Referierte Publikationen


M. A. Leutenegger, S. Kuhn, P. Micke, R. Steinbrügge, J. Stierhof, C. Shah, N. Hell, M. Bissinger, M. Hirsch, R. Ballhausen, M. Lang, C. Gräfe, S. Wipf, R. Cumbee, G. L. Betancourt-Martinez, S. Park, V. A. Yerokhin, A. Surzhykov, W. C. Stolte, J. Niskanen, M. Chung, F. S. Porter, T. Stöhlker, T. Pfeifer, J. Wilms, G. V. Brown, J. R. C. Lopez-Urrutia, and S. Bernitt
High-Precision Determination of Oxygen Kα Transition Energy Excludes Incongruent Motion of Interstellar Oxygen
Phys. Rev. Lett., 125 :243001 (December 2020)
We demonstrate a widely applicable technique to absolutely calibrate the energy scale of x-ray spectra with experimentally well-known and accurately calculable transitions of highly charged ions, allowing us to measure the K-shell Rydberg spectrum of molecular O2 with 8 meV uncertainty. We reveal a systematic ∼450  meV shift from previous literature values, and settle an extraordinary discrepancy between astrophysical and laboratory measurements of neutral atomic oxygen, the latter being calibrated against the aforementioned O2 literature values. Because of the widespread use of such, now deprecated, references, our method impacts on many branches of x-ray absorption spectroscopy. Moreover, it potentially reduces absolute uncertainties there to below the meV level.
A. Steinkopff, C. Jauregui, C. Aleshire, A. Klenke, and J. Limpert
Impact of thermo-optical effects in coherently combined multicore fiber amplifiers
Opt. Express, 28 :38093 (December 2020)
In this work we analyze the power scaling potential of amplifying multicore fibers (MCFs) used in coherently combined systems. In particular, in this study we exemplarily consider rod-type MCFs with 2 × 2 up to 10 × 10 ytterbium-doped cores arranged in a squared pattern. We will show that, even though increasing the number of active cores will lead to higher output powers, particular attention has to be paid to arising thermal effects, which potentially degrade the performance of these systems. Additionally, we analyze the influence of the core dimensions on the extractable and combinable output power and pulse energy. This includes a detailed study on the thermal effects that influence the propagating transverse modes and, in turn, the amplification efficiency, the combining efficiency, the onset of nonlinear effect, as well as differences in the optical path lengths between the cores. Considering all these effects under rather extreme conditions, the study predicts that average output powers higher than 10 kW from a single 1 m long ytterbium-doped MCF are feasible and femtosecond pulses with energies higher than 400 mJ can be extracted and efficiently recombined in a filled-aperture scheme.
T. M. Ostermayr, C. Kreuzer, F. S. Englbrecht, J. Gebhard, J. Hartmann, A. Huebl, D. Haffa, P. Hilz, K. Parodi, J. Wenz, M. E. Donovan, G. Dyer, E. Gaul, J. Gordon, M. Martinez, E. Mccary, M. Spinks, G. Tiwari, B. M. Hegelich, and J. Schreiber
Laser-driven x-ray and proton micro-source and application to simultaneous single-shot bi-modal radiographic imaging
Nat. Commun., 11 :6174 (December 2020)
Radiographic imaging with x-rays and protons is an omnipresent tool in basic research and applications in industry, material science and medical diagnostics. The information contained in both modalities can often be valuable in principle, but difficult to access simultaneously. Laser-driven solid-density plasma-sources deliver both kinds of radiation, but mostly single modalities have been explored for applications. Their potential for bi-modal radiographic imaging has never been fully realized, due to problems in generating appropriate sources and separating image modalities. Here, we report on the generation of proton and x-ray micro-sources in laser-plasma interactions of the focused Texas Petawatt laser with solid-density, micrometer-sized tungsten needles. We apply them for bi-modal radiographic imaging of biological and technological objects in a single laser shot. Thereby, advantages of laser-driven sources could be enriched beyond their small footprint by embracing their additional unique properties, including the spectral bandwidth, small source size and multi-mode emission. Here the authors show a synchronized single-shot bi-modal x-ray and proton source based on laser-generated plasma. This source can be useful for radiographic and tomographic imaging.
