Referierte Publikationen


R. Soguel, A. Volotka, D. Glazov, and S. Fritzsche
Many-Electron QED with Redefined Vacuum Approach
Symmetry, 13 :1014 (June 2021)
The redefined vacuum approach, which is frequently employed in the many-body perturbation theory, proved to be a powerful tool for formula derivation. Here, we elaborate this approach within the bound-state QED perturbation theory. In addition to general formulation, we consider the particular example of a single particle (electron or vacancy) excitation with respect to the redefined vacuum. Starting with simple one-electron QED diagrams, we deduce first- and second-order many-electron contributions: screened self-energy, screened vacuum polarization, one-photon exchange, and two-photon exchange. The redefined vacuum approach provides a straightforward and streamlined derivation and facilitates its application to any electronic configuration. Moreover, based on the gauge invariance of the one-electron diagrams, we can identify various gauge-invariant subsets within derived many-electron QED contributions.
M. Mueller, J. Buldt, H. Stark, C. Grebing, and J. Limpert
Multipass cell for high-power few-cycle compression
Opt. Lett., 46 :2678 (June 2021)
A multipass cell for nonlinear compression to few-cycle pulse duration is introduced composing dielectrically enhanced silver mirrors on silicon substrates. Spectral broadening with 388 W output average power and 776 mu J pulse energy is obtained at 82% cell transmission. A high output beam quality (M-2 < 1.2) and a high spatio-spectral homogeneity (97.5%), as well as the compressibility of the output pulses to 6.9 fs duration, are demonstrated. A finite element analysis reveals scalability of this cell to 2 kW average output power.
Y. Ma, D. Seipt, A. E. Hussein, S. Hakimi, N. F. Beier, S. B. Hansen, J. Hinojosa, A. Maksimchuk, J. Nees, K. Krushelnick, A. G. R. Thomas, and F. Dollar
The effects of laser polarization and wavelength on injection dynamics of a laser wakefield accelerator
Phys. Plasmas, 28 :063101 (June 2021)
Here, we investigate the effects of laser polarization and wavelength on electron injection dynamics in a laser wakefield accelerator. During the ionization process, electrons gain residual momentum and kinetic energy via above threshold ionization, which has a strong dependence on laser polarization. A circularly polarized laser pulse results in a much higher residual momentum and kinetic energy gain for the ionized electrons compared with the linearly polarized case. This residual momentum results in particle injection because of the sensitivity of particle trapping to the initial conditions and enhanced the total injected beam charge in both experiments and particle-in-cell simulations. Due to the strong correlation of above threshold ionization with laser wavelength, in this work we extended the investigation to long wavelength (up to 20 μm) drive pulses using particle-in-cell simulations. Owing to the gain in kinetic energy, it may be expected that the charge trapped would consistently increase for circular polarization with increasing laser wavelength, but this was not observed. Instead, there are oscillations with wavelength in the relative trapped charge between linear and circular polarization cases, which arise because of ionization and heating effects on the plasma. Our studies highlight the complex interplay between several different physical effects, including injection regimes—above threshold ionization assisted injection, wave-breaking injection by carrier-envelope-phase effects and ionization injection—ionization gradient induced laser pulse evolution, and thermal modifications to the wake structure that need considering when extrapolating laser wakefield acceleration to different wavelength regimes.
G. von Gersdorff, S. Panahiyan, and W. Chen
Unification of topological invariants in Dirac models
Phys. Rev. B, 103 :245146 (June 2021)
Topological phases of materials are characterized by topological invariants that are conventionally calculated by different means according to the dimension and symmetry class of the system. For topological materials described by Dirac models, we introduce a wrapping number as a unified approach to obtain the topological invariants in arbitrary dimensions and symmetry classes. Given a unit vector that parametrizes the momentum dependence of the Dirac model, the wrapping number describes the degree of the map from the Brillouin zone torus to the sphere formed by the unit vector that we call the Dirac sphere. This method is gauge-invariant and originates from the intrinsic features of the Dirac model and moreover places all known topological invariants, such as the Chern number, winding number, Pfaffian, etc, on equal footing.
