Referierte Publikationen


H.-J. Otto, N. Modsching, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann
Impact of photodarkening on the mode instability threshold
Opt. Express, 23 :15265 (June 2015)
The threshold-like onset of mode instabilities is currently the main limitation for the scaling of the average output power of fiber laser systems with diffraction limited beam quality. In this contribution, the impact of a wavelength shift of the seed signal on the mode instability threshold has been investigated. Against expectations, it is experimentally shown that the highest mode instabilities threshold is reached around 1030 nm and not for the smallest wavelength separation between pump and signal. This finding implies that the quantum defect is not the only source of thermal heating in the fiber. Systematic experiments and simulations have helped in identifying photodarkening as the most likely second heat source in the fiber. It is shown that even a negligible photodarkening-induced power loss can lead to a decrease of the mode instabilities threshold by a factor of two. Consequently, reduction of photodarkening is a promising way to mitigate mode instabilities.
J. Vollbrecht, Z. Andelkovic, A. Dax, W. Geithner, C. Geppert, C. Gorges, M. Hammen, V. Hannen, S. Kaufmann, K. König, Y. Litvinov, M. Lochmann, B. Maass, J. Meisner, T. Murboeck, W. Nörtershäuser, R. Sanchez, S. Schmidt, M. Schmidt, M. Steck, T. Stöhlker, R. C. Thompson, J. Ullmann, and C. Weinheimer
Laser spectroscopy of the ground-state hyperfine structure in H-like and Li-like bismuth
J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., 583 :012002 (June 2015)
The LIBELLE experiment performed at the experimental storage ring (ESR) at the GSI Helmholtz Center in Darmstadt aims for the determination of the ground state hyperfine (HFS) transitions and lifetimes in hydrogen-like ( 209 Bi82+ ) and lithium-like ( 209 Bi 0+ ) bismuth. The study of HFS transitions in highly charged ions enables precision tests of QED in extreme electric and magnetic fields otherwise not attainable in laboratory experiments. While the HFS transition in H-like bismuth was already observed in earlier experiments at the ESR, the LIBELLE experiment succeeded for the first time to measure the HFS transition in Li-like bismuth in a laser spectroscopy experiment.
M. Gebhardt, C. Gaida, S. Hädrich, F. Stutzki, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann
Nonlinear compression of an ultrashort-pulse thulium-based fiber laser to sub-70  fs in Kagome photonic crystal fiber
Opt. Lett., 40 :2770 (June 2015)
Nonlinear pulse compression of ultrashort pulses is an established method for reducing the pulse duration and increasing the pulse peak power beyond the intrinsic limits of a given laser architecture. In this proof-of-principle experiment, we demonstrate nonlinear compression of the pulses emitted by a high-repetition-rate thulium-based fiber CPA system. The initial pulse duration of about 400 fs has been shortened to <70  fs with 19.7 μJ of pulse energy, which corresponds to about 200 MW of pulse peak power.
A. N. Artemyev, and A. Surzhykov
Quantum Electrodynamical Corrections to Energy Levels of Diatomic Quasimolecules
Phys. Rev. Lett., 114 :243004 (June 2015)
We elaborate an ab initio approach for the evaluation of the one-loop quantum electrodynamical corrections to energy levels of diatomic quasimolecules. The approach accounts for the interaction between an electron and two nuclei in all orders in Zα and can be applied for a wide range of internuclear distances, up to R≈1000  fm. Based on the developed theory, detailed calculations are performed for the self-energy and vacuum-polarization corrections to the energy of the 1σg ground state of the U92+–U91+ dimer that can be produced in slow ion-ion collisions. The calculations predict the remarkable energy shift that arises due to the nonspherical contributions to the electron-nuclei potential taken beyond the standard monopole approximation.
