Referierte Publikationen


I. Tamer, S. Keppler, J. Körner, M. Hornung, M. Hellwing, F. Schorcht, J. Hein, and M. Kaluza
Modeling of the 3D spatio-temporal thermal profile of joule-class Yb³⁺-based laser amplifiers
HPLaser, 7 :E42 (July 2019)
Thermal profile modification of an active material in a laser amplifier via optical pumping results in a change in the material’s refractive index, and causes thermal expansion and stress, eventually leading to spatial phase aberrations, or even permanent material damage. For this purpose, knowledge of the 3D spatio-temporal thermal profile, which can currently only be retrieved via numerical simulations, is critical for joule-class laser amplifiers to reveal potentially dangerous thermal features within the pumped active materials. In this investigation, a detailed, spatio-temporal numerical simulation was constructed and tested for accuracy against surface thermal measurements of various end-pumped Yb³⁺-doped laser-active materials. The measurements and simulations show an excellent agreement and the model was successfully applied to a joule-class Yb³⁺-based amplifier currently operating in the POLARIS laser system at the Friedrich-Schiller-University and Helmholtz-Institute Jena in Germany.
D. Wu, W. Yu, Y. T. Zhao, D. H. H. Hoffmann, S. Fritzsche, and X. T. He
Particle-in-cell simulation of transport and energy deposition of intense proton beams in solid-state materials
Phys. Rev. E, 100 :013208 (July 2019)
A particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation code is used to investigate the transport and energy deposition of an intense proton beam in solid-state material. This code is able to simulate close particle interactions by using a Monte Carlo binary collision model. Such a model takes into account all related interactions between the incident protons and material particles, e.g., proton-nucleus, proton–bound-electron, and proton–free-electron collisions. This code also includes a Monte Carlo model for the collisional ionization and electron-ion recombination as well as the depression of the ionization potential by shielding of surrounding particles. Moreover, for intense proton beams, in order to include collective electromagnetic effects, significantly speed up the simulation, and simultaneously avoid numerical instabilities, an approach that combines the PIC method with a reduced model of high-density plasma based on Ohm's law is used. Simulation results indicate that the collective electromagnetic effects have a significant influence on the transport and energy deposition of proton beams. The Ohmic electric field would increase the stopping power and leads to a shortened range of proton beams in solid. The magnetic field would localize the energy deposition by collimating proton beams, which would otherwise be deflected by the collisions with nuclei.
S. Kumar, W. Quint, S. Ringleb, C. P. Safvan, N. Stallkamp, T. Stöhlker, and M. Vogel
Properties of a cylindrical Penning trap with conical endcap openings
Phys. Scripta, 94 :075401 (July 2019)
We describe the results of analytical calculations and numerical simulations of the confinement properties of a mechanically compensated cylindrical Penning trap which has conical endcap openings for large-solid-angle access for example with highly focused laser beams. While the analytical calculations show that under the common geometrical conditions the harmonicity of the confining fields near the centre of the trap does not change when a conical shape of the endcap electrodes is introduced, numerical simulations show significant changes when the opening angle of the cone exceeds a certain critical angle. We also show that these sharp features are due to the fringe-field effects above the critical angle, which are not described by the analytical calculations. These effects are also observed in a cylindrical Penning trap when the length of the endcap electrodes is reduced below a certain critical value.
A. V. Volotka, M. Bilal, R. Beerwerth, X. Ma, T. Stöhlker, and S. Fritzsche
QED radiative corrections to the ²P₁/₂-²P₃/₂ fine structure in fluorinelike ions
Phys. Rev. A, 100 :010502 (July 2019)
calculations of QED radiative corrections to the 2P1/2 - 2P3/2 fine-structure transition energy are performed for selected F-like ions. These calculations are nonperturbative in αZ and include all first-order and many-electron second-order effects in α. When compared to approximate QED computations, a notable discrepancy is found especially for F-like uranium for which the predicted self-energy contributions even differ in sign. Moreover, all deviations between theory and experiment for the 2P1/2 - 2P3/2 fine-structure energies of F-like ions, reported recently by Li et al., Phys. Rev. A 98, 020502(R) (2018), are resolved if their highly accurate, non-QED fine-structure values are combined with the QED corrections ab initially evaluated here.