S. Fritzsche, and A. Surzhykov
Approximate Atomic Green Functions
Molecules, 26 :2660 (May 2021)
In atomic and many-particle physics, Green functions often occur as propagators to formally represent the (integration over the) complete spectrum of the underlying Hamiltonian. However, while these functions are very crucial to describing many second- and higher-order perturbation processes, they have hardly been considered and classified for complex atoms. Here, we show how relativistic (many-electron) Green functions can be approximated and systematically improved for few- and many-electron atoms and ions. The representation of these functions is based on classes of virtual excitations, or so-called excitation schemes, with regard to given bound-state reference configurations, and by applying a multi-configuration Dirac-Hartree-Fock expansion of all atomic states involved. A first implementation of these approximate Green functions has been realized in the framework of Jac, the Jena Atomic Calculator, and will facilitate the study of various multi-photon and/or multiple electron (emission) processes.
J. Körner, S. Zulic, J. Reiter, M. Lenski, J. Hein, R. Bödefeld, D. Rostohar, T. Mocek, and M.C. Kaluza
Compact, diode-pumped, unstable cavity Yb:YAG laser and its application in laser shock peening
Opt. Express, 29 :15724 (May 2021)
We present the setup of a compact, q-switched, cryogenically cooled Yb:YAG laser, which is capable of producing over 1 J output energy in a 10 ns pulse at 10 Hz. The system’s design is based on the recently published unstable cavity layout with gain shaping of the spatial intra-cavity intensity distribution. Using a hexagonal homogenized pump beam, the laser generated an according hexagonal output beam profile. The suitability of such laser properties for the intended use in a laser shock peening process is demonstrated. In the experiment an aluminum plate was treated and the generated residual stresses in the sample subsequently measured. Other applications of this laser system like laser pumping or surface cleaning are conceivable.
D. Seipt, C. P. Ridgers, D. Del Sorbo, and A. G. R. Thomas
Polarized QED cascades
New J. Phys., 23 :053025 (May 2021)
By taking the spin and polarization of the electrons, positrons and photons into account in the strong-field QED processes of nonlinear Compton emission and pair production, we find that the growth rate of QED cascades in ultra-intense laser fields can be substantially reduced. While this means that fewer particles are produced, we also found them to be highly polarized. We further find that the high-energy tail of the particle spectra is polarized opposite to that expected from Sokolov–Ternov theory, which cannot be explained by just taking into account spin-asymmetries in the pair production process, but results significantly from ‘spin-straggling’. We employ a kinetic equation approach for the electron, positron and photon distributions, each of them spin/polarization-resolved, with the QED effects of photon emission and pair production modelled by a spin/polarization dependent Boltzmann-type collision operator. For photon-seeded cascades, depending on the photon polarization, we find an excess or a shortage of particle production in the early stages of cascade development, which provides a path towards a controlled experiment. Throughout this paper we focus on rotating electric field configuration, which represent an idealized model and allows for a straightforward interpretation of the observed effects.
M. Ruijter, V. Petrillo, T. Teter, M. Valialshchikov, and S. Rykovanov
Signatures of the Carrier Envelope Phase in Nonlinear Thomson Scattering
Crystals, 11 :528 (May 2021)
High-energy radiation can be generated by colliding a relativistic electron bunch with a high-intensity laser pulse-a process known as Thomson scattering. In the nonlinear regime the emitted radiation contains harmonics. For a laser pulse whose length is comparable to its wavelength, the carrier envelope phase changes the behavior of the motion of the electron and therefore the radiation spectrum. Here we show theoretically and numerically the dependency of the spectrum on the intensity of the laser and the carrier envelope phase. Additionally, we also discuss what experimental parameters are required to measure the effects for a beamed pulse.