J. Braun, S. Finkbeiner, F. Karbstein, and D. Roscher
Search for inhomogeneous phases in fermionic models
Phys. Rev. D, 91 :116006 (June 2015)
We revisit the Gross-Neveu model with N fermion flavors in 1+1 dimensions and compute its phase diagram at finite temperature and chemical potential in the large-N limit. To this end, we double the number of fermion degrees of freedom in a specific way which allows us to detect inhomogeneous phases in an efficient manner. We show analytically that this “fermion doubling trick” predicts correctly the position of the boundary between the chirally symmetric phase and the phase with broken chiral symmetry. Most importantly, we find that the emergence of an inhomogeneous ground state is predicted correctly. We critically analyze our approach based on this trick and discuss its applicability to other theories, such as fermionic models in higher dimensions, where it may be used to guide the search for inhomogeneous phases.
F. Wagner, S. Bedacht, V. Bagnoud, O. Deppert, S. Geschwind, R. Jaeger, A. Ortner, A. Tebartz, B. Zielbauer, D. H. H. Hoffmann, and M. Roth
Simultaneous observation of angularly separated laser-driven proton beams accelerated via two different mechanisms
Phys. Plasmas, 22 :063110 (June 2015)
We present experimental data showing an angular separation of laser accelerated proton beams. Using flat plastic targets with thicknesses ranging from 200 nm to 1200 nm, a laser intensity of 6×10²⁰ W cm⁻² incident with an angle of 10°, we observe accelerated protons in target normal direction with cutoff energies around 30 MeV independent from the target thickness. For the best match of laser and target conditions, an additional proton signature is detected along the laser axis with a maximum energy of 65 MeV. These different beams can be attributed to two acceleration mechanisms acting simultaneously, i.e., target normal sheath acceleration and acceleration based on relativistic transparency, e.g., laser breakout afterburner, respectively.
F. Karbstein, and R. Shaisultanov
Stimulated photon emission from the vacuum
Phys. Rev. D, 91 :113002 (June 2015)
We study the effect of stimulated photon emission from the vacuum in strong space-time-dependent electromagnetic fields. We emphasize the viewpoint that the vacuum subjected to macroscopic electromagnetic fields with at least one nonzero electromagnetic field invariant, as, e.g., attainable by superimposing two laser beams, can represent a source term for outgoing photons. We believe that this view is particularly intuitive and allows for a straightforward and intuitive study of optical signatures of quantum vacuum nonlinearity in realistic experiments involving the collision of high-intensity laser pulses, and exemplify this view for the vacuum subjected to a strong standing electromagnetic wave as generated in the focal spot of two counterpropagating, linearly polarized, high-intensity laser pulses. Focusing on a comparably simple electromagnetic field profile, which should nevertheless capture the essential features of the electromagnetic fields generated in the focal spots of real high-intensity laser beams, we provide estimates for emission characteristics and the numbers of emitted photons attainable with present and near future high-intensity laser facilities.
J. Ullmann, Z. Andelkovic, A. Dax, W. Geithner, C. Geppert, C. Gorges, M. Hammen, V. Hannen, S. Kaufmann, K. König, Y. Litvinov, M. Lochmann, B. Maass, J. Meisner, T. Murböck, R. Sanchez, M. Schmidt, S. Schmidt, M. Steck, T. Stöhlker, R. C. Thompson, J. Vollbrecht, C. Weinheimer, and W. Nörtershäuser
An improved value for the hyperfine splitting of hydrogen-like 209 Bi 82+
J. Phys. B, 48 :144022 (May 2015)
We report an improved measurement of the hyperfine splitting in hydrogen-like bismuth (209 Bi^82+) at the experimental storage ring ESR at GSI by laser spectroscopy on a coasting beam. Accuracy was improved by about an order of magnitude compared to the first observation in 1994. The most important improvement is an in situ high voltage measurement at the electron cooler (EC) platform with an accuracy at the 10 ppm level. Furthermore, the space charge effect of the EC current on the ion velocity was determined with two independent techniques that provided consistent results. The result of lambda₀=243.821(6) nm provides an important reference value for experiments testing bound-state quantum electrodynamics in the strong magnetic field regime by evaluating the specific difference between the splittings in the hydrogen-like and lithium-like ions.
