Referierte Publikationen


F. Wiesner, S. Fuchs, M. Wünsche, J. Nathanael, J. Abel, J. Reinhard, S. Skruszewicz, C. Rödel, A. Gawlik, G. Schmidl, and . others
Label-free quantitative material sensitive tomography with extreme ultraviolet light
Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging ( 2019)
W. J. Ma, I. Kim, J. Q. Yu, I. Choi, P. K. Singh, H. Lee, J. Sung, S. Lee, C. Lin, Q. Liao, J. G. Zhu, H. Y. Lu, B. Liu, H. Y. Wang, R. F. Xu, X. T. He, J. E. Chen, M. Zepf, J. Schreiber, X. Q. Yan, and C. Nam
Laser Acceleration of Highly Energetic Carbon Ions Using a Double-Layer Target Composed of Slightly Underdense Plasma and Ultrathin Foil
Phys. Rev. Lett., 122 :014803 (January 2019)
We report the experimental generation of highly energetic carbon ions up to 48 MeV per nucleon by shooting double-layer targets composed of well-controlled slightly underdense plasma and ultrathin foils with ultraintense femtosecond laser pulses. Particle-in-cell simulations reveal that carbon ions are ejected from the ultrathin foils due to radiation pressure and then accelerated in an enhanced sheath field established by the superponderomotive electron flow. Such a cascaded acceleration is especially suited for heavy ion acceleration with femtosecond laser pulses. The breakthrough of heavy ion energy up to many tens of MeV/u at a high repetition rate would be able to trigger significant advances in nuclear physics, high energy density physics, and medical physics.
T. Helk, M. Zürch, and C. Spielmann
Perspective: Towards single shot time-resolved microscopy using short wavelength table-top light sources
Struct. Dyn., 6 :010902 (January 2019)
Time-resolved imaging allows revealing the interaction mechanisms in the microcosm of both inorganic and biological objects. While X-ray microscopy has proven its advantages for resolving objects beyond what can be achieved using optical microscopes, dynamic studies using full-field imaging at the nanometer scale are still in their infancy. In this perspective, we present the current state of the art techniques for full-field imaging in the extreme-ultraviolet- and soft X-ray-regime which are suitable for single exposure applications as they are paramount for studying dynamics in nanoscale systems. We evaluate the performance of currently available table-top sources, with special emphasis on applications, photon flux, and coherence. Examples for applications of single shot imaging in physics, biology, and industrial applications are discussed.
A. Wallner, M. Bichler, L. Coquard, I. Dillmann, O. Forstner, R. Golser, M. Heil, F. Käppeler, W. Kutschera, C. Lederer-Woods, M. Martschini, A. Mengoni, S. Merchel, L. Michlmayr, A. Priller, P. Steier, and M. Wiescher
Stellar and thermal neutron capture cross section of ⁹Be
Phys. Rev. C, 99 :015804 (January 2019)
The neutron capture cross section of 9Be for stellar energies was measured via the activation technique using the Karlsruhe Van de Graaff accelerator in combination with accelerator mass spectrometry at the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator. To characterize the energy region of interest for astrophysical applications, activations were performed in a quasistellar neutron spectrum of kT=25 keV and for a spectrum at En=473±53 keV. Despite the very small cross section, the method used provided the required sensitivity for obtaining fairly accurate results of 10.4±0.6 and 8.4±1.0μb, respectively. With these data it was possible to constrain the cross section shape up to the first resonances at 622 and 812 keV, thus allowing for the determination of Maxwellian-averaged cross sections at thermal energies between kT=5 and 100 keV. In addition, we report a new experimental cross section value at thermal energy of σth=8.31±0.52 mb.
