Referierte Publikationen

2019

T. P. Butler, D. Gerz, C. Hofer, J. Xu, C. Gaida, T. Heuermann, M. Gebhardt, L. Vamos, W. Schweinberger, J. A. Gessner, T. Siefke, M. Heusinger, U. Zeitner, A. Apolonski, N. Karpowicz, J. Limpert, F. Krausz, and I. Pupeza
Watt-scale 50-MHz source of single-cycle waveform-stable pulses in the molecular fingerprint region
Opt. Lett., 44 :1730 (April 2019)
Abstract:
We report a coherent mid-infrared (MIR) source with a combination of broad spectral coverage (6—18 µm), high repetition rate (50 MHz), and high average power (0.5 W). The waveform-stable pulses emerge via intrapulse difference-frequency generation (IPDFG) in a GaSe crystal, driven by a 30-W-average-power train of 32-fs pulses spectrally centered at 2 µm, delivered by a fiber-laser system. Electro-optic sampling (EOS) of the waveform-stable MIR waveforms reveals their single-cycle nature, confirming the excellent phase matching both of IPDFG and of EOS with 2-µm pulses in GaSe.
J. Glorius, C. Langer, Z. Slavkovská, L. Bott, C. Brandau, B. Brückner, K. Blaum, X. Chen, S. Dababneh, T. Davinson, P. Erbacher, S. Fiebiger, T. Gassner, K. Göbel, M. Groothuis, A. Gumberidze, G. Gyürky, M. Heil, R. Hess, R. Hensch, P. Hillmann, P.-M. Hillenbrand, O. Hinrichs, B. Jurado, T. Kausch, A. Khodaparast, T. Kisselbach, N. Klapper, C. Kozhuharov, D. Kurtulgil, G. Lane, C. Lederer-Woods, M. Lestinsky, S. Litvinov, Yu. A. Litvinov, B. Löher, F. Nolden, N. Petridis, U. Popp, T. Rauscher, M. Reed, R. Reifarth, M. S. Sanjari, D. Savran, H. Simon, U. Spillmann, M. Steck, T. Stöhlker, J. Stumm, A. Surzhykov, T. Szücs, T. T. Nguyen, A. Taremi Zadeh, B. Thomas, S. Yu. Torilov, H. Törnqvist, M. Träger, C. Trageser, S. Trotsenko, L. Varga, M. Volknandt, H. Weick, M. Weigand, C. Wolf, P. J. Woods, and Y. M. Xing
Approaching the Gamow Window with Stored Ions: Direct Measurement of ¹²⁴Xe(p,γ) in the ESR Storage Ring
Phys. Rev. Lett., 122 :092701 (March 2019)
Abstract:
We report the first measurement of low-energy proton-capture cross sections of 124Xe in a heavy-ion storage ring. 124Xe^54+ ions of five different beam energies between 5.5 and 8 AMeV were stored to collide with a windowless hydrogen target. The 125Cs reaction products were directly detected. The interaction energies are located on the high energy tail of the Gamow window for hot, explosive scenarios such as supernovae and x-ray binaries. The results serve as an important test of predicted astrophysical reaction rates in this mass range. Good agreement in the prediction of the astrophysically important proton width at low energy is found, with only a 30% difference between measurement and theory. Larger deviations are found above the neutron emission threshold, where also neutron and γ widths significantly impact the cross sections. The newly established experimental method is a very powerful tool to investigate nuclear reactions on rare ion beams at low center-of-mass energies.
A. Gumberidze, D. B. Thorn, A. Surzhykov, C. J. Fontes, B. Najjari, A. Voitkiv, S. Fritzsche, D. Banaś, H. F. Beyer, W. Chen, R. E. Grisenti, S. Hagmann, R. Hess, P.-M. Hillenbrand, P. Indelicato, C. Kozhuharov, M. Lestinsky, R. Märtin, N. Petridis, R. V. Popov, R. Schuch, U. Spillmann, S. Tashenov, S. Trotsenko, A. Warczak, G. Weber, W. Wen, D. F. A. Winters, N. Winters, Z. Yin, and T. Stöhlker
Electron- and proton-impact excitation of heliumlike uranium in relativistic collisions
Phys. Rev. A, 99 :032706 (March 2019)
Abstract:
We have studied the K-shell excitation of He-like uranium (U90+) in relativistic collisions with hydrogen and argon atoms. Performing measurements with different targets, as well as with different collision energies, enabled us to explore the proton- (nucleus-) impact excitation as well as the electron-impact excitation process for the heaviest He-like ion. The large fine-structure splitting in uranium allowed us to partially resolve excitation into different L-shell levels. State-of-the-art relativistic calculations which include excitation mechanisms due to the interaction with both protons (nucleus) and electrons are in good agreement with the experimental findings. Moreover, our experimental data clearly demonstrate the importance of including the generalized Breit interaction in the treatment of the electron-impact excitation process.