S. Creutzburg, E. Schmidt, P. Kutza, R. Loetzsch, I. Uschmann, A. Undisz, M. Rettenmayr, F. Gala, G. Zollo, A. Boulle, A. Debelle, and E. Wendler
Defects and mechanical properties in weakly damaged Si ion implanted GaAs
Phys. Rev. B, 99 :245205 (June 2019)
Damage formation is investigated in GaAs implanted with 1 MeV Si ions to ion fluences from 3 x 10(12) to 5 x 10(15) cm(-2) at room temperature. Under the conditions applied, amorphization of the implanted layers does not occur. The weakly damaged layers are studied by applying different experimental techniques including Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in channeling configuration, x-ray diffraction, in situ curvature measurement, optical subgap spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The results are evaluated and quantitatively connected with each other. Damage formation is described as a function of the ion fluence using a common defect evolution model. Point defects and defect clusters have to be taken into account in the ion fluence range of main interest up to 2 x 10(15) cm(-2). Point defects contribute by a factor of about 8 more to both perpendicular strain and in-plane stress than defect clusters. When the concentration of point defects or the induced strain reaches a critical value, defect clusters form, which ensures that no further increase of perpendicular strain occurs. This reveals a clear driving force for cluster formation. The microstructure of the defect clusters cannot be determined from the results. As3Ga2 interstitial clusters are supposed. A remarkable decrease of the shear modulus of the implanted layers below the value of pristine GaAs by approximate to -35% is observed. Surprisingly, the change of shear modulus already sets in at a very low damage level of a few percent.
A. Bondarev, Y. Kozhedub, I. Tupitsyn, V. Shabaev, G. Plunien, and T. Stöhlker
Differential cross sections for ionization of atomic hydrogen by antiprotons
Hyperfine Interact., 240 :60 (June 2019)
We consider ionization of atomic hydrogen by antiproton impact. Doubly differential cross sections for ionization calculated within a recently developed semiclassical approach by Bondarev et al. (Phys. Rev. A 95, 052709, 2017) are presented. Comparison of the obtained results with other theoretical predictions is given.
D. Wu, W. Yu, S. Fritzsche, C. Y. Zheng, and X. T. He
Formation of relativistic electromagnetic solitons in over-dense plasmas
Phys. Plasmas, 26 :063107 (June 2019)
We report the formation of electromagnetic solitons in over-dense plasmas in the relativistic transparency regime. By using one-dimensional and two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, the formation and basic properties of these long-lived relativistic electromagnetic solitons are studied. The predicted mechanism of soliton formation is different from the existing investigations. The latter ones are found to exist in the wake of the high-intensity laser pulse during the interaction with a low density plasma, and such solitons are made of low-frequency, spatially localized electromagnetic fields. While for the former ones, frequency of solitons formed in the relativistic transparency regime is comparable to incident laser frequency. Moreover, a threshold of plasma density under which stable solitons can be formed is analyzed. These newly predicted solitons are expected to be observed in the present-day laser-plasma experiments.
I. Arapoglou, A. Egl, M. Höcker, T. Sailer, B. Tu, A. Weigel, R. Wolf, H. Cakir, V. A. Yerokhin, N. S. Oreshkina, V. A. Agababaev, A. V. Volotka, D. V. Zinenko, D. A. Glazov, Z. Harman, C. H. Keitel, S. Sturm, and K. Blaum
g Factor of Boronlike Argon ⁴⁰Ar¹³⁺
Phys. Rev. Lett., 122 :253001 (June 2019)
We have measured the ground-state g factor of boronlike argon 40Ar13+ with a fractional uncertainty of 1.4×10−9 with a single ion in the newly developed Alphatrap double Penning-trap setup. The value of g=0.663 648 455 32(93) obtained here is in agreement with our theoretical prediction of 0.663 648 12(58). The latter is obtained accounting for quantum electrodynamics, electron correlation, and nuclear effects within the state-of-the-art theoretical methods. Our experimental result distinguishes between existing predictions that are in disagreement, and lays the foundations for an independent determination of the fine-structure constant.