S. Fuchs, M. Wünsche, J. Nathanael, J. Abel, J. Reinhard, F. Wiesner, S. Skruszewicz, C. Rödel, and G. Paulus
XUV coherence tomography with nanoscale resolution using one-dimensional phase retrieval
Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging ( 2019)


L. Obst-Huebl, T. Ziegler, F.-E. Brack, J. Branco, M. Bussmann, T. E. Cowan, C. B. Curry, F. Fiuza, M. Garten, M. Gauthier, S. Göde, S. H. Glenzer, A. Huebl, A. Irman, J. B. Kim, T. Kluge, S. D. Kraft, F. Kroll, J. Metzkes-Ng, R. Pausch, I. Prencipe, M. Rehwald, C. Rödel, H.-P. Schlenvoigt, U. Schramm, and K. Zeil
All-optical structuring of laser-driven proton beam profiles
Nat. Commun., 9 :5292 (December 2018)
Extreme field gradients intrinsic to relativistic laser-interactions with thin solid targets enable compact MeV proton accelerators with unique bunch characteristics. Yet, direct control of the proton beam profile is usually not possible. Here we present a readily applicable all-optical approach to imprint detailed spatial information from the driving laser pulse onto the proton bunch. In a series of experiments, counter-intuitively, the spatial profile of the energetic proton bunch was found to exhibit identical structures as the fraction of the laser pulse passing around a target of limited size. Such information transfer between the laser pulse and the naturally delayed proton bunch is attributed to the formation of quasi-static electric fields in the beam path by ionization of residual gas. Essentially acting as a programmable memory, these fields provide access to a higher level of proton beam manipulation.
D. Wu, W. Yu, Y. Zhao, S. Fritzsche, and X. He
Characteristics of X/γ-ray radiations by intense laser interactions with high-Z solids: The role of bremsstrahlung and radiation reactions
Matt. Rad. Extrem., 3 :293 (December 2018)
In this work, characteristics of X/γ-ray radiations by intense laser interactions with high-Z solids are investigated by means of a newly developed particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation code. The PIC code takes advantage of the recently developed ionization and collision dynamics models, which make it possible to model different types of materials based on their intrinsic atomic properties. Within the simulations, both bremsstrahlung and nonlinear Compton scatterings have been included. Different target materials and laser intensities are considered for studying the parameter-dependent features of X/γ-ray radiations. The relative strength and angular distributions of X/γ ray productions from bremsstrahlung and nonlinear Compton scatterings are compared to each other. The threshold under which the nonlinear Compton scatterings become dominant over bremsstrahlung is also outlined.
F. Karbstein, M. Wagner, and M. Weber
Determination of ΛMSbar (nf=2) and analytic parametrization of the static quark-antiquark potential
Phys. Rev. D, 98 :114506 (December 2018)
While lattice QCD allows for reliable results at small momentum transfers (large quark separations), perturbative QCD is restricted to large momentum transfers (small quark separations). The latter is determined up to a reference momentum scale Λ, which is to be provided from outside, e.g., from experiment or lattice QCD simulations. In this article, we extract ΛMSbar for QCD with nf=2 dynamical quark flavors by matching the perturbative static quark-antiquark potential in momentum space to lattice results in the intermediate momentum regime, where both approaches are expected to be applicable. In a second step, we combine the lattice and the perturbative results to provide a complete analytic parametrization of the static quark-antiquark potential in position space up to the string breaking scale. As an exemplary phenomenological application of our all-distances potential, we compute the bottomonium spectrum in the static limit.
Y.-G. Jeong, R. Piccoli, D. Ferachou, V. Cardin, M. Chini, S. Hädrich, J. Limpert, R. Morandotti, F. Légaré, B. Schmidt, and L. Razzari
Direct compression of 170-fs 50-cycle pulses down to 1.5 cycles with 70% transmission
Sci. Rep., 8 :11794 (December 2018)
We present a straightforward route for extreme pulse compression, which relies on moderately driving self-phase modulation (SPM) over an extended propagation distance. This avoids that other detrimental nonlinear mechanisms take over and deteriorate the SPM process. The long propagation is obtained by means of a hollow-core fiber (HCF), up to 6 m in length. This concept is potentially scalable to TW pulse peak powers at kW average power level. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate 33-fold pulse compression of a 1 mJ, 6 kHz, 170 fs Yb laser down to 5.1 fs (1.5 cycles at 1030 nm), by employing a single HCF and subsequent chirped mirrors with an overall transmission of 70%.