N. J. Hartley, S. Brown, T. E. Cowan, E. Cunningham, T. Döppner, R. W. Falcone, L. B. Fletcher, S. Frydrych, E. Galtier, E. J. Gamboa, A. L. Garcia, D. O. Gericke, S. H. Glenzer, E. Granados, P. A. Heimann, H. J. Lee, M. J. MacDonald, A. J. MacKinnon, E. E. McBride, I. Nam, P. Neumayer, A. Pak, A. Pelka, I. Prencipe, A. Ravasio, M. Rödel, K. Rohatsch, A. M. Saunders, M. Schölmerich, M. Schörner, A. K. Schuster, P. Sun, T. v. Driel, J. Vorberger, and D. Kraus
Evidence for Crystalline Structure in Dynamically-Compressed Polyethylene up to 200 GPa
Sci. Rep., 9 :4196 (March 2019)
Abstract:
We investigated the high-pressure behavior of polyethylene (CH2) by probing dynamically-compressed samples with X-ray diffraction. At pressures up to 200 GPa, comparable to those present inside icy giant planets (Uranus, Neptune), shock-compressed polyethylene retains a polymer crystal structure, from which we infer the presence of significant covalent bonding. The A2/m structure which we observe has previously been seen at significantly lower pressures, and the equation of state measured agrees with our findings. This result appears to contrast with recent data from shock-compressed polystyrene (CH) at higher temperatures, which demonstrated demixing and recrystallization into a diamond lattice, implying the breaking of the original chemical bonds. As such chemical processes have significant implications for the structure and energy transfer within ice giants, our results highlight the need for a deeper understanding of the chemistry of high pressure hydrocarbons, and the importance of better constraining planetary temperature profiles.
K. Kovacs, B. Major, E. Balogh, C. Koros, S. P. Rudawaski, C. M. Heyl, P. Johnsson, C. L. Arnold, A. L. Hullier, V. Tosa, and K. Varju
Multi-parameter optimization of a loose focusing high flux high-harmonic beamline
J. Phys. B, 52 :055402 (March 2019)
Abstract:
We perform a multi-dimensional parameter scan in the generation of high-order harmonics, with the main purpose to find the macroscopic conditions that optimize the harmonic yield in a specific spectral domain, around 40 eV for this particular case. The scanned parameters are the laser pulse energy, gas pressure, interaction cell position relative to focus and the cell length, while the fixed parameters are chosen to model a loose focusing configuration which is used in many existing laboratories. We performed the simulations with a 3D non-adiabatic model complemented by a detailed analysis of the phase matching mechanisms involved in an efficient harmonic generation. Based on the results we identify a range of parameter combinations that lead to a high yield in the specified spectral domain The method and results presented here can be the framework for the design and construction of high flux high-order harmonic generation beamlines.
J. Deprince, M. A. Bautista, S. Fritzsche, J. A. García, T. R. Kallman, C. Mendoza, P. Palmeri, and P. Quinet
Plasma environment effects on K lines of astrophysical interest - I. Atomic structure, radiative rates, and Auger widths of oxygen ions
A&A, 624 :A74 (March 2019)
Abstract:
Aims. In the context of black-hole accretion disks, the main goal of the present study is to estimate the plasma environment effects on the atomic structure and radiative parameters associated with the K-vacancy states in ions of the oxygen isonuclear sequence. Methods. We used a time-averaged Debye–Hückel potential for both the electron–nucleus and the electron–electron interactions implemented in the fully relativistic multiconfiguration Dirac–Fock (MCDF) method. Results. Modified ionization potentials, K thresholds, Auger widths, and radiative transition wavelengths and rates are reported for O I–O VII in plasma environments with electron temperature and density ranges 105−107 K and 1018−1022 cm−3.