W. Placzek, A. Abramov, S. Alden, R. Alemany Fernandez, P. Antsiferov, A. Apyan, H. Bartosik, E. Bessonov, N. Biancacci, J. Bieron, A. Bogacz, A. Bosco, R. Bruce, D. Budker, K. Cassou, F. Castelli, I. Chaikovska, C. Curatolo, P. Czodrowski, A. Derevianko, K. Dupraz, Y. Dutheil, K. Dzierzcega, V. Fedosseev, N. Fuster Martinez, S. Gibson, B. Goddard, A. Gorzawski, S. Hirlander, J. Jowett, R. Kersevan, M. Kowalska, M. Krasny, F. Kroeger, M. Lamont, T. Lefevre, D. Manglunki, B. Marsh, A. Martens, J. Molson, D. Nutarelli, L. Nevay, A. Petrenko, V. Petrillo, S. Radaelli, S. Pustelny, S. Rochester, M. Sapinski, M. Schaumann, L. Serafini, V. Shevelko, T. Stoehlker, A. Surzhikov, I. Tolstikhina, F. Velotti, G. Weber, Y. Wu, C. Yin-Vallgren, M. Zanetti, F. Zimmermann, M. Zolotorev, and F. Zomer
Gamma Factory at CERN - Novel Research Tools Made of Light
Acta Phys. Polon., 50 :1191 (June 2019)
We discuss the possibility of creating novel research tools by producing and storing highly relativistic beams of highly ionised atoms in the CERN accelerator complex, and by exciting their atomic degrees of freedom with lasers to produce high-energy photon beams. Intensity of such photon beams would be by several orders of magnitude higher than offered by the presently operating light sources, in the particularly interesting gamma-ray energy domain of 0.1-400 MeV. In this energy range, the high-intensity photon beams can be used to produce secondary beams of polarised electrons, polarised positrons, polarised muons, neutrinos, neutrons and radioactive ions. New research opportunities in a wide domain of fundamental and applied physics can be opened by the Gamma Factory scientific programme based on the above primary and secondary beams.
D. A. Glazov, A. V. Volotka, O. V. Andreev, V. P. Kosheleva, S. Fritzsche, V. M. Shabaev, G. Plunien, and T. Stöhlker
Ground-state hyperfine splitting of B-like ions in the high-Z region
Phys. Rev. A, 99 :062503 (June 2019)
The hyperfine splitting of the ground state of selected B-like ions within the range of nuclear charge numbers Z=49–83 is investigated in detail. The rigorous QED approach together with the large-scale configuration-interaction Dirac-Fock-Sturm method are employed for the evaluation of the interelectronic-interaction contributions of first and higher orders in 1/Z. The screened QED corrections are evaluated to all orders in αZ by using an effective potential. The influence of nuclear magnetization distribution is taken into account within the single-particle nuclear model.
M. Bilal, A. V. Volotka, R. Beerwerth, J. Rothhardt, V. Hilbert, and S. Fritzsche
High-precision calculations of the 1s²2s2p ¹P₁->1s²2s² ¹S₀ spin-allowed E1 transition in C iii
Phys. Rev. A, 99 :062511 (June 2019)
Large-scale relativistic calculations are performed for the transition energy and line strength of the 1s22s2p 1P1− 1s22s2 1S0 transition in Be-like carbon. Based on the multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock~(MCDHF) approach, different correlation models are developed to account for all major electron-electron correlation contributions. These correlation models are tested with various sets of the initial and the final state wave functions. The uncertainty of the predicted line strength due to missing correlation effects is estimated from the differences between the results obtained with those models. The finite nuclear mass effect is accurately calculated taking into account the energy, wave functions as well as operator contributions. As a result, a reliable theoretical benchmark of the E1 line strength is provided to support high precision lifetime measurement of the 1s22s2p 1P1 state in Be-like carbon.