T. Helk, E. Berger, S. Jamnuch, L. Hoffmann, A. Kabacinski, J. Gautier, F. Tissandier, J.-P. Goddet, H.-T. Chang, J. Oh, C. Das Pemmaraju, T. Pascal, S. Sebban, C. Spielmann, and M. Zuerch
Table-top extreme ultraviolet second harmonic generation
Science Advances, 7 :2265 (May 2021)
The lack of available table-top extreme ultraviolet (XUV) sources with high enough fluxes and coherence properties has limited the availability of nonlinear XUV and x-ray spectroscopies to free-electron lasers ( FELs). Here, we demonstrate second harmonic generation (SHG) on a table-top XUV source by observing SHG near the TiM2,3 edge with a high-harmonic seeded soft x-ray laser. Furthermore, this experiment represents the first SHG experiment in the XUV. First-principles electronic structure calculations suggest the surface specificity and separate the observed signal into its resonant and nonresonant contributions. The realization of XUV-SHG on a table-top source opens up more accessible opportunities for the study of element-specific dynamics in multicomponent systems where surface, interfacial, and bulk-phase asymmetries play a driving role.
C. Gaida, M. Gebhardt, T. Heuermann, Z. Wang, C. Jauregui, and J. Limpert
Transverse mode instability and thermal effects in thulium-doped fiber amplifiers under high thermal loads
Opt. Express, 29 :14963 (May 2021)
We experimentally analyze the average-power-scaling capabilities of ultrafast, thulium-doped fiber amplifiers. It has been theoretically predicted that thulium-doped fiber laser systems, with an emission wavelength around 2 mu m, should be able to withstand much higher heat-loads than their Yb-doped counterparts before the onset of transverse mode instability (TMI) is observed. In this work we experimentally verify this theoretical prediction by operating thulium doped fibers at very high heat-load. In separate experiments we analyze the performance of two different large-core, thulium-doped fiber amplifiers. The first experiment aims at operating a short, very-large core, thulium-doped fiber amplifier at extreme heat-load levels of more than 300 W/m. Even at this extreme heat-load level, the onset of TMI is not observed. The second experiment maximizes the extractable average-output power from a large-core, thulium-doped, fiber amplifier. We have achieved a pump-limited average output power of 1.15 kW without the onset of TMI. However, during a longer period of operation at this power level the amplifier performance steadily degraded and TMI could be observed for average powers in excess of 847 W thereafter. This is the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that TMI has been reported in a thulium-doped fiber amplifier.
S. Skruszewicz, S. Fuchs, J. J. Abel, J. Nathanael, J. Reinhard, C. Rödel, F. Wiesner, M. Wuensche, P. Wachulak, A. Bartnik, K. Janulewicz, H. Fiedorowicz, and G.G. Paulus
Coherence tomography with broad bandwidth extreme ultraviolet and soft X-ray radiation
Appl. Phys. B, 127 :55 (April 2021)
We present an overview of recent results on optical coherence tomography with the use of extreme ultraviolet and soft X-ray radiation (XCT). XCT is a cross-sectional imaging method that has emerged as a derivative of optical coherence tomography (OCT). In contrast to OCT, which typically uses near-infrared light, XCT utilizes broad bandwidth extreme ultraviolet (XUV) and soft X-ray (SXR) radiation (Fuchs et al in Sci Rep 6:20658, 2016). As in OCT, XCT\textquotesingle s axial resolution only scales with the coherence length of the light source. Thus, an axial resolution down to the nanometer range can be achieved. This is an improvement of up to three orders of magnitude in comparison to OCT. XCT measures the reflected spectrum in a common-path interferometric setup to retrieve the axial structure of nanometer-sized samples. The technique has been demonstrated with broad bandwidth XUV/SXR radiation from synchrotron facilities and recently with compact laboratory-based laser-driven sources. Axial resolutions down to 2.2 nm have been achieved experimentally. XCT has potential applications in three-dimensional imaging of silicon-based semiconductors, lithography masks, and layered structures like XUV mirrors and solar cells.