H. Höppner, A. Hage, T. Tanikawa, M. Schulz, R. Riedel, U. Teubner, M. J. Prandolini, B. Faatz, and F. Tavella
An optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier for seeding high repetition rate free-electron lasers
New J. Phys., 17 :053020 (May 2015)
High repetition rate free-electron lasers (FEL), producing highly intense extreme ultraviolet and x-ray pulses, require new high power tunable femtosecond lasers for FEL seeding and FEL pump-probe experiments. A tunable, 112 W (burst mode) optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier (OPCPA) is demonstrated with center frequencies ranging from 720–900 nm, pulse energies up to 1.12 mJ and a pulse duration of 30 fs at a repetition rate of 100 kHz. Since the power scalability of this OPCPA is limited by the OPCPA-pump amplifier, we also demonstrate a 6.7–13.7 kW (burst mode) thin-disk OPCPA-pump amplifier, increasing the possible OPCPA output power to many hundreds of watts. Furthermore, third and fourth harmonic generation experiments are performed and the results are used to simulate a seeded FEL with high-gain harmonic generation.
C. Gaida, M. Kienel, M. Müller, A. Klenke, M. Gebhardt, F. Stutzki, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann
Coherent combination of two Tm-doped fiber amplifiers
Opt. Lett., 40 :2301 (May 2015)
The efficient coherent combination of two ultrafast Tm-doped fiber amplifiers in the 2-µm wavelength region is demonstrated. The performance of the combined amplifiers is compared to the output characteristics of a single amplifier being limited by the onset of detrimental nonlinear effects. Nearly transform-limited pulses with 830- fs duration, 22-µJ pulse energy, and 25-MW peak power have been achieved with a combining efficiency greater than 90%. Based on this result, it can be expected that 2-µm-ultrafast-fiber-laser systems will enter new performance realms in the near future.
M. Oppelt, M. Baumann, R. Bergmann, E. Beyreuther, K. Brüchner, J. Hartmann, L. Karsch, M. Krause, L. Laschinsky, E. Leßmann, M. Nicolai, M. Reuter, C. Richter, A. Sävert, M. Schnell, M. Schürer, J. Woithe, M. Kaluza, and J. Pawelke
Comparison study of in vivo dose response to laser-driven versus conventional electron beam
Radiat. Environ. Biophys., 54 :155 (May 2015)
The long-term goal to integrate laser-based particle accelerators into radiotherapy clinics not only requires technological development of high-intensity lasers and new techniques for beam detection and dose delivery, but also characterization of the biological consequences of this new particle beam quality, i.e. ultra-short, ultra-intense pulses. In the present work, we describe successful in vivo experiments with laser-driven electron pulses by utilization of a small tumour model on the mouse ear for the human squamous cell carcinoma model FaDu. The already established in vitro irradiation technology at the laser system JETI was further enhanced for 3D tumour irradiation in vivo in terms of beam transport, beam monitoring, dose delivery and dosimetry in order to precisely apply a prescribed dose to each tumour in full-scale radiobiological experiments. Tumour growth delay was determined after irradiation with doses of 3 and 6 Gy by laser-accelerated electrons. Reference irradiation was performed with continuous electron beams at a clinical linear accelerator in order to both validate the dedicated dosimetry employed for laser-accelerated JETI electrons and above all review the biological results. No significant difference in radiation-induced tumour growth delay was revealed for the two investigated electron beams. These data provide evidence that the ultra-high dose rate generated by laser acceleration does not impact the biological effectiveness of the particles.
Z. Wu, Y. Zhang, Y. Fu, A. Surzhykov, S. Fritzsche, and C. Dong
Dielectronic recombination rate coefficients of initially rubidium-like tungsten
Eur. Phys. J. D, 69 :140 (May 2015)
Ab initio calculations of dielectronic recombination (DR) rate coefficients of initially rubidium-like W³⁷⁺ ions have been performed for the electron temperatures from 1 eV to 5×10⁴ eV, by using the Flexible Atomic Code based on the relativistic configuration-interaction method. Special attention has been paid to the partial contributions to total DR rate coefficients as associated with the excitation of individual subshells. A detailed comparison of the calculations shows that the excitation from 4p subshell dominates total DR rate coefficients followed by the excitations from 4s and 4d subshells, while the contribution of excitations from 3l(l=s, p, d) subshells becomes important only at high temperatures. Besides, it is found that the electron excitations associated with Δ n=0,1 dominate at low-temperature plasmas, however, the excitations associated with Δ n≥2 become non-negligible at high-temperature ones.