F. Tuitje, P. Martinez Gil, T. Helk, J. Gautier, F. Tissandier, J. -P. Goddet, A. Guggenmos, U. Kleineberg, S. Sebban, E. Oliva, C. Spielmann, and M. Zuerch
Nonlinear ionization dynamics of hot dense plasma observed in a laser-plasma amplifier
Light Sci. Appl., 9 :187 (December 2020)
Understanding the behaviour of matter under conditions of extreme temperature, pressure, density and electromagnetic fields has profound effects on our understanding of cosmologic objects and the formation of the universe. Lacking direct access to such objects, our interpretation of observed data mainly relies on theoretical models. However, such models, which need to encompass nuclear physics, atomic physics and plasma physics over a huge dynamic range in the dimensions of energy and time, can only provide reliable information if we can benchmark them to experiments under well-defined laboratory conditions. Due to the plethora of effects occurring in this kind of highly excited matter, characterizing isolated dynamics or obtaining direct insight remains challenging. High-density plasmas are turbulent and opaque for radiation below the plasma frequency and allow only near-surface insight into ionization processes with visible wavelengths. Here, the output of a high-harmonic seeded laser-plasma amplifier using eight-fold ionized krypton as the gain medium operating at a 32.8 nm wavelength is ptychographically imaged. A complex-valued wavefront is observed in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) beam with high resolution. Ab initio spatio-temporal Maxwell-Bloch simulations show excellent agreement with the experimental observations, revealing overionization of krypton in the plasma channel due to nonlinear laser-plasma interactions, successfully validating this four-dimensional multiscale model. This constitutes the first experimental observation of the laser ion abundance reshaping a laser-plasma amplifier. The presented approach shows the possibility of directly modelling light-plasma interactions in extreme conditions, such as those present during the early times of the universe, with direct experimental verification.
G. Torgrimsson
Nonlinear photon trident versus double Compton scattering and resummation of one-step terms
Phys. Rev. D, 102 :116008 (December 2020)
We study the photon trident process, where an initial photon turns into an electron-positron pair and a final photon under a nonlinear interaction with a strong plane-wave background field. We show that this process is very similar to double Compton scattering, where an electron interacts with the background field and emits two photons. We also show how the one-step terms can be obtained by resumming the small- and large -x expansions. We consider a couple of different resummation methods and also propose new resummations (involving Meijer-G functions) which have the correct type of expansions at both small and large x . These new resummations require relatively few terms to give good precision.
J. Wang, V. Bulanov, M. Chen, B. Lei, Y. X. Zhang, R. Zagidullin, V. Zorina, W. Yu, Y. Leng, R. Li, M. Zepf, and S. Rykovanov
Relativistic slingshot: A source for single circularly polarized attosecond x-ray pulses
Phys. Rev. E, 102 :061201 (December 2020)
We propose a mechanism to generate a single intense circularly polarized attosecond x-ray pulse from the interaction of a circularly polarized relativistic few-cycle laser pulse with an ultrathin foil at normal incidence. Analytical modeling and particle-in-cell simulation demonstrate that a huge charge-separation field can be produced when all the electrons are displaced from the target by the incident laser, resulting in a high-quality relativistic electron mirror that propagates against the tail of the laser pulse. The latter is efficiently reflected as well as compressed into an attosecond pulse that is also circularly polarized.
V. P. Kosheleva, V. A. Zaytsev, R. A. Müller, A. Surzhykov, and S. Fritzsche
Resonant two-photon ionization of atoms by twisted and plane-wave light
Phys. Rev. A, 102 :063115 (December 2020)
We study the resonant two-photon ionization of neutral atoms by a combination of twisted and plane-wave light within a fully relativistic framework. In particular, the ionization of an isotropic ensemble of neutral sodium atoms (Z = 11) from their ground 3 S-2(1/2) state via the 3 P-2(3/2) level is considered. We investigate in details the influence of the kinematic parameters of incoming twisted radiation on the photoelectron angular distribution and the circular dichroism. Moreover, we study the influence of the geometry of the process on these quantities. This is done by changing the propagation directions of the incoming twisted and plane-wave light. It is found that the dependence on the kinematic parameters of the twisted photon is the strongest if the plane-wave and twisted light beams are perpendicular to each other.