L. Antonelli, F. Barbato, D. Mancelli, J. Trela, G. Zeraouli, G. Boutoux, P. Neumayer, S. Atzeni, A. Schiavi, L. Volpe, V. Bagnoud, C. Brabetz, B. Zielbauer, P. Bradford, N. Woolsey, B. Borm, and D. Batani
X-ray phase-contrast imaging for laser-induced shock waves
Europhys. Lett., 125 :35002 (March 2019)
Abstract:
X-ray phase-contrast imaging (XPCI) is a versatile technique with applications in many fields, including fundamental physics, biology and medicine. Where X-ray absorption radiography requires high density ratios for effective imaging, the image contrast for XPCI is a function of the density gradient. In this letter, we apply XPCI to the study of laser-driven shock waves. Our experiment was conducted at the Petawatt High-Energy Laser for Heavy Ion EXperiments (PHELIX) at GSI. Two laser beams were used: one to launch a shock wave and the other to generate an X-ray source for phase-contrast imaging. Our results suggest that this technique is suitable for the study of warm dense matter (WDM), inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and laboratory astrophysics.
F. Maes, C. Stihler, L.-P. Pleau, V. Fortin, J. Limpert, M. Bernier, and R. Vallée
3.42 µm lasing in heavily-erbium-doped fluoride fibers
Opt. Express, 27 :2170 (February 2019)
Abstract:
In this paper, we investigate laser emission at 3.4μm in heavily-erbium-doped fluoride fibers using dual-wavelength pumping. To this extent, a monolithic 7 mol% erbium-doped fluoride fiber laser bounded by intracore fiber Bragg gratings at 3.42 μm is used to demonstrate a record efficiency of 38.6 % with respect to the 1976 nm pump. Through numerical modeling, we show that similar laser performances at 3.4 μm can be expected in fluoride fibers with erbium concentrations ranging between 1 – 7 mol%, although power scaling should rely on lightly-doped fibers to mitigate the heat load. Moreover, this work studies transverse mode-beating of the 1976 nm core pump and its role in the generation of a periodic luminescent grating and in the trapping of excitation in the metastable energy levels of the erbium system. Finally, we also report on the bistability of the 3.42 μm output power of the 7 mol% erbium-doped fluoride fiber laser.
M. Wünsche, S. Fuchs, T. Weber, J. Nathanael, J. Abel, J. Reinhard, F. Wiesner, U. Hübner, S. Skruszewicz, G. Paulus, and C. Rödel
A high resolution extreme ultraviolet spectrometer system optimized for harmonic spectroscopy and XUV beam analysis
Rev. Sci. Instrum., 90 :023108 (February 2019)
Abstract:
We present a modular extreme ultraviolet (XUV) spectrometer system optimized for a broad spectral range of 12-41 nm (30-99 eV) with a high spectral resolution of lambda/Delta lambda greater than or similar to 784 +/- 89. The spectrometer system has several operation modes for (1) XUV beam inspection, (2) angular spectral analysis, and (3) imaging spectroscopy. These options allow for a versatile use in high harmonic spectroscopy and XUV beam analysis. The high performance of the spectrometer is demonstrated using a novel cross-sectional imaging method called XUV coherence tomography.
H. Gies, R. Sondenheimer, A. Ugolotti, and L. Zambelli
Asymptotic freedom in Z2-Yukawa-QCD models
Eur. Phys. J. C, 79 :101 (February 2019)
Abstract:
Z2-Yukawa-QCD models are a minimalistic model class with a Yukawa and a QCD-like gauge sector that exhibits a regime with asymptotic freedom in all its marginal couplings in standard perturbation theory. We discover the existence of further asymptotically free trajectories for these models by exploiting generalized boundary conditions. We construct such trajectories as quasi-fixed points for the Higgs potential within different approximation schemes. We substantiate our findings first in an effective-field-theory approach, and obtain a comprehensive picture using the functional renormalization group. We infer the existence of scaling solutions also by means of a weak-Yukawa-coupling expansion in the ultraviolet. In the same regime, we discuss the stability of the quasi-fixed point solutions for large field amplitudes. We provide further evidence for such asymptotically free theories by numerical studies using pseudo-spectral and shooting methods.