S. Sadashivaiah, J. Wolny, L. Scherthan, K. Jenni, A. Omlor, C. Mueller, I. Sergueev, M. Herlitschke, O. Leupold, H.-C. Wille, R. Röhlsberger, and V. Schuenemann
High-Repetition Rate Optical Pump-Nuclear Resonance Probe Experiments Identify Transient Molecular Vibrations after Photoexcitation of a Spin Crossover Material
Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, 12 :3240 (April 2021)
Phonon modes play a vital role in the cooperative phenomenon of light-induced spin transitions in spin crossover (SCO) molecular complexes. Although the cooperative vibrations, which occur over several hundreds of picoseconds to nanoseconds after photoexcitation, are understood to play a crucial role in this phase transition, they have not been precisely identified. Therefore, we have performed a novel optical laser pump-nuclear resonance probe experiment to identify the Fe-projected vibrational density of states (pDOS) during the first few nanoseconds after laser excitation of the mononuclear Fe(II) SCO complex [Fe(PM-BiA)(2)(NCS)(2)]. Evaluation of the so obtained nanosecond-resolved pDOS yields an excitation of similar to 8% of the total volume of the complex from the low-spin to high-spin state. Density functional theory calculations allow simulation of the observed changes in the pDOS and thus identification of the transient inter- and intramolecular vibrational modes at nanosecond time scales.
D. Winzen, V. Hannen, M. Bussmann, A. Buß, C. Egelkamp, L. Eidam, Z. Huang, D. Kiefer, S. Klammes, T. Kühl, M. Loeser, X. Ma, W. Nörtershäuser, H.-W. Ortjohann, R. Sanchez, M. Siebold, T. Stöhlker, J. Ullmann, J. Vollbrecht, Th. Walther, H. Wang, Ch. Weinheimer, and D. F. A. Winters
Laser spectroscopy of the 2S1/2-2P1/2, 2P3/2 transitions in stored and cooled relativistic C³⁺ ions
Sci. Rep., 11 :9370 (April 2021)
The 2S1/2−2P1/2 and 2S1/2−2P3/2 transitions in Li-like carbon ions stored and cooled at a velocity of beta=0.47 in the experimental storage ring (ESR) at the GSI Helmholtz Centre in Darmstadt have been investigated in a laser spectroscopy experiment. Resonance wavelengths were obtained using a new continuous-wave UV laser system and a novel extreme UV (XUV) detection system to detect forward emitted fluorescence photons. The results obtained for the two transitions are compared to existing experimental and theoretical data. A discrepancy found in an earlier laser spectroscopy measurement at the ESR with results from plasma spectroscopy and interferometry has been resolved and agreement between experiment and theory is confirmed.
H. Gies, F. Karbstein, and L. Klar
Quantum vacuum signatures in multicolor laser pulse collisions
Phys. Rev. D, 103 :076009 (April 2021)
Quantum vacuum fluctuations give rise to effective nonlinear interactions between electromagnetic fields. A prominent signature of quantum vacuum nonlinearities driven by macroscopic fields are signal photons differing in characteristic properties such as frequency, propagation direction and polarization from the driving fields. We devise a strategy for the efficient tracing of the various vacuum-fluctuation-mediated interaction processes in order to identify the most prospective signal photon channels. As an example, we study the collision of up to four optical laser pulses and pay attention to sum and difference frequency generation. We demonstrate how this information can be used to enhance the signal photon yield in laser pulse collisions for a given total laser energy.