L. Dabelow, H. Gies, and B. Knorr
Momentum dependence of quantum critical Dirac systems
Phys. Rev. D, 99 :125019 (June 2019)
We analyze fermionic criticality in relativistic 2 + 1 dimensional fermion systems using the functional renormalization group (FRG), concentrating on the Gross-Neveu (chiral Ising) and the Thirring model. While a variety of methods, including the FRG, appear to reach quantitative consensus for the critical regime of the Gross-Neveu model, the situation seems more diverse for the Thirring model with different methods yielding vastly different results. We present a first exploratory FRG study of such fermion systems including momentum-dependent couplings using pseudo-spectral methods. Our results corroborate the stability of results in Gross-Neveu-type universality classes, but indicate that momentum dependencies become more important in Thirring-type models for small flavor numbers. For larger flavor numbers, we confirm the existence of a non-Gaussian fixed point and thus a physical continuum limit. In the large-N limit, we obtain an analytic solution for the momentum dependence of the fixed-point vertex.
P. Gierschke, C. Jauregui, T. Gottschall, and J. Limpert
Relative amplitude noise transfer function of an Yb3+-doped fiber amplifier chain
Opt. Express, 27 :17041 (June 2019)
In this work we measure the frequency dependent transfer function of the amplitude noise for both the seed and pump power in an Yb3+-doped fiber amplifier chain. In particular, the relative intensity noise transfer function of this amplifier chain in the frequency range of 10 Hz – 100 kHz has been investigated. It is shown that the pump power noise of the pre-amplifier stages is transformed into seed power noise for the next amplification stage. Crucially, the seed power noise in the frequency range of interest is strongly damped by the main-amplifier. This, however, does not happen for the pump power noise. Thus, the noise of the pump of the last amplifier stage is the factor with the strongest impact on the overall noise level of the system. Finally, useful guidelines to minimize the output amplitude noise of an Yb3+-doped fiber amplifier chain are given.
H. Gies, R. Sondenheimer, A. Ugolotti, and L. Zambelli
Scheme dependence of asymptotically free solutions
Eur. Phys. J. C, 79 :463 (June 2019)
Recent studies have provided evidence for the existence of new asymptotically free trajectories in non-Abelian particle models without asymptotic symmetry in the high-energy limit. We extend these results to a general SU(N-L) x SU(N-c) Higgs-Yukawa model that includes the non-Abelian sector of the standard model, finding further confirmation for such scenarios for a wide class of regularizations that account for threshold behavior persisting to highest energies. We construct these asymptotically free trajectories within conventional (MS) over bar schemes and systematic weak coupling expansions. The existence of these solutions is argued to be a scheme-independent phenomenon, as demonstrated for mass-dependent schemes based on general momentum-space infrared regularizations. A change of scheme induces a map of the theory's coupling space onto itself, which in the present case also translates into a reparametrization of the space of asymptotically free solutions.
F. Karbstein
All-Loop Result for the Strong Magnetic Field Limit of the Heisenberg-Euler Effective Lagrangian
Phys. Rev. Lett., 122 :211602 (May 2019)
We provide an explicit expression for the strong magnetic field limit of the Heisenberg-Euler effective Lagrangian for both scalar and spinor quantum electrodynamics. To this end, we show that the strong magnetic field behavior is fully determined by one-particle reducible contributions discovered only recently. The latter can efficiently be constructed in an essentially algebraic procedure from lower-order one-particle reducible diagrams. Remarkably, the leading strong magnetic field behavior of the all-loop Heisenberg-Euler effective Lagrangian only requires input from the one-loop Lagrangian. Our result revises previous findings based exclusively on one-particle irreducible contributions. In addition, we briefly discuss the strong electric field limit and comment on external field QED in the large N limit.