A. Otto, D. Seipt, D. Blaschke, S. A. Smolyansky, and B. Kämpfer
Dynamical Schwinger process in a bifrequent electric field of finite duration: Survey on amplification
Phys. Rev. D, 91 :105018 (May 2015)
The electron-positron pair production due to the dynamical Schwinger process in a slowly oscillating strong electric field is enhanced by the superposition of a rapidly oscillating weaker electric field. A systematic account of the enhancement by the resulting bifrequent field is provided for the residual phase space distribution. The enhancement is explained by a severe reduction of the suppression in both the tunneling and multiphoton regimes.
J. Bierbach, M. Yeung, E. Eckner, C. Roedel, S. Kuschel, M. Zepf, and G.G. Paulus
Long-term operation of surface high-harmonic generation from relativistic oscillating mirrors using a spooling tape
Opt. Express, 23 :12321 (May 2015)
Surface high-harmonic generation in the relativistic regime is demonstrated as a source of extreme ultra-violet (XUV) pulses with extended operation time. Relativistic high-harmonic generation is driven by a frequency-doubled high-power Ti:Sapphire laser focused to a peak intensity of 3·10^19 W/cm2 onto spooling tapes. We demonstrate continuous operation over up to one hour runtime at a repetition rate of 1 Hz. Harmonic spectra ranging from 20 eV to 70 eV (62 nm to 18 nm) were consecutively recorded by an XUV spectrometer. An average XUV pulse energy in the µJ range is measured. With the presented setup, relativistic surface high-harmonic generation becomes a powerful source of coherent XUV pulses that might enable applications in, e.g. attosecond laser physics and the seeding of free-electron lasers, when the laser issues causing 80-% pulse energy fluctuations are overcome.
B. S. Gao, M. A. Najafi, D. R. Atanasov, K. Blaum, F. Bosch, C. Brandau, X. C. Chen, I. Dillmann, C. Dimopoulou, T. Faestermann, H. Geissel, R. Gernhäuser, P.-M. Hillenbrand, O. Kovalenko, C. Kozhuharov, S. A. Litvinov, Y. A. Litvinov, L. Maier, F. Nolden, J. Piotrowski, M. S. Sanjari, C. Scheidenberger, U. Spillmann, M. Steck, T. Stöhlker, C. Trageser, X. L. Tu, H. Weick, N. Winckler, H. S. Xu, T. Yamaguchi, X. L. Yan, Y. H. Zhang, and X. H. Zhou
Radioactive decays of highly-charged ions
EPJ Web Conf., 93 :05003 (May 2015)
Access to stored and cooled highly-charged radionuclides offers unprecedented opportunities to perform high-precision investigations of their decays. Since the few-electron ions, e.g. hydrogen- or helium-like ions, are quantum mechanical systems with clear electronic ground state configurations, the decay studies of such ions are performed under well-defined conditions and allow for addressing fundamental aspects of the decay process. Presented here is a compact review of the relevant experiments conducted at the Experimental Storage Ring ESR of GSI. A particular emphasis is given to the investigations of the two-body beta decay, namely the bound-state β-decay and its time-mirrored counterpart, orbital electron-capture.
A. Surzhykov, V. A. Yerokhin, T. Stöhlker, and S. Fritzsche
Rayleigh x-ray scattering from many-electron atoms and ions
J. Phys. B, 48 :144015 (May 2015)
A theoretical analysis is presented for the elastic Rayleigh scattering of x-rays by many-electron atoms and ions. Special emphasis is placed on the angular distribution and linear polarization of the scattered photons for the case when the incident light is completely (linearly) polarized. Based on second-order perturbation theory and the independent particle approximation, we found that the Rayleigh angular distribution is strongly affected by the charge state and shell structure of the target ions or atoms. This effect can be observed experimentally at modern synchrotron facilities and might provide further insight into the structure of heavy atomic systems.