R. N. Soguel, A. V. Volotka, V. Tryapitsyna, D. A. Glazov, V. P. Kosheleva, and S. Fritzsche
Redefined vacuum approach and gauge-invariant subsets in two-photon-exchange diagrams for a closed-shell system with a valence electron
Phys. Rev. A, 103 :042818 (April 2021)
CThe two-photon-exchange diagrams for atoms with single valence electrons are investigated. Calculation formulas are derived for an arbitrary state within the rigorous bound-state QED framework utilizing the redefined vacuum formalism. In contrast to other methods, the redefined vacuum approach enables the identification of eight gauge-invariant subsets and, thus, efficiently checks the consistency of the obtained results. The gauge invariance of found subsets is demonstrated both analytically (for an arbitrary state) as well as numerically for 2s, 2p(1/2), and 2p(3/2) valence electrons in Li-like ions. Identifying gauge-invariant subsets in the framework of the proposed approach opens a way to tackle more complex diagrams, e.g., three-photon exchange, where the fragmentation on simpler subsets is crucial for its successful calculation.
R. Klas, A. Kirsche, M. Gebhardt, J. Buldt, H. Stark, S. Hädrich, J. Rothhardt, and J. Limpert
Ultra-short-pulse high-average-power megahertz-repetition-rate coherent extreme-ultraviolet light source
PhotoniX, 2 :4 (April 2021)
High harmonic generation (HHG) enables coherent extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) radiation with ultra-short pulse duration in a table-top setup. This has already enabled a plethora of applications. Nearly all of these applications would benefit from a high photon flux to increase the signal-to-noise ratio and decrease measurement times. In addition, shortest pulses are desired to investigate fastest dynamics in fields as diverse as physics, biology, chemistry and material sciences. In this work, the up-to-date most powerful table-top XUV source with 12.9 ± 3.9 mW in a single harmonic line at 26.5 eV is demonstrated via HHG of a frequency-doubled and post-compressed fibre laser. At the same time the spectrum supports a Fourier-limited pulse duration of sub-6 fs in the XUV, which allows accessing ultrafast dynamics with an order of magnitude higher photon flux than previously demonstrated. This concept will greatly advance and facilitate applications of XUV radiation in science and technology and enable photon-hungry ultrafast studies.
H. Stark, J. Buldt, M. Mueller, A. Klenke, and J. Limpert
1 kW, 10 mJ, 120 fs coherently combined fiber CPA laser system
Opt. Lett., 46 :969 (March 2021)
An ultrafast fiber chirped-pulse amplification laser system based on a coherent combination of 16 ytterbium-doped rod-type amplifiers is presented. It generates 10 mJ pulse energy at 1 kW average power and 120 fs pulse duration. A partially helium-protected, two-staged chirped-pulse amplification grating compressor is implemented to maintain the close to diffraction-limited beam quality by avoiding nonlinear absorption in air. (C) 2021 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement
S. Fritzsche, P. Palmeri, and S. Schippers
Atomic Cascade Computations
Symmetry, 13 :520 (March 2021)
Atomic cascades are ubiquitous in nature and they have been explored within very different scenarios, from precision measurements to the modeling of astrophysical spectra, and up to the radiation damage in biological matter. However, up to the present, a quantitative analysis of these cascades often failed because of their inherent complexity. Apart from utilizing the rotational symmetry of atoms and a proper distinction of different physical schemes, a hierarchy of useful approaches is therefore needed in order to keep cascade computations feasible. We here suggest a classification of atomic cascades and demonstrate how they can be modeled within the framework of the Jena Atomic Calculator. As an example, we shall compute within a configuration-average approach the stepwise decay cascade of atomic magnesium, following a 1s inner-shell ionization, and simulate the corresponding (final) ion distribution. Our classification of physical scenarios (schemes) and the hierarchy of computational approaches are both flexible to further refinements as well as to complex shell structures of the atoms and ions, for which the excitation and decay dynamics need to be modeled in good detail.