L. Stoyanov, M. Zhekova, A. Stefanov, I. Stefanov, G. Paulus, and A. Dreischuh
Zeroth- and first-order long range non-diffracting Gauss-Bessel beams generated by annihilating multiple-charged optical vortices
Sci. Rep., 10 :21981 (December 2020)
We demonstrate an alternative approach for generating zeroth- and first-order long range non-diffracting Gauss-Bessel beams (GBBs). Starting from a Gaussian beam, the key point is the creation of a bright ring-shaped beam with a large radius-to-width ratio, which is subsequently Fourier-transformed by a thin lens. The phase profile required for creating zeroth-order GBBs is flat and helical for first-order GBBs with unit topological charge (TC). Both the ring-shaped beam and the required phase profile can be realized by creating highly charged optical vortices by a spatial light modulator and annihilating them by using a second modulator of the same type. The generated long-range GBBs are proven to have negligible transverse evolution up to 2 m and can be regarded as non-diffracting. The influences of the charge state of the TCs, the propagation distance behind the focusing lens, and the GBB profiles on the relative intensities of the peak/rings are discussed. The method is much more efficient as compared to this using annular slits in the back focal plane of lenses. Moreover, at large propagation distances the quality of the generated GBBs significantly surpasses this of GBBs created by low angle axicons. The developed analytical model reproduces the experimental data. The presented method is flexible, easily realizable by using a spatial light modulator, does not require any special optical elements and, thus, is accessible in many laboratories.
B. Grabiger, B. Marx-Glowna, I. Uschmann, R. Loetzsch, G. Paulus, and K. Schulze
A highly sensitive imaging polarimeter in the x-ray regime
Appl. Phys. Lett., 117 :201102 (November 2020)
We report on the development of a highly sensitive imaging polarimeter that allows for the investigation of polarization changing properties of materials in the x-ray regime. By combining a microfocus rotating anode, collimating multilayer mirrors, and two germanium polarizer crystals, we achieved a polarization purity of the two orthogonal linear polarization states of 8 × 10−8. This enables the detection of an ellipticity on the same order or a rotation of the polarization plane of 6 arcsec. The high sensitivity combined with the imaging techniques allows us to study the microcrystalline structure of materials. As an example, we investigated beryllium sheets of different grades, which are commonly used for fabricating x-ray lenses, with a spatial resolution of 200 μm, and observed a strong degradation of the polarization purity due to the polycrystalline nature of beryllium. This makes x-ray lenses made of beryllium unsuitable for imaging polarimeter with higher spatial resolution. The results are important for the development of x-ray optical instruments that combine high spatial resolution and high sensitivity to polarization.
S. Panahiyan, and S. Fritzsche
Controllable simulation of topological phases and edge states with quantum walk
Phys. Lett. A, 384 :126828 (November 2020)
B. Baghdasaryan, and S. Fritzsche
Enhanced entanglement from Ince-Gaussian pump beams in spontaneous parametric down-conversion
Phys. Rev. A, 102 :052412 (November 2020)
Spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) has been a reliable process for the generation of entangled photon pairs. In this process, a nonlinear quadratic crystal is pumped by a laser field in order to convert (high-energy) photons into correlated photon pairs whose efficient control plays an essential role in various applications of quantum information processing. In particular, the amount of entanglement has been successfully controlled by adjusting the spatial structure of the incident pump field. Here, we theoretically analyze how the entanglement of the down-converted two-photon state can be further enhanced by using Ince-Gaussian beams with well-defined ellipticity epsilon, i.e., solutions of the paraxial wave equation in elliptical coordinates. These spatially structured beams are quite universal as they include both the Laguerre-Gaussian beams for epsilon -> 0 as well as the Hermite-Gaussian beams for epsilon -> infinity. We demonstrate that the entanglement of the generated photon pairs in SPDC can be maximized by a proper choice of epsilon and that such an enhanced entanglement can be observed experimentally in terms of the Schmidt number.