Z. W. Wu, A. Surzhykov, and S. Fritzsche
Reply to “Comment on `Hyperfine-induced modifications to the angular distribution of the Kα₁ x-ray emission' ”
Phys. Rev. A, 91 :056502 (May 2015)
In a recent work, the Kα₁ (1s 2p₃/₂ ¹,³P₁,₂ → 1s² ¹S₀) x-ray emission following the radiative electron capture into initially hydrogen-like ions has been explored for ions with nonzero nuclear spin (I ≠ 0). A rather strong influence upon the angular distribution of the (hyperfine- and fine-structure averaged) Kα₁ radiation was found, especially for isotopes with nuclear spin I=1/2, while this effect are less important for isotopes with nuclear spin I>1/2. Two comments were made by Inal and Benmouna about this work with regard to (i) the incoherent summation of the individual hyperfine components of the 1s2p3/2 1P1→1s21S0 transition and (ii) the treatment of the hyperfine-induced E1-M2 multipole mixing in the 1s 2p3/2 ³P₂ → 1s², ¹S₀ fine-structure component. While we agree with the first comment and here provide updated anisotropy parameters, the hyperfine-induced modification of the Kα₁ emission remains valid and may help in the future to determine the nuclear parameters of radioactive isotopes. We also explain that the hyperfine-induced E1-M2 mixing has already been fully taken into account in our previous work.
A. G. Krygier, J. T. Morrison, S. Kar, H. Ahmed, A. Alejo, R. Clarke, J. Fuchs, A. Green, D. Jung, A. Kleinschmidt, Z. Najmudin, H. Nakamura, P. Norreys, M. Notley, M. Oliver, M. Roth, L. Vassura, M. Zepf, M. Borghesi, and R. R. Freeman
Selective deuterium ion acceleration using the Vulcan petawatt laser
Phys. Plasmas, 22 :053102 (May 2015)
We report on the successful demonstration of selective acceleration of deuterium ions by target-normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) with a high-energy petawatt laser. TNSA typically produces a multi-species ion beam that originates from the intrinsic hydrocarbon and water vaporcontaminants on the target surface. Using the method first developed by Morrison et al., an ion beam with >99% deuterium ions and peak energy 14 MeV/nucleon is produced with a 200 J, 700 fs, >10²⁰ W/cm² laser pulse by cryogenically freezing heavy water (D₂O) vapor onto the rear surface of the target prior to the shot. Within the range of our detectors (0°-8.5°), we find laser-to-deuterium-ion energy conversion efficiency of 4.3% above 0.7 MeV/nucleon while a conservative estimate of the total beam gives a conversion efficiency of 9.4%.
D. Bernhardt, C. Brandau, Z. Harman, C. Kozhuharov, S. Böhm, F. Bosch, S. Fritzsche, J. Jacobi, S. Kieslich, H. Knopp, F. Nolden, W. Shi, Z. Stachura, M. Steck, T. Stöhlker, S. Schippers, and A. Müller
Spectroscopy of berylliumlike xenon ions using dielectronic recombination
J. Phys. B, 48 :144008 (May 2015)
Be-like ¹³⁶Xe⁵⁰⁺ ions have been investigated employing the resonant electron-ion collision process of dielectronic recombination (DR) as a spectroscopic tool. The experiments were performed at the experimental storage ring in Darmstadt, Germany, using its electron cooler as a target for free electrons. DR Rydberg resonance series 2s²+e⁻ \to 2s 2pj n lj for the associated intra-L-shell transitions 2s² ¹S₀ - 2s 2p₁/₂ ³P₁, 2s² ¹S₀ - 2s 2p₃/₂ ³P₂ and 2s² ¹S₀ - 2s 2p₃/₂ ¹P₁ were observed with high resolution. In addition to these excitations from the ground state we determined resonances associated with excitations 2s 2p₁/₂ ³P₀ to 2p₁/₂ 2p₃/₂ ³P₁ of ions initially in the metastable 2s 2p₁/₂ ³P₀ state. The corresponding excitation energies were determined to be E(¹S₀ \to ³P₁)=127.269(46) eV, E(¹S₀ \to ³P₂)=469.474(81) eV and E(¹S₀ to ¹P₁)=532.801(16) eV and E(³P₀ to 2p₁/₂ 2p₃/₂ ³P₁)=533.733(22) eV. These excitation energies are compared with previous measurements and with recent state-of-the-art atomic structure calculations.