Y. S. You, J. Lu, E. F. Cunningham, C. Rödel, and S. Ghimire
Crystal orientation-dependent polarization state of high-order harmonics
Opt. Lett., 44 :530 (February 2019)
Abstract:
We analyze the crystal orientation-dependent polarization state of extreme ultraviolet high-order harmonics from bulk magnesium oxide crystals subjected to intense linearly polarized laser fields. We find that only along high-symmetry directions do high-order harmonics follow the polarization direction of the laser field. In general, there are strong deviations that depend on harmonic order, strength of the laser field, and crystal orientation. We use a real-space electron trajectory picture to understand the origin of polarization deviations. These results have implications in all-optical probing of electronic band structure in momentum space and valence charge distributions in real space, and in producing attosecond pulses with time-dependent polarization in compact setups.
B. Baghdasaryan, B. Böning, W. Paufler, and S. Fritzsche
Dichroism in two-color above-threshold ionization with twisted XUV beams and intense infrared laser fields
Phys. Rev. A, 99 :023403 (February 2019)
Abstract:
We theoretically investigate the two-color above-threshold ionization of atoms and ions by twisted XUV Bessel and Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beams in the presence of a strong circularly polarized near-infrared (NIR) laser field. The presence of the NIR field modifies the continuum states accessible to the photoelectron. Based on the strong-field approximation, we explore the resulting energy and angular distributions of photoelectron as a function of the beam parameters. In particular, we analyze dichroism signals that arise due to the twisted nature of the XUV beam and the helicity of the NIR field. We focus on the comparison between LG beams and Bessel beams in the paraxial approximation. Here, we find that both beams yield similar results when the paraxial regime is valid. For localized targets, the dichroism signals strongly depend on the size and position of the atoms relative to the beam axis. Moreover, the dichroism signal tends to zero when the XUV LG beam is linear polarized. Detailed computations of the dichroism are performed and discussed for the 4s valence-shell photoionization of Ca⁺ ions.
B. Borm, D. Khaghani, and P. Neumayer
Properties of laser-driven hard x-ray sources over a wide range of laser intensities
Phys. Plasmas, 26 :023109 (February 2019)
Abstract:
We present measurements of the hard x-ray emission from targets irradiated at relativistic laser intensities, with the objective of comprehensively characterizing source properties relevant to x-ray radiography backlighting in high energy density experiments. Thin gold foil and tungsten wire targets were irradiated at peak laser intensities varying between 10¹⁸ and 10²¹ W/cm², with laser pulse energies >100 J. We have measured the absolute x-ray yield in the spectral range between 20 and 200 keV, angularly resolved over a large range of emission angles with respect to the incident laser. In addition, we have determined the x-ray source sizes for the two target types in the direction both along and across the target. The results are compared with the predictions of a simple model for the hot electron propagation, x-ray generation, collisional stopping, and expansion cooling. Based on this model, our measurements allow extraction of the laser to hot electron conversion over the wide range of intensities covered by our experiment.
A. Steinkopff, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, J. Nold, C. Hupel, N. Haarlammert, J. Bierlich, A. Tünnermann, and J. Limpert
Transverse single-mode operation in a passive large pitch fiber with more than 200  µm mode-field diameter
Opt. Lett., 44 :650 (February 2019)
Abstract:
In this Letter, we present, to the best of our knowledge, the largest effective single-mode fiber reported to date. The employed waveguide is a passive large pitch fiber (LPF), which shows the core area scaling potential of such a fiber structure. In particular, we achieved stable single-transverse mode transmission at a wavelength of 1.03 µm through a straight passive LPF with a pitch of 140 µm, resulting in a measured mode-field diameter of 205 µm.