I. A. Maltsev, V. M. Shabaev, R. V. Popov, Y. S. Kozhedub, G. Plunien, X. Ma, and T. Stöhlker
Electron-positron pair production in slow collisions of heavy nuclei beyond the monopole approximation
Phys. Rev. A, 98 :062709 (December 2018)
Electron-positron pair production in low-energy collisions of heavy nuclei is considered beyond the monopole approximation. The calculation method is based on the numerical solving of the time-dependent Dirac equation with the full two-center potential. Bound-free and free-free pair-production probabilities as well as the energy spectra of the emitted positrons are calculated for the collisions of bare uranium nuclei. The calculations are performed for collision energy near the Coulomb barrier for different values of the impact parameter. The obtained results are compared with the corresponding values calculated in the monopole approximation.
K. S. Schulze
Fundamental limitations of the polarization purity of x rays
APL Phot., 3 :126106 (December 2018)
For a few years, x-ray polarimeters have been discussed and even used as a key method for the investigation of fundamental physical questions, from quantum electrodynamics to solid state physics. However, the sensitivity of optical instruments is limited. In the case of x-ray polarimeters, this limitation is connected with the polarization purity. This article quantifies two fundamental effects which lead to a limited polarization purity and, thus, to a limited sensitivity: the divergence of the source and multiple-wave diffraction inside the polarizer crystals. A comparison shows that the current best polarization purities realized in the x-ray range are limited by these effects. The quantitative knowledge of their influence, however, can improve the purity by two orders of magnitude in future polarimetric experiments.
A. H. Woldegeorgis, B. Beleites, F. Ronneberger, R. Grosse, and A. Gopal
Investigating the influence of incident laser wavelength and polarization on particle acceleration and terahertz generation
Phys. Rev. E, 98 :061201 (December 2018)
The interaction of a high-power laser pulse with a thin foil can generate energetic, broadband terahertz radiation. Here, we report an experimental investigation on the influence of incident laser polarization and wavelength on the terahertz emission and maximum proton energy from the target rear surface. For similar incident laser intensities, the characteristics of the particle beams and the terahertz radiation show a wavelength dependence. The results fit well with the established scaling laws for the terahertz yield and the maximum proton energy as a function of the incident laser irradiance.
C. Gaida, M. Gebhardt, T. Heuermann, F. Stutzki, C. Jauregui, and J. Limpert
Ultrafast thulium fiber laser system emitting more than 1  kW of average power
Opt. Lett., 43 :5853 (December 2018)
In this Letter, we report on the generation of 1060 W average power from an ultrafast thulium-doped fiber chirped pulse amplification system. After compression, the pulse energy of 13.2 μJ with a pulse duration of 265 fs at an 80 MHz pulse repetition rate results in a peak power of 50 MW spectrally centered at 1960 nm. Even though the average heat-load in the fiber core is as high as 98 W/m, we confirm the diffraction-limited beam quality of the compressed output. Furthermore, the evolution of the relative intensity noise with increasing average output power has been measured to verify the absence of transversal mode instabilities. This system represents a new average power record for thulium-doped fiber lasers (1150 W uncompressed) and ultrashort pulse fiber lasers with diffraction-limited beam quality, in general, even considering single-channel ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers.