G. Torgrimsson
Nonlinear trident in the high-energy limit: Nonlocality, Coulomb field, and resummations
Phys. Rev. D, 102 :096008 (November 2020)
We study nonlinear trident in laser pulses in the high-energy limit, where the initial electron experiences, in its rest frame, an electromagnetic field strength above Schwinger s critical field. At lower energies the dominant contribution comes from the two-step' part, but in the high-energy limit the dominant contribution comes instead from the one-step term. We obtain new approximations that explain the relation between the high-energy limit of trident and pair production by a Coulomb field, as well as the role of the Weizsacker-Williams approximation and why it does not agree with the high-chi limit of the locally-constant-field approximation. We also show that the next-to-leading order in the large-a(0) expansion is, in the high-energy limit, nonlocal and is numerically very important even for quite large a(0). We show that the small-a(0) perturbation series has a finite radius of convergence, but using Pade-conformal methods we obtain resummations that go beyond the radius of convergence and have a large numerical overlap with the large-a(0) approximation. We use Borel-Pade-conformal methods to resum the small-chi expansion and obtain a high precision up to very large chi. We also use newer resummation methods based on hypergeometric/Meijer-G and confluent hypergeometric functions.
M. Togawa, S. Kuhn, C. Shah, P. Amaro, R. Steinbrügge, J. Stierhof, N. Hell, M. Rosner, K. Fujii, M. Bissinger, R. Ballhausen, M. Hoesch, J. Seltmann, S. Park, F. Grilo, F. S. Porter, J. P. Santos, M. Chung, T. Stöhlker, J. Wilms, T. Pfeifer, G. V. Brown, M. A. Leutenegger, S. Bernitt, and J. R. C. Lopez-Urrutia
Observation of strong two-electron–one-photon transitions in few-electron ions
Phys. Rev. A, 102 :052831 (November 2020)
We resonantly excite the K series of O5+ and O6+ up to principal quantum number n=11 with monochromatic x rays, producing K-shell holes, and observe their relaxation by soft-x-ray emission. Some photoabsorption resonances of O5+ reveal strong two-electron–one-photon (TEOP) transitions. We find that for the [(1s2s)15p3/2]3/2;1/2 states, TEOP relaxation is by far stronger than the radiative decay and competes with the usually much faster Auger decay path. This enhanced TEOP decay arises from a strong correlation with the near-degenerate upper states [(1s2p3/2)14s]3/2;1/2 of a Li-like satellite blend of the He-like Kα transition. Even in three-electron systems, TEOP transitions can play a dominant role, and the present results should guide further research on the ubiquitous and abundant many-electron ions where electronic energy degeneracies are far more common and configuration mixing is stronger.
B. Böning, and S. Fritzsche
Partial-wave representation of the strong-field approximation
Phys. Rev. A, 102 :053108 (November 2020)
The strong-field approximation (SFA) has been widely applied to model ionization processes in short and intense laser pulses. Several approaches have been suggested in order to overcome certain limitations of the original SFA formulation with regard to the representation of the initial bound and final continuum states of the emitted electron as well as a suitable description of the driving laser pulse. We here present a reformulation of the SFA in terms of partial waves and spherical tensor operators that supports a quite simple implementation and the comparison of different treatments of the active (photo)electron and the laser pulses. In particular, this reformulation helps to adapt the SFA to experimental setups, and it paves the way to extend the strong-field theory toward the study of nondipole contributions in light-atom interactions as well as of many-particle correlations in strong-field ionization processes. A series of detailed computations have been carried out in order to confirm the validity of the reformulation and to show how the representation of the bound and continuum states affects the predicted above-threshold ionization spectra and related observables.
J. Deprince, M. A. Bautista, S. Fritzsche, J. A. García, T. R. Kallman, C. Mendoza, P. Palmeri, and P. Quinet
Plasma environment effects on K lines of astrophysical interest IV. IPs, K thresholds, radiative rates, and Auger widths in Fe ii-Fe viii
Astron. Astrophys., 643 :A57 (November 2020)
Aims. Within the framework of compact-object accretion disks, we calculate plasma environment effects on the atomic structure and decay parameters used in the modeling of K lines in lowly charged iron ions, namely FeII-FeVIII.Methods. For this study, we used the fully relativistic multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock method approximating the plasma electron-nucleus and electron-electron screenings with a time-averaged Debye-Huckel potential.Results. We report modified ionization potentials, K-threshold energies, wavelengths, radiative emission rates, and Auger widths for plasmas characterized by electron temperatures and densities in the ranges 10(5)-10(7) K and 10(18)-10(22) cm(-3). In addition, we propose two universal fitting formulae to predict the IP and K-threshold lowerings in any elemental ion.Conclusions. We conclude that the high-resolution X-ray spectrometers onboard the future XRISM and ATHENA space missions will be able to detect the lowering of the K edges of these Fe ions due to the extreme plasma conditions occurring in the accretion disks around compact objects.