G. Tadesse, W. Eschen, R. Klas, M. Tschernajew, T. Frederik, M. Steinert, M. Zilk, V. Schuster, M. Zürch, T. Pertsch, C. Spielmann, J. Limpert, and J. Rothhardt
Wavelength-scale ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging using a high-order harmonic source
Sci. Rep., 9 :1735 (February 2019)
Abstract:
Ptychography enables coherent diffractive imaging (CDI) of extended samples by raster scanning across the illuminating XUV/X-ray beam, thereby generalizing the unique advantages of CDI techniques. Table- top realizations of this method are urgently needed for many applications in sciences and industry. Previously, it was only possible to image features much larger than the illuminating wavelength with table-top ptychography although knife-edge tests suggested sub-wavelength resolution. However, most real-world imaging applications require resolving of the smallest and closely-spaced features of a sample in an extended field of view. In this work, resolving features as small as 2.5 łambda (45 nm) using a table-top ptychography setup is demonstrated by employing a high-order harmonic XUV source with record-high photon flux. For the first time, a Rayleigh-type criterion is used as a direct and unambiguous resolution metric for high-resolution table-top setup. This reliably qualifies this imaging system for real-world applications e.g. in biological sciences, material sciences, imaging integrated circuits and semiconductor mask inspection.
S. Panahiyan, S. Hendi, and N. Riazi
AdS4 dyonic black holes in gravity's rainbow
Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. B, 938 :388 (January 2019)
Abstract:
In this paper, we investigate thermodynamical structure of dyonic black holes in the presence of gravity's rainbow. We confirm that for super magnetized and highly pressurized scenarios, the number of black holes' phases is reduced to a single phase. In addition, due to specific coupling of rainbow functions, it is possible to track the effects of temporal and spatial parts of our setup on thermodynamical quantities/behaviors including equilibrium point, existence of multiple phases, possible phase transitions and conditions for having a uniform stable structure.
M. Durante, P. Indelicato, B. Jonson, V. Koch, K. Langanke, U.-G. Meißner, E. Nappi, T. Nilsson, T. Stöhlker, E. Widmann, and M. Wiescher
All the fun of the FAIR: fundamental physics at the facility for antiproton and ion research
Phys. Scripta, 94 :033001 (January 2019)
Abstract:
The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) will be the accelerator-based flagship research facility in many basic sciences and their applications in Europe for the coming decades. FAIR will open up unprecedented research opportunities in hadron and nuclear physics, in atomic physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as in applied sciences like materials research, plasma physics and radiation biophysics with applications towards novel medical treatments and space science. FAIR is currently under construction as an international facility at the campus of the GSI Helmholtzzentrum for Heavy-Ion Research in Darmstadt, Germany. While the full science potential of FAIR can only be harvested once the new suite of accelerators and storage rings is completed and operational, some of the experimental detectors and instrumentation are already available and will be used starting in summer 2018 in a dedicated research program at GSI, exploiting also the significantly upgraded GSI accelerator chain. The current manuscript summarizes how FAIR will advance our knowledge in various research fields ranging from a deeper understanding of the fundamental interactions and symmetries in nature to a better understanding of the evolution of the Universe and the objects within.
A. Blinne, H. Gies, F. Karbstein, C. Kohlfürst, and M. Zepf
All-optical signatures of quantum vacuum nonlinearities in generic laser fields
Phys. Rev. D, 99 :016006 (January 2019)
Abstract:
All-optical experiments at the high-intensity frontier offer a promising route to unprecedented precision tests of quantum electrodynamics in strong macroscopic electromagnetic fields. So far, most theoretical studies of all-optical signatures of quantum vacuum nonlinearity are based on simplifying approximations of the beam profiles and pulse shapes of the driving laser fields. Since precision tests require accurate quantitative theoretical predictions, we introduce an efficient numerical tool facilitating the quantitative theoretical study of all-optical signatures of quantum vacuum nonlinearity in generic laser fields. Our approach is based on the vacuum emission picture, and makes use of the fact that the dynamics of the driving laser fields are to an excellent approximation governed by classical Maxwell theory in vacuum. In combination with a Maxwell solver, which self-consistently propagates any given laser field configuration, this allows for accurate theoretical predictions of photonic signatures of vacuum nonlinearity in high-intensity laser experiments from first principles. We employ our method to simulate photonic signatures of quantum vacuum nonlinearity in laser pulse collisions involving a few-cycle pulse, and show that the angular and spectral distributions of the emitted signal photons deviate from those of the driving laser beams.