A. E. Barzakh, J. G. Cubiss, A. N. Andreyev, M. D. Seliverstov, B. Andel, S. Antalic, P. Ascher, D. Atanasov, D. Beck, J. Bieron, K. Blaum, Ch. Borgmann, M. Breitenfeldt, L. Capponi, T. E. Cocolios, T. Day Goodacre, X. Derkx, H. De Witte, J. Elseviers, D. V. Fedorov, V. N. Fedosseev, S. Fritzsche, L. P. Gaffney, S. George, L. Ghys, F. P. Heßberger, M. Huyse, N. Imai, Z. Kalaninová, D. Kisler, U. Köster, M. Kowalska, S. Kreim, J. F. W. Lane, V. Liberati, D. Lunney, K. M. Lynch, V. Manea, B. A. Marsh, S. Mitsuoka, P. L. Molkanov, Y. Nagame, D. Neidherr, K. Nishio, S. Ota, D. Pauwels, L. Popescu, D. Radulov, E. Rapisarda, J. P. Revill, M. Rosenbusch, R. E. Rossel, S. Rothe, K. Sandhu, L. Schweikhard, S. Sels, V. L. Truesdale, C. Van Beveren, P. Van den Bergh, P. Van Duppen, Y. Wakabayashi, K. D. A. Wendt, F. Wienholtz, B. W. Whitmore, G. L. Wilson, R. N. Wolf, and K. Zuber
Inverse odd-even staggering in nuclear charge radii and possible octupole collectivity in ²¹⁷,²¹⁸,²¹⁹At revealed by in-source laser spectroscopy
Phys. Rev. C, 99 :054317 (May 2019)
Hyperfine-structure parameters and isotope shifts for the 795-nm atomic transitions in 217, 218, 219At have been measured at CERN-ISOLDE, using the in-source resonance-ionization spectroscopy technique. Magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments, and changes in the nuclear mean-square charge radii, have been deduced. A large inverse odd-even staggering in radii, which may be associated with the presence of octupole collectivity, has been observed. Namely, the radius of the odd-odd isotope 218At has been found to be larger than the average of its even-N neighbors, 217, 219At. The discrepancy between the additivity-rule prediction and experimental data for the magnetic moment of 218At also supports the possible presence of octupole collectivity in the considered nuclei.
B. Böning, W. Paufler, and S. Fritzsche
Nondipole strong-field approximation for spatially structured laser fields
Phys. Rev. A, 99 :053404 (May 2019)
The strong-field approximation (SFA) is widely used to theoretically describe the ionization of atoms and molecules in intense laser fields. We here propose an extension of the SFA to incorporate nondipole contributions in the interaction between the photoelectron and the driving laser field. To this end, we derive Volkov-type continuum wave functions of an electron propagating in a laser field of arbitrary spatial dependence. Based on previous work by L. Rosenberg and F. Zhou [Phys. Rev. A 47, 2146 (1993)], we show how to construct such Volkov-type solutions to the Schrödinger equation for an electron in a vector potential that can be written as an integral superposition of plane waves. These solutions are therefore not restricted to plane waves but are also appropriate to deal with more complex laser fields like twisted Bessel or Laguerre-Gaussian beams, where the magnetic field plays an important role. As an example, we compute photoelectron spectra in the above-threshold ionization of atoms with a single-mode plane-wave laser field of midinfrared wavelength. Especially, we demonstrate how peak offsets in the p_z direction can be extracted that result from the nondipole nature of the interaction. Here, we find good agreement with previous theoretical and experimental studies for circular polarization and discuss differences for linear polarization.