S. Schippers, A. Borovik Jr., T. Buhr, J. Hellhund, K. Holste, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, S. Klumpp, M. Martins, A. Müller, S. Ricz, and S. Fritzsche
Stepwise contraction of the n f Rydberg shells in the 3d photoionization of multiply-charged xenon ions
J. Phys. B, 48 :144003 (May 2015)
Triple photoionization of Xe³⁺, Xe⁴⁺ and Xe⁵⁺ ions has been studied in the energy range 670-750 eV, including the 3d ionization threshold. The photon-ion merged-beam technique was used at a synchrotron light source to measure the absolute photoionization cross sections. These cross sections exhibit a progressively larger number of sharp resonances as the ion charge state is increased. This clearly visualizes the re-ordering of the ε f continuum into a regular series of (bound) Rydberg orbitals as the ionic core becomes more attractive. The energies and strengths of the resonances are extracted from the experimental data and are further analysed by relativistic atomic-structure calculations.
D. Kraus, J. Vorberger, J. Helfrich, D. O. Gericke, B. Bachmann, V. Bagnoud, B. Barbrel, A. Blazevic, D. C. Carroll, W. Cayzac, T. Döppner, L. B. Fletcher, A. Frank, S. Frydrych, E. J. Gamboa, M. Gauthier, S. Göde, E. Granados, G. Gregori, N. J. Hartley, B. Kettle, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, P. Neumayer, M. M. Notley, A. Ortner, A. Otten, A. Ravasio, D. Riley, F. Roth, G. Schaumann, D. Schumacher, W. Schumaker, K. Siegenthaler, C. Spindloe, F. Wagner, K. Wünsch, S. H. Glenzer, M. Roth, and R. W. Falcone
The complex ion structure of warm dense carbon measured by spectrally resolved x-ray scattering
Phys. Plasmas, 22 :056307 (May 2015)
We present measurements of the complex ion structure of warm dense carbon close to the melting line at pressures around 100 GPa. High-pressure samples were created by laser-driven shock compression of graphite and probed by intense laser-generated x-ray sources with photon energies of 4.75 keV and 4.95 keV. High-efficiency crystal spectrometers allow for spectrally resolving the scattered radiation. Comparing the ratio of elastically and inelastically scattered radiation, we find evidence for a complex bonded liquid that is predicted by ab-initio quantum simulations showing the influence of chemical bonds under these conditions. Using graphite samples of different initial densities we demonstrate the capability of spectrally resolved x-ray scattering to monitor the carbon solid-liquid transition at relatively constant pressure of 150 GPa. Showing first single-pulse scattering spectra from cold graphite of unprecedented quality recorded at the Linac Coherent Light Source, we demonstrate the outstanding possibilities for future high-precision measurements at 4th Generation Light Sources.
K. Heeg, J. Haber, D. Schumacher, L. Bocklage, H.-C. Wille, K. Schulze, R. Loetzsch, I. Uschmann, G. Paulus, R. Rüffer, R. Röhlsberger, and J. Evers
Tunable Subluminal Propagation of Narrow-band X-Ray Pulses
Phys. Rev. Lett., 114 :203601 (May 2015)
Group velocity control is demonstrated for x-ray photons of 14.4 keV energy via a direct measurement of the temporal delay imposed on spectrally narrow x-ray pulses. Subluminal light propagation is achieved by inducing a steep positive linear dispersion in the optical response of Fe57 Mössbauer nuclei embedded in a thin film planar x-ray cavity. The direct detection of the temporal pulse delay is enabled by generating frequency-tunable spectrally narrow x-ray pulses from broadband pulsed synchrotron radiation. Our theoretical model is in good agreement with the experimental data.