N. A. Tahir, A. Shutov, A. R. Piriz, P. Neumayer, I. V. Lomonosov, V. Bagnoud, and S. A. Piriz
Application of intense ion beams to planetary physics research at the Facility for Antiprotons and Ion Research facility
Contrib. Plasm. Phys., 59 :e2018001 (January 2019)
Abstract:
This paper presents detailed 2D hydrodynamic simulations of implosion of a multi‐layered cylindrical target that is driven by an intense uranium beam. The target is comprised of a thick, high‐Z, high‐ρ cylindrical shell that encloses a sample material (Fe in the present case). Two options have been used for the focal spot geometry: an annular form and a circular form. The purpose of this work is to show that an intense heavy‐ion beam can induce the extreme physical conditions in the sample material similar to those that exist in the planetary cores. In this study, we use parameters of the beam that will be generated at the Facility for Antiprotons and Ion Research (FAIR), Darmstadt, in a few years' time. Production of these high‐energy‐density (HED) samples will allow us to study planetary physics in the laboratory. It is to be noted that planetary physics research is an important part of the FAIR HED physics program. A dedicated experiment named LAboratory PLAnetary Sciences (LAPLAS) has been proposed for this purpose. These simulations show that in such experiments an Fe sample can be imploded to the Earth's core conditions and to those in more massive rocky planets called Super‐Earths. Similarly, implosion of hydrogen and water samples will generate the core conditions of solar and extrasolar hydrogen‐rich gas giants and water‐rich icy planets, respectively. The LAPLAS experiments will thus provide very valuable information on the equation of state and transport properties of matter under extreme physical conditions, which will help scientists understand the structure and evolution of the planets in our solar system as well as of the extrasolar planets.
L. Schmidl, G. Schmidl, A. Gawlik, J. Dellith, U. Hübner, V. Tympel, F. Schmidl, J. Plentz, C. Geis, and H. Haselmann
Combining super-resolution microscopy with neuronal network recording using magnesium fluoride thin films as cover layer for multi-electrode array technology
Sci. Rep., 9 :16110 ( 2019)
Abstract:
We present an approach for fabrication of reproducible, chemically and mechanically robust functionalized layers based on MgF₂ thin films on thin glass substrates. These show great advantages for use in super-resolution microscopy as well as for multi-electrode-array fabrication and are especially suited for combination of these techniques. The transparency of the coated substrates with the low refractive index material is adjustable by the layer thickness and can be increased above 92%. Due to the hydrophobic and lipophilic properties of the thin crystalline MgF₂ layers, the temporal stable adhesion needed for fixation of thin tissue, e.g. cryogenic brain slices is given. This has been tested using localization-based super-resolution microscopy with currently highest spatial resolution in light microscopy. We demonstrated that direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy revealed in reliable imaging of structures of central synapses by use of double immunostaining of post- (homer1 and GluA2) and presynaptic (bassoon) marker structure in a 10 µm brain slice without additional fixing of the slices. Due to the proven additional electrical insulating effect of MgF2 layers, surfaces of multi-electrode-arrays were coated with this material and tested by voltage-current-measurements. MgF₂ coated multi-electrode-arrays can be used as a functionalized microscope cover slip for combination with live-cell super-resolution microscopy.
S. Salman, Y. Ma, K. Gürel, S. Schilt, C. Li, P. Pfäfflein, C. Mahnke, J. Fellinger, S. Droste, A. Mayer, O. Heckl, T. Südmeyer, C. Heyl, and I. Hartl
Comparison of two low-noise CEP stabilization methods for an environmentally stable Yb: fiber oscillator
Advanced Solid State Lasers ( 2019)
DOI
V. Zakosarenko, M. Schmelz, T. Schönau, S. Anders, J. Kunert, V. Tympel, R. Neubert, F. Schmidl, P. Seidel, T. Stöhlker, D. Haider, M. Schwickert, T. Sieber, and R. Stolz
Coreless SQUID-based cryogenic current comparator for non-destructive intensity diagnostics of charged particle beams
Supercond. Sci. Technol., 32 :014002 (January 2019)
Abstract:
We report on a novel concept and prototype development of a coreless SQUID-based charged-particle beam monitor as a non-destructive diagnostic tool for accelerator facilities. Omitting the typically used pickup coil with a high magnetic permeability core leads to a significant improvement in low-frequency noise performance. Moreover, a revised shielding geometry allows for very compact and rather lightweight device designs. Based on highly sensitive SQUIDs featuring sub-micron cross-type Josephson tunnel junctions, our prototype device exhibits a current sensitivity of about 6 pA Hz(-1/2) in the white noise region. Together with a measured shielding factor of about 135 dB this opens up the way for its widespread use in modern accelerator facilities.