D. Seipt, V. Kharin, and S. Rykovanov
Optimizing Laser Pulses for Narrow-Band Inverse Compton Sources in the High-Intensity Regime
Phys. Rev. Lett., 122 :204802 (May 2019)
Scattering of ultraintense short laser pulses off relativistic electrons allows one to generate a large number of X- or gamma-ray photons with the expense of the spectral width—-temporal pulsing of the laser inevitable leads to considerable spectral broadening. In this Letter, we describe a simple method to generate optimized laser pulses that compensate the nonlinear spectrum broadening and can be thought of as a superposition of two oppositely linearly chirped pulses delayed with respect to each other. We develop a simple analytical model that allows us to predict the optimal parameters of such a two-pulse—-the delay, amount of chirp, and relative phase—-for generation of a narrow-band $\gamma$-ray spectrum. Our predictions are confirmed by numerical optimization and simulations including three-dimensional effects.
G. Torgrimsson
Perturbative methods for assisted nonperturbative pair production
Phys. Rev. D, 99 :096002 (May 2019)
In the dynamically assisted Schwinger mechanism, the pair production probability is significantly enhanced by including a weak, rapidly varying field in addition to a strong, slowly varying field. In a previous paper we showed that several features of dynamical assistance can be understood by a perturbative treatment of the weak field. Here we show how to calculate the prefactors of the higher-orders terms, which is important because the dominant contribution can come from higher orders. We give a new and independent derivation of the momentum spectrum using the worldline formalism, and extend our WKB approach to calculate the amplitude to higher orders. We show that these methods are also applicable to doubly assisted pair production.
M. Vockert, G. Weber, H. Bräuning, A. Surzhykov, C. Brandau, S. Fritzsche, S. Geyer, S. Hagmann, S. Hess, C. Kozhuharov, R. Märtin, N. Petridis, R. Hess, S. Trotsenko, Yu. A. Litvinov, J. Glorius, A. Gumberidze, M. Steck, S. Litvinov, T. Gassner, P.-M. Hillenbrand, M. Lestinsky, F. Nolden, M. S. Sanjari, U. Popp, C. Trageser, D. F. A. Winters, U. Spillmann, T. Krings, and T. Stöhlker
Radiative electron capture as a tunable source of highly linearly polarized x rays
Phys. Rev. A, 99 :052702 (May 2019)
The radiative electron capture (REC) into the K shell of bare Xe ions colliding with a hydrogen gas target has been investigated. In this study, the degree of linear polarization of the K-REC radiation was measured and compared with rigorous relativistic calculations as well as with the previous results recorded for U92+. Owing to the improved detector technology, a significant gain in precision of the present polarization measurement is achieved compared to the previously published results. The obtained data confirms that for medium-Z ions such as Xe, the REC process is a source of highly polarized x rays which can easily be tuned with respect to the degree of linear polarization and the photon energy. We argue, in particular, that for relatively low energies the photons emitted under large angles are almost fully linear polarized.
Z. Samsonova, S. Höfer, V. Kaymak, S. Ališauskas, V. Shumakova, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuska, T. Siefke, S. Kroker, A. Pukhov, O. Rosmej, I. Uschmann, C. Spielmann, and D. Kartashov
Relativistic Interaction of Long-Wavelength Ultrashort Laser Pulses with Nanowires
Phys. Rev. X, 9 :021029 (May 2019)
We report on experimental results in a new regime of relativistic light-matter interaction employing midinfrared (3.9-mu m wavelength) high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses. In the laser-generated plasma, electrons reach relativistic energies already for rather low intensities due to the fortunate lambda(2) scaling of the kinetic energy with the laser wavelength. The lower intensity efficiently suppresses optical field ionization and creation of the preplasma at the rising edge of the laser pulse, enabling an enhanced efficient vacuum heating of the plasma. The lower critical plasma density for long-wavelength radiation can be surmounted by using nanowires instead of flat targets. Numerical simulations, which are in a good agreement with experimental results, suggest that approximate to 80% of the incident laser energy has been absorbed resulting in a long-living, key-temperature, high-charge-state plasma with a density more than 3 orders of magnitude above the critical value. Our results pave the way to laser-driven experiments on laboratory astrophysics and nuclear physics at a high repetition rate.