C. M. Heyl, S. B. Schoun, G. Porat, H. Green, and J. Ye
A nozzle for high-density supersonic gas jets at elevated temperatures
Rev. Sci. Instrum., 89 :113114 (November 2018)
We present the development of a gas nozzle providing high-density gas at elevated temperaturesinside a vacuum environment. Fused silica is used as the nozzle material to allow the placement ofthe nozzle tip in close proximity to an intense, high-power laser beam, while minimizing the risk ofsputtering nozzle tip material into the vacuum chamber. Elevating the gas temperature increases thegas-jet forward velocity, allowing us to replenish the gas volume in the laser-gas interaction regionbetween consecutive laser shots. The nozzle accommodates a 50μm opening hole from which asupersonic gas jet emerges. Heater wires are used to bring the nozzle temperature up to 730 °C, whilea cooling unit ensures that the nozzle mount and the glued nozzle-to-mount connection is kept at atemperature below 50 °C. The presented nozzle design is used for high-order harmonic generationin hot gases using gas backing pressures of up to 124 bars.
K. T. Behm, J. M. Cole, A. S. Joglekar, E. Gerstmayr, J. C. Wood, C. D. Baird, T. G. Blackburn, M. Duff, C. Harvey, A. Ilderton, S. Kuschel, S. P. D. Mangles, M. Marklund, P. McKenna, C. D. Murphy, Z. Najmudin, K. Poder, C. P. Ridgers, G. Sarri, G. M. Samarin, D. Symes, J. Warwick, M. Zepf, K. Krushelnick, and A. G. R. Thomas
A spectrometer for ultrashort gamma-ray pulses with photon energies greater than 10 MeV
Rev. Sci. Instrum., 89 :113303 (November 2018)
We present a design for a pixelated scintillator based gamma-ray spectrometer for non-linear inverse Compton scattering experiments. By colliding a laser wakefield accelerated electron beam with a tightly focused, intense laser pulse, gamma-ray photons up to 100 MeV energies and with few femtosecond duration may be produced. To measure the energy spectrum and angular distribution, a 33 × 47 array of cesium-iodide crystals was oriented such that the 47 crystal length axis was parallel to the gamma-ray beam and the 33 crystal length axis was oriented in the vertical direction. Using an iterative deconvolution method similar to the YOGI code, modeling of the scintillator response using GEANT4 and fitting to a quantum Monte Carlo calculated photon spectrum, we are able to extract the gamma ray spectra generated by the inverse Compton interaction.
A. Surzhykov, V. A. Yerokhin, S. Fritzsche, and A. V. Volotka
Diagnostics of polarization purity of x rays by means of Rayleigh scattering
Phys. Rev. A, 98 :053403 (November 2018)
Synchrotron radiation is commonly known to be completely linearly polarized when observed in the orbital plane of the synchrotron motion. Under actual experimental conditions, however, the degree of polarization of the synchrotron radiation may be lower than the ideal 100%. We demonstrate that even tiny impurities of polarization of the incident radiation can drastically affect the polarization of the elastically scattered light. We propose to use this effect as a precision tool for the diagnostics of the polarization purity of the synchrotron radiation. Two variants of the diagnostics method are proposed. The first one is based on the polarization measurements of the scattered radiation and relies on theoretical calculations of the transition amplitudes. The second one involves simultaneous measurements of the polarization and the cross sections of the scattered radiation and is independent of theoretical amplitudes.
D. Jahn, D. Schumacher, C. Brabetz, J. Ding, S. Weih, F. Kroll, F. Brack, U. Schramm, A. Blazevic, and M. Roth
First application studies at the laser-driven LIGHT beamline: Improving proton beam homogeneity and imaging of a solid target
Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A, 909 :173 (November 2018)
In the last two decades, the generation of intense ion beams based on laser-driven sources has become an extensively investigated field. The LIGHT collaboration combines a laser-driven intense ion source with conventional accelerator technology based on the expertise of laser, plasma and accelerator physicists. Our collaboration has installed a laser-driven multi-MeV ion beamline at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung delivering intense proton bunches in the subnanosecond regime. We investigate possible applications for this beamline, especially in this report we focus on the imaging capabilities. We report on our proton beam homogenization and on first imaging results of a solid target.