A. Blinne, S. Kuschel, S. Tietze, and M. Zepf
Efficient retrieval of phase information from real-valued electromagnetic field data
J. Comput. Phys. X, 1 :100019 (January 2019)
Abstract:
While analytic calculations may give access to complex-valued electromagnetic field data which allow trivial access to envelope and phase information, the majority of numeric codes uses a real-valued representation. This typically increases the performance and reduces the memory footprint, albeit at a price: In the real-valued case it is much more difficult to extract envelope and phase information, even more so if counter propagating waves are spatially superposed. A novel method for the analysis of real-valued electromagnetic field data is presented in this paper. We show that, by combining the real-valued electric and magnetic field at a single point in time, we can directly reconstruct the full information of the electromagnetic fields in the form of complex-valued spectral coefficients (k→-space) at a low computational cost of only three Fourier transforms. The method allows for counter propagating plane waves to be accurately distinguished as well as their complex spectral coefficients, i.e. spectral amplitudes and spectral phase to be calculated. From these amplitudes, the complex-valued electromagnetic fields and also the complex-valued vector potential can be calculated from which information about spatiotemporal phase and amplitude is readily available. Additionally, the complex fields allow for efficient vacuum propagation allowing to calculate far field data or boundary input data from near field data. An implementation of the new method is available as part of PostPic1, a data analysis toolkit written in the Python programming language.
B. Panah, S. Panahiyan, and S. Hendi
Entropy spectrum of charged BTZ black holes in massive gravity's rainbow
Progr. Theor. Exp. Phys., 2019 :013E02 (January 2019)
Abstract:
Regarding the significant interests in massive gravity and combining it with gravity's rainbow and also BTZ black holes, we apply the formalism introduced by Jiang and Han in order to investigate the quantization of the entropy of black holes. We show that the entropy of BTZ black holes in massive gravity's rainbow is quantized with equally spaced spectra and it depends on the black holes' properties including massive parameters, electrical charge, the cosmological constant, and also rainbow functions. In addition, we show that quantization of the entropy results in the appearance of novel properties for this quantity, such as the existence of divergences, non-zero entropy in a vanishing horizon radius, and the possibility of tracing out the effects of the black holes' properties. Such properties are absent in the non-quantized version of the black hole entropy. Furthermore, we investigate the effects of quantization on the thermodynamical behavior of the solutions. We confirm that due to quantization, novel phase transition points are introduced and stable solutions are limited to only de Sitter black holes (anti-de Sitter and asymptotically flat solutions are unstable).
D. Jahn, D. Schumacher, C. Brabetz, F. Kroll, F. E. Brack, J. Ding, R. Leonhardt, I. Semmler, A. Blazevic, U. Schramm, and M. Roth
Focusing of multi-MeV, subnanosecond proton bunches from a laser-driven source
Phys. Rev. Accel. Beams, 22 :011301 (January 2019)
Abstract:
We report on our latest transverse focusing results of subnanosecond proton bunches achieved with a laser-driven multi-MeV ion beamline. In the frame of the LIGHT collaboration, a target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) source based 6 m long beamline was installed. In the past years, the laser-driven proton beam was transported and shaped by this beamline. The particle beam is collimated with a pulsed high-field solenoid and rotated in longitudinal phase space with a radio-frequency cavity which leads to an energy compression with an energy spread of (2.7 +/- 1.7)% (Delta E/E-0 at FWHM) or a time compression to the subnanosecond regime. Highest peak intensities in the subnanosecond regime open up an interesting field for several applications, e.g., proton imaging, as injectors in conventional accelerators or precise stopping power measurements in a plasma. We report on achieving highest peak intensities using an installed second solenoid as a final focusing system in our beamline to achieve small focal spot sizes. We measured a focal spot size of 1.1 x 1.2 mm leading to 5.8 x 10(19) protons per s cm(2) at a central energy bin of (9.55 +/- 0.25) MeV, which can be combined with a bunch duration below 500 ps at FWHM.