Y. X. Geng, D. Wu, W. Yu, Z. M. Sheng, S. Fritzsche, Q. Liao, M. J. Wu, X. H. Xu, D. Y. Li, W. J. Ma, H. Y. Lu, Y. Y. Zhao, X. T. He, J. E. Chen, C. Lin, and X. Q. Yan
Proton beams from intense laser-solid interaction: Effects of the target materials
Matt. Rad. Extrem., 5 :064402 (November 2020)
D. Seipt, and B. King
Spin- and polarization-dependent locally-constant-field-approximation rates for nonlinear Compton and Breit-Wheeler processes
Phys. Rev. A, 102 :052805 (November 2020)
In this paper we derive and discuss the completely spin- and photon-polarization-dependent probability rates for nonlinear Compton scattering and nonlinear Breit-Wheeler pair production. The locally constant field approximation, which is essential for applications in plasma-QED simulation codes, is rigorously derived from the strong-field QED matrix elements in the Furry picture for a general plane-wave background field. We discuss important polarization correlation effects in the spectra of both processes. Asymptotic limits for both small and large values of $ćhi$ are derived and their spin and polarization dependence is discussed.
F. Roeder, M. Shalaby, B. Beleites, F. Ronneberger, and A. Gopal
THz generation by optical rectification of intense near-infrared pulses in organic crystal BNA
Opt. Express, 28 :36274 (November 2020)
Generation of terahertz radiation by optical rectification of intense near-infrared laser pulses in N-benzyl-2-methyl-4-nitroaniline (BNA) is investigated in detail by carrying out a complete characterization of the terahertz radiation. We studied the scaling of THz yield with pump pulse repetition rate and fluence which enabled us to predict the optimal operating conditions for BNA crystals at room temperature for 800 nm pump wavelength. Furthermore, recording the transmitted laser spectrum allowed us to calculate the nonlinear refractive index of BNA at 800 nm.
Q. Lu, C. L. Yan, G. Q. Xu, N. Fu, Y. Yang, Y. Zou, A. V. Volotka, J. Xiao, N. Nakamura, and R. Hutton
Direct measurements for the fine-structure splitting of S VIII and Cl IX
Phys. Rev. A, 102 :042817 (October 2020)
F. M. Kröger, G. Weber, M. O. Herdrich, J. Glorius, C. Langer, Z. Slavkovská, L. Bott, C. Brandau, B. Brückner, K. Blaum, X. Chen, S. Dababneh, T. Davinson, P. Erbacher, S. Fiebiger, T. Gassner, K. Göbel, M. Groothuis, A. Gumberidze, Gy. Gyürky, S. Hagmann, C. Hahn, M. Heil, R. Hess, R. Hensch, P. Hillmann, P.-M. Hillenbrand, O. Hinrichs, B. Jurado, T. Kausch, A. Khodaparast, T. Kisselbach, N. Klapper, C. Kozhuharov, D. Kurtulgil, G. Lane, C. Lederer-Woods, M. Lestinsky, S. Litvinov, Yu. A. Litvinov, B. Löher, F. Nolden, N. Petridis, U. Popp, M. Reed, R. Reifarth, M. S. Sanjari, H. Simon, U. Spillmann, M. Steck, J. Stumm, T. Szücs, T. T. Nguyen, A. T. Zadeh, B. Thomas, S. Yu. Torilov, H. Törnqvist, C. Trageser, S. Trotsenko, M. Volknandt, M. Weigand, C. Wolf, P. J. Woods, V. P. Shevelko, I. Yu. Tolstikhina, and T. Stöhlker
Electron capture of Xe54+ in collisions with H2 molecules in the energy range between 5.5 and 30.9 MeV/u
Phys. Rev. A, 102 :042825 (October 2020)
The electron-capture process was studied for Xe54+ colliding with H2 molecules at the internal gas target of the Experimental Storage Ring (ESR) at GSI, Darmstadt. Cross-section values for electron capture into excited projectile states were deduced from the observed emission cross section of Lyman radiation, being emitted by the hydrogenlike ions subsequent to the capture of a target electron. The ion beam energy range was varied between 5.5 and 30.9 MeV/u by applying the deceleration mode of the ESR. Thus, electron-capture data were recorded at the intermediate and, in particular, the low-collision-energy regime, well below the beam energy necessary to produce bare xenon ions. The obtained data are found to be in reasonable qualitative agreement with theoretical approaches, while a commonly applied empirical formula significantly overestimates the experimental findings.
