ahmed, A. G. Krygier, D. Doria, R. Clarke, J. Fernandez, R. R. Freeman, J. Fuchs, A. Green, J. S. Green, D. Jung, A. Kleinschmidt, C. L. S. Lewis, J. T. Morrison, Z. Najmudin, H. Nakamura, G. Nersisyan, P. Norreys, M. Notley, M. Oliver, M. Roth, J. A. Ruiz, L. Vassura, M. Zepf, and M. Borghesi
Characterisation of deuterium spectra from laser driven multi-species sources by employing differentially filtered image plate detectors in Thomson spectrometers
Rev. Sci. Instrum., 85 :093303 (September 2014)
A novel method for characterising the full spectrum of deuteron ions emitted by laser driven multi-species ion sources is discussed. The procedure is based on using differential filtering over the detector of a Thompson parabola ion spectrometer, which enables discrimination of deuterium ions from heavier ion species with the same charge-to-mass ratio (such as C^(6+), O^(8+), etc.). Commonly used Fuji Image plates were used as detectors in the spectrometer, whose absolute response to deuterium ions over a wide range of energies was calibrated by using slotted CR-39 nuclear track detectors. A typical deuterium ion spectrum diagnosed in a recent experimental campaign is presented, which was produced from a thin deuterated plastic foil target irradiated by a high power laser.
S. Hädrich, A. Klenke, J. Rothhardt, M. Krebs, A. Hoffmann, O. Pronin, V. Pervak, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann
High photon flux table-top coherent extreme-ultraviolet source
Nat. Photonics, 8 :779 (September 2014)
High harmonic generation (HHG) enables extreme-ultraviolet radiation with table-top set-ups. Its exceptional properties, such as coherence and (sub)-femtosecond pulse durations, have led to a diversity of applications. Some of these require a high photon flux and megahertz repetition rates, for example, to avoid space charge effects in photoelectron spectroscopy. To date, this has only been achieved with enhancement cavities. Here, we establish a novel route towards powerful HHG sources. By achieving phase-matched HHG of a megahertz fibre laser we generate a broad plateau (25 eV – 40 eV) of strong harmonics, each containing more than 1 × 10^12 photons s–1, which constitutes an increase by more than one order of magnitude in that wavelength range. The strongest harmonic (H25, 30 eV) has an average power of 143 μW (3 × 10^13 photons s–1). This concept will greatly advance and facilitate applications in photoelectron or coincidence spectroscopy, coherent diffractive imaging or (multidimensional) surface science.
U. Zastrau, and E. Förster
Integrated reflectivity measurements of hydrogen phthalate crystals for high-resolution soft x-ray spectroscopy
J. Instrum., 9 :P09008 (September 2014)
The integrated x-ray reflectivity of Potassium Hydrogen Phthalate (KAP) and Rubidium Hydrogen Phthalate (RAP) crystals is studied at a photon energy of (1740±14) eV using a double-crystal setup. The absolute measured reflectivities are in < 5% agreement with the values predicted by the dynamic diffraction theory for perfect crystals when absorption is included. Within 4% experimental error margins, specimen that were exposed to ambient conditions over many years show identical reflectivity as specimen that were cleaved just before the measurement. No differences are observed between cleaving off a 10 μm surface layer and splitting the entire crystal bulk of 2 mm thickness. We conclude that at 1.7 keV photon energy the penetration depth of ~ 1 μm is large compared to a potentially deteriorated surface layer of a few 10 nm.
F. Karbstein, A. Peters, and M. Wagner
LambdaMSbar (nf=2) from a momentum space analysis of the quark-antiquark static potential
J. High Energ. Phys., 09 :114 (September 2014)
We determine LambdaMSbar (nf=2) by fitting perturbative expressions for the quark-antiquark static potential to lattice results for QCD with nf=2 dynamical quark flavors. To this end we use the perturbative static potential at the presently best known accuracy, i.e. up to O(α_s^4), in momentum space. The lattice potential is computed on a fine lattice with a≈0.042fm in position space. To allow for a comparison and matching of both results, the lattice potential is transformed into momentum space by means of a discrete Fourier transform. The value of LambdaMSbar (nf=2) is extracted in momentum space. All sources of statistical and systematic errors are discussed. The uncertainty in the value of LambdaMSbar (nf=2) is found to be smaller than that obtained in a recent position space analysis of the static potential based on the same lattice data.
S. Tashenov, D. Banaś, H. Beyer, C. Brandau, S. Fritzsche, A. Gumberidze, S. Hagmann, P.-M. Hillenbrand, H. Jörg, I. Kojouharov, Ch. Kozhuharov, M. Lestinsky, Yu. A. Litvinov, A. V. Maiorova, H. Schaffner, V. M. Shabaev, U. Spillmann, T. Stöhlker, A. Surzhykov, and S. Trotsenko
Observation of Coherence in the Time-Reversed Relativistic Photoelectric Effect
Phys. Rev. Lett., 113 :113001 (September 2014)
The photoelectric effect has been studied in the regime of hard x rays and strong Coulomb fields via its time-reversed process of radiative recombination (RR). In the experiment, the relativistic electrons recombined into the 2p3/2 excited state of hydrogenlike uranium ions, and both the RR x rays and the subsequently emitted characteristic x rays were detected in coincidence. This allowed us to observe the coherence between the magnetic substates in a highly charged ion and to identify the contribution of the spin-orbit interaction to the RR process.
M. Lochmann, R. Jöhren, C. Geppert, Z. Andelkovic, D. Anielski, B. Botermann, M. Bussmann, A. Dax, N. Frömmgen, M. Hammen, V. Hannen, T. Kühl, Y. Litvinov, R. Lopez-Coto, T. Stöhlker, R. Thompson, J. Vollbrecht, A. Volotka, C. Weinheimer, W. Wen, E. Will, D. Winters, R. Sanchez, and W. Nörtershäuser
Observation of the hyperfine transition in lithium-like bismuth 209Bi80+ : Towards a test of QED in strong magnetic fields
Phys. Rev. A, 90 :030501 (September 2014)
We performed a laser spectroscopic determination of the 2s hyperfine splitting (HFS) of Li-like 209Bi80+ and repeated the measurement of the 1s HFS of H-like 209Bi82+. Both ion species were subsequently stored in the Experimental Storage Ring at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung Darmstadt and cooled with an electron cooler at a velocity of ≈0.71c. Pulsed laser excitation of the M1 hyperfine transition was performed in anticollinear and collinear geometry for Bi82+ and Bi80+, respectively, and observed by fluorescence detection. We obtain ΔE(1s)=5086.3(11)meV for Bi82+, different from the literature value, and ΔE(2s)=797.50(18)meV for Bi80+. These values provide experimental evidence that a specific difference between the two splitting energies can be used to test QED calculations in the strongest static magnetic fields available in the laboratory independent of nuclear structure effects. The experimental result is in excellent agreement with the theoretical prediction and confirms the sum of the Dirac term and the relativistic interelectronic-interaction correction at a level of 0.5%, confirming the importance of accounting for the Breit interaction.