R. Hollinger, D. Gupta, M. Zapf, R. Röder, D. Kartashov, C. Ronning, and C. Spielmann
Single nanowire defined emission properties of ZnO nanowire arrays
J. Phys. D, 52 :295101 (May 2019)
We report on stimulated emission from vertically aligned, vapor transport grown, ZnO nanowire arrays, and pumped by three-photon absorption in intense near-infrared femtosecond laser pulses. In respect to single nanowires, arrays have the advantage of a higher light absorption and emission rate. The intensity and bandwidth of the emitted ultraviolet radiation as a function of the pump intensity is compared for nanowire arrays with different wire lengths, diameters, and spacing. The measured lasing thresholds for all arrays can be well described by the geometry of individual nanowire lasers, showing that coupling effects between the individual emitters in the arrays are negligible, even for the smallest 100 nm diameter wires with an average distance of 200 nm.
C. Kohlfürst
Spin states in multiphoton pair production for circularly polarized light
Phys. Rev. D, 99 :096017 (May 2019)
Scalar and fermionic particle pair production in rotating electric fields is investigated in the nonperturbative multiphoton regime. Angular momentum distribution functions in above-threshold pair production processes are calculated numerically within quantum kinetic theory and discussed on the basis of a photon absorption model. The particle spectra can be understood if the spin states of the particle-antiparticle pair are taken into account.
R. Hollinger, P. Malevich, V. Shumakova, S. Ališauskas, M. Zapf, R. Röder, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuska, C. Ronning, C. Spielmann, and D. Kartashov
Strong Light-Field Driven Nanolasers
Nano Lett., 19 :3563 (May 2019)
Einstein established the quantum theory of radiation and paved the way for modern laser physics including single-photon absorption by charge carriers and finally pumping an active gain medium into population inversion. This can be easily understood in the particle picture of light. Using intense, ultrashort pulse lasers, multiphoton pumping of an active medium has been realized. In this nonlinear interaction regime, excitation and population inversion depend not only on the photon energy but also on the intensity of the incident pumping light, which can be still described solely by the particle picture of light. We demonstrate here that lowering significantly the pump photon energy further still enables population inversion and lasing in semiconductor nanowires. The extremely high electric field of the pump bends the bands and enables tunneling of electrons from the valence to the conduction band. In this regime, the light acts by the classical Coulomb force and population inversion is entirely due to the wave nature of electrons, thus the excitation becomes independent of the frequency but solely depends on the incident intensity of the pumping light.
J. Szerypo, W. Ma, G. Bothmann, D. Hahner, M. Haug, P. Hilz, C. Kreuzer, R. Lange, S. Seuferling, M. Speicher, F. Stehr, S. Stork, P. Thirolf, J. Schreiber, and H.-F. Wirth
Target fabrication for laser-ion acceleration research at the Technological Laboratory of the LMU Munich
Matt. Rad. Extrem., 4 :035201 (May 2019)
The Technological Laboratory of LMU Munich supplies various types of solid-state target for laser plasma experiments at the Centre for Advanced Laser Applications in Garching. Our main focus here is on the production of free-standing, thin foil targets, such as diamond-likecarbon foils, carbon nanotube foams (CNFs), plastic, and gold foils. The presented methods comprise cathodic arc deposition for DLC targets, chemical vapor deposition for CNFs, a droplet and spin-coating process for plastic foil production, as well as physical vapor deposition that has been optimized to provide ultrathin gold foils and tailored sacrifice layers. This paper reviews our current capabilities, which are a result of a close collaboration between target production processes and experiment, using high-power chirped pulse amplification laser systems over the past eight years.