V. A. Agababaev, D. A. Glazov, A. V. Volotka, D. V. Zinenko, V. M. Shabaev, and G. Plunien
Ground-state g factor of middle-Z boronlike ions
J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., 1138 :012003 (November 2018)
Theoretical calculations of the interelectronic-interaction and QED corrections to the g factor of the ground state of boronlike ions are presented. The first-order interelectronic-interaction and the self-energy corrections are evaluated within the rigorous QED approach in the effective screening potential. The second-order interelectronic interaction is considered within the Breit approximation. The nuclear recoil effect is also taken into account. The results for the ground-state g factor of boronlike ions in the range Z = 10-20 are presented and compared to the previous calculations.
R. Battesti, J. Beard, S. Böser, N. Bruyant, D. Budker, S. A. Crooker, E. J. Daw, V. V. Flambaum, T. Inada, I. G. Irastorza, F. Karbstein, D. L. Kim, M. G. Kozlov, Z. Melhem, A. Phipps, P. Pugnat, G. Rikken, C. Rizzo, M. Schott, Y. K. Semertzidis, H. H. t. Kate, and G. Zavattini
High magnetic fields for fundamental physics
Phys. Rep., 765-766 :1 (November 2018)
Various fundamental-physics experiments such as measurement of the magnetic birefringence of the vacuum, searches for ultralight dark-matter particles (e.g., axions), and precision spectroscopy of complex systems (including exotic atoms containing antimatter constituents) are enabled by high-field magnets. We give an overview of current and future experiments and discuss the state-of-the-art DC- and pulsed-magnet technologies and prospects for future developments.
C. Gaida, T. Heuermann, M. Gebhardt, E. Shestaev, T. P. Butler, D. Gerz, N. Lilienfein, P. Sulzer, M. Fischer, R. Holzwarth, A. Leitenstorfer, I. Pupeza, and J. Limpert
High-power frequency comb at 2  μm wavelength emitted by a Tm-doped fiber laser system
Opt. Lett., 43 :5178 (November 2018)
We report on the generation of a high-power frequency comb in the 2 μm wavelength regime featuring high amplitude and phase stability with unprecedented laser parameters, combining 60 W of average power with <30  fs pulse duration. The key components of the system are a mode-locked Er:fiber laser, a coherence-preserving nonlinear broadening stage, and a high-power Tm-doped fiber chirped-pulse amplifier with subsequent nonlinear self-compression of the pulses. Phase locking of the system resulted in a phase noise of less than 320 mrad measured within the 10 Hz–30 MHz band and 30 mrad in the band from 10 Hz to 1 MHz.
S. Kraft-Bermuth, D. Hengstler, P. Egelhof, C. Enss, A. Fleischmann, M. Keller, and T. Stöhlker
Microcalorimeters for X-Ray Spectroscopy of Highly Charged Ions at Storage Rings
Atoms, 6 :59 (November 2018)
X-ray spectroscopy of highly charged heavy ions is an important tool for the investigation of many topics in atomic physics. Such highly charged ions, in particular hydrogen-like uranium, are investigated at heavy ion storage rings, where high charge states can be produced in large quantities, stored for long times and cooled to low momentum spread of the ion beam. One prominent example is the determination of the 1s Lamb Shift in hydrogen-like heavy ions, which has been investigated at the Experimental Storage Ring (ESR) at the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research. Due to the large electron binding energies, the energies of the corresponding photon transitions are located in the X-ray regime. To determine the transition energies with high accuracy, highly resolving X-ray spectrometers are needed. One concept of such spectrometers is the concept of microcalorimeters, which, in contrast to semiconductor detectors, uses the detection of heat rather than charge to detect energy. Such detectors have been developed and successfully applied in experiments at the ESR. For experiments at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR), the Stored Particles and Atoms Collaboration (SPARC) pursues the development of new microcalorimeter concepts and larger detector arrays. Next to fundamental investigations on quantum electrodynamics such as the 1s Lamb Shift or electron–electron interactions in two- and three-electron systems, X-ray spectroscopy may be extended towards nuclear physics investigations like the determination of nuclear charge radii.