J. Bieron, C. F. Fischer, S. Fritzsche, G. Gaigalas, I. P. Grant, P. Indelicato, P. Jönsson, and P. Pyykkö
Ab initio MCDHF calculations of electron–nucleus interactions
Phys. Scripta, 90 :054011 (April 2015)
We present recent advances in the development of atomic ab initio multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock theory, implemented in the GRASP relativistic atomic structure code. For neutral atoms, the deviations of properties calculated within the Dirac-Hartree-Fock (DHF) method (based on independent particle model of an atomic cloud) are usually dominated by electron correlation effects, i.e. the non-central interactions of individual electrons. We present the recent advances in accurate calculations of electron correlation effects in small, medium, and heavy neutral atoms. We describe methods of systematic development of multiconfiguration expansions leading to systematic, controlled improvement of the accuracy of the ab initio calculations. These methods originate from the concept of the complete active space (CAS) model within the DHF theory, which, at least in principle, permits fully relativistic calculations with full account of electron correlation effects. The calculations within the CAS model on currently available computer systems are feasible only for very light systems. For heavier atoms or ions with more than a few electrons, restrictions have to be imposed on the multiconfiguration expansions. We present methods and tools, which are designed to extend the numerical calculations in a controlled manner, where multiconfiguration expansions account for all leading electron correlation effects. We show examples of applications of the GRASP code to calculations of hyperfine structure constants, but the code may be used for calculations of arbitrary bound-state atomic properties. In recent years it has been applied to calculations of atomic and ionic spectra (transition energies and rates), to determinations of nuclear electromagnetic moments, as well as to calculations related to interactions of bound electrons with nuclear electromagnetic moments leading to violations of discrete symmetries.
H. Bernhardt, C. Katzer, A. Undisz, M. Drüe, M. Rettenmayr, I. Uschmann, and F. Schmidl
Characterization of self-organized crystalline Au nanoparticles embedded in epitaxially grown SrTiO₃
J. Mater. Res., 30 :973 (April 2015)
Crystalline Au nanoparticles embedded in epitaxially grown SrTiO₃ layers were prepared by an annealing and coating procedure of Au seed layers on SrTiO₃ (STO) substrates. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy measurements were performed to investigate the size, shape, and deformation of the particles and their crystal orientation. The shape and size of the crystalline Au nanoparticles can be tuned by controlling the Au seed layer thickness and single crystalline elliptically shaped Au nanoparticles have been generated. Furthermore, the orientation of the surrounding SrTiO₃ matrix changes significantly from homoepitaxially grown (001) to secondary (111) and (011) orientations for Au seed layers that are thicker than 4 nm. This is of great interest for modifying the electrical properties of SrTiO₃ layers, whereas the anisotropically shaped crystalline particles are relevant for optical applications, due to localized surface plasmon resonances.
S. Hädrich, M. Krebs, A. Hoffmann, A. Klenke, J. Rothhardt, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann
Exploring new avenues in high repetition rate table-top coherent extreme ultraviolet sources
Light Sci. Appl., 4 :e320 (April 2015)
The process of high harmonic generation (HHG) enables the development of table-top sources of coherent extreme ultraviolet (XUV) light. Although these are now matured sources, they still mostly rely on bulk laser technology that limits the attainable repetition rate to the low kilohertz regime. Moreover, many of the emerging applications of such light sources (e.g., photoelectron spectroscopy and microscopy, coherent diffractive imaging, or frequency metrology in the XUV spectral region) require an increase in the repetition rate. Ideally, these sources are operated with a multi-MHz repetition rate and deliver a high photon flux simultaneously. So far, this regime has been solely addressed using passive enhancement cavities together with low energy and high repetition rate lasers. Here, a novel route with significantly reduced complexity (omitting the requirement of an external actively stabilized resonator) is demonstrated that achieves the previously mentioned demanding parameters. A krypton-filled Kagome photonic crystal fiber is used for efficient nonlinear compression of 9 mJ, 250 fs pulses leading to ,7 mJ, 31 fs pulses at 10.7 MHz repetition rate. The compressed pulses are used for HHG in a gas jet. Particular attention is devoted to achieving phase-matched (transiently) generation yielding .10^13 photons s-1 (.50 mW) at 27.7 eV. This new spatially coherent XUV source improved the photon flux by four orders of magnitude for direct multi-MHZ experiments, thus demonstrating the considerable potential of this source.