J. Hofbrucker, A. V. Volotka, J. Szlachetko, and S. Fritzsche
Enhanced polarization transfer to the characteristic L alpha x-ray lines near the nonlinear Cooper minimum of two-photon ionization
Phys. Rev. A, 102 :042807 (October 2020)
S. Panahiyan, W. Chen, and S. Fritzsche
Fidelity susceptibility near topological phase transitions in quantum walks
Phys. Rev. B, 102 :134111 (October 2020)
P. Boller, A. Zylstra, P. Neumayer, L. Bernstein, C. Brabetz, J. Despotopulos, J. Glorius, J. Hellmund, E. Henry, J. Hornung, J. Jeet, J. Khuyagbaatar, L. Lens, S. Roeder, T. Stöhlker, A. Yakushev, Y. Litvinov, D. Shaughnessy, V. Bagnoud, T. Kühl, and D. Schneider
First on-line detection of radioactive fission isotopes produced by laser-accelerated protons
Sci. Rep., 10 :17183 (October 2020)
The on-going developments in laser acceleration of protons and light ions, as well as the production of strong bursts of neutrons and multi-MeV photons by secondary processes now provide a basis for novel high-flux nuclear physics experiments. While the maximum energy of protons resulting from Target Normal Sheath Acceleration is presently still limited to around 100MeV, the generated proton peak flux within the short laser-accelerated bunches can already today exceed the values achievable at the most advanced conventional accelerators by orders of magnitude. This paper consists of two parts covering the scientific motivation and relevance of such experiments and a first proof-of-principle demonstration. In the presented experiment pulses of 200J at ≈500fs duration from the PHELIX laser produced more than 10 12 protons with energies above 15MeV in a bunch of sub-nanosecond duration. They were used to induce fission in foil targets made of natural uranium. To make use of the nonpareil flux, these targets have to be very close to the laser acceleration source, since the particle density within the bunch is strongly affected by Coulomb explosion and the velocity differences between ions of different energy. The main challenge for nuclear detection with high-purity germanium detectors is given by the strong electromagnetic pulse caused by the laser-matter interaction close to the laser acceleration source. This was mitigated by utilizing fast transport of the fission products by a gas flow to a carbon filter, where the γ -rays were registered. The identified nuclides include those that have half-lives down to 39s. These results demonstrate the capability to produce, extract, and detect short-lived reaction products under the demanding experimental condition imposed by the high-power laser interaction. The approach promotes research towards relevant nuclear astrophysical studies at conditions currently only accessible at nuclear high energy density laser facilities.
V. Popov, V. M. Shabaev, D. A. Telnov, I. I. Tupitsyn, I. A. Maltsev, Y. S. Kozhedub, I. Bondarev, V. Kozin, X. Ma, G. Plunien, T. Stöhlker, D. A. Tumakov, and V. A. Zaytsev
How to access QED at a supercritical Coulomb field
Phys. Rev. D, 102 :076005 (October 2020)
M. Seidel, P. Balla, T. Binhammer, M. Frede, G. Arisholm, L. Winkelmann, I. Hartl, and C. Heyl
Hybridizing Multi-pass and Multi-plate Bulk Compression
9th EPS-QEOD Europhoton Conference on Solid-State, Fibre, and Waveguide Coherent Light Sources (EUROPHOTON 2020) (October 2020)