A. Woldegeorgis, T. Kurihara, M. Almassarani, B. Beleites, R. Grosse, F. Ronneberger, and A. Gopal
Multi-MV/cm longitudinally polarized terahertz pulses from laser–thin foil interaction
Optica, 5 :1474 (November 2018)
Longitudinally polarized terahertz radiation offers access to the elementary excitations and particles that cannot be addressed by transverse waves. While transverse electric fields exceeding 1 MV/cm are widely utilized for nonlinear terahertz spectroscopy, longitudinally polarized terahertz waves at this field strength are yet to be realized. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate that by focusing radially polarized terahertz fields generated from laser–thin metallic foil interaction, longitudinally polarized terahertz with record-breaking field strength above 1.5 MV/cm can be obtained. Furthermore, we also traced the evolution of the geometric phase of the longitudinal component as it propagates through focus. A novel scheme based on noncollinear electro-optic detection has been utilized to unambiguously measure the polarization states. Our result will scale up the nonlinear spectroscopy of solid materials and particle acceleration experiments where on-axis polarization plays a crucial role.
A. Bernhard, V. A. Rodríguez, S. Kuschel, M. Leier, P. Peiffer, A. Sävert, M. Schwab, W. Werner, C. Widmann, A. Will, A.-S. Müller, and M. Kaluza
Progress on experiments towards LWFA-driven transverse gradient undulator-based FELs
Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A, 909 :391 (November 2018)
Free Electron Lasers (FEL) are commonly regarded as the potential key application of laser wakefield accelerators (LWFA). It has been found that electron bunches exiting from state-of-the-art LWFAs exhibit a normalized 6-dimensional beam brightness comparable to those in conventional linear accelerators. Effectively exploiting this beneficial beam property for LWFA-based FELs is challenging due to the extreme initial conditions particularly in terms of beam divergence and energy spread. Several different approaches for capturing, reshaping and matching LWFA beams to suited undulators, such as bunch decompression or transverse-gradient undulator schemes, are currently being explored. In this article the transverse gradient undulator concept will be discussed with a focus on recent experimental achievements.
J. Ding, D. Schumacher, D. Jahn, A. Blazevic, and M. Roth
Simulation studies on generation, handling and transport of laser-accelerated carbon ions
Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A, 909 :168 (November 2018)
To this day the interaction of high-intensity lasers with matter is considered to be a possible candidate for next generation particle accelerators. Within the LIGHT collaboration crucial work for the merging of a high-intensity laser driven ion source with conventional accelerator technology has been done in the past years. The simulation studies we report about are an important step in providing short and intense mid-Z heavy ion beams for future applications.
J. Wang, W. Yu, M. Y. Yu, S. Rykovanov, J. Ju, S. Luan, K. Li, Y. Leng, R. Li, and Z.-M. Sheng
Very-long distance propagation of high-energy laser pulse in air
Phys. Plasmas, 25 :113111 (November 2018)
Long distance propagation of an energetic laser pulse with intensity slightly below that for multi-photon ionization in air is considered analytically, by noting that in the process, it is mainly the peak region of the pulse that interacts with the air molecules. Similar to that of much shorter femtosecond laser pulses of similar intensity, the affected air becomes slightly ionized and self-consistently forms a co-propagating thin and low-density plasma filament along the axis. It is found that a hundred-Joule-level laser pulse with a relatively large spot radius and pulse duration can propagate (also in the form of a self-consistent filament) tens of kilometers through the atmosphere. Such laser propagation properties should have applications in many areas.