J. Körner, V. Jambunathan, F. Yue, J. Reiter, O. Slezák, P. Navrátil, S. David, A. Lucianetti, J. Hein, T. Mocek, and M. Kaluza
Diode-pumped, electro-optically Q -switched, cryogenic Tm:YAG laser operating at 1.88 μm
HPLaser, 9 :e11 (March 2021)
We present a diode-pumped, electro-optically Q-switched Tm:YAG laser with a cryogenically cooled laser crystal at 120 K. Output pulses of up to 2.55 mJ and 650 ns duration were demonstrated in an actively Q-switched configuration with a repetition rate of 1 Hz. By using cavity dumping the pulse duration was shortened to 18 ns with only a slightly lower output energy of 2.22 mJ. Furthermore, using a simplified rate equation model, we discuss design constraints on the pump fluence in a pulse pump approach for Tm:YAG to maximize the energy storage capability at a given pump power.
H. Kang, S. Chen, J. Chen, and G. Paulus
Frustrated double ionization of atoms in circularly polarized laser fields
New J. Phys., 23 :033041 (March 2021)
We theoretically study frustrated double ionization (FDI) of atoms subjected to intense circularly polarized laser pulses using a three-dimensional classical model. We find a \textasciigrave knee\textquotesingle structure of FDI probability as a function of intensity, which is similar to the intensity dependence of nonsequential double ionization probability. The observation of FDI is more favourable when using targets with low ionization potentials and short driving laser wavelengths. This is attributed to the crucial role of recollision therein, which can be experimentally inferred from the photoelectron momentum distribution generated by FDI. This work provides novel physical insights into FDI dynamics with circular polarization.
M. Kübel, P. Wustelt, Y. Zhang, S. Skruszewicz, D. Hoff, D. Würzler, H. Kang, D. Zille, D. Adolph, G. Paulus, A. Sayler, M. Dumergue, A. Nayak, R. Flender, L. Haizer, M. Kurucz, B. Kiss, S. Kuhn, B. Fetić, and D. Milošević
High-Order Phase-Dependent Asymmetry in the Above-Threshold Ionization Plateau
Phys. Rev. Lett., 126 :113201 (March 2021)
Above-threshold ionization spectra from cesium are measured as a function of the carrier-envelope phase (CEP) using laser pulses centered at 3.1  μm wavelength. The directional asymmetry in the energy spectra of backscattered electrons oscillates three times, rather than once, as the CEP is changed from 0 to 2π. Using the improved strong-field approximation, we show that the unusual behavior arises from the interference of few quantum orbits. We discuss the conditions for observing the high-order CEP dependence, and draw an analogy with time-domain holography with electron wave packets.
Z. Sun, F. Tuitje, and C. Spielmann
Improving the Contrast of Pseudothermal Ghost Images Based on the Measured Signal Distribution of Speckle Fields
Appl. Sci., 2021 :2621 (March 2021)
In this study, we examine the quality of microscale ghost images as a function of the measured histographic signal distribution of the speckle fields from a nonuniform pseudothermal light source. This research shows that the distribution of the detected signal level on each pixel of the camera plays a significant role in improving the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of pseudothermal ghost imaging. To our knowledge, the scaling of CNR with different pixel intensity distributions of the speckle fields is observed for the first time in the field of pseudothermal microscale ghost imaging. The experimental observations are in very good agreement with numerical analysis. Based on these findings, we can predict the settings for light sources that will maximize the CNR of microscale ghost images.
M. Gebhardt, E. Amuah, R. Klas, H. Stark, J. Buldt, A. Steinkopff, and J. Limpert
Investigation of spatiotemporal output beam profile instabilities from differentially pumped capillaries
Opt. Express, 29 :6957 (March 2021)
Differentially pumped capillaries, i.e., capillaries operated in a pressure gradient environment, are widely used for nonlinear pulse compression. In this work, we show that strong pressure gradients and high gas throughputs can cause spatiotemporal instabilities of the output beam profile. The instabilities occur with a sudden onset as the flow evolves from laminar to turbulent. Based on the experimental and numerical results, we derive guidelines to predict the onset of those instabilities and discuss possible applications in the context of nonlinear flow dynamics. (C) 2021 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement
L. Stoyanov, Y. Zhang, A. Dreischuh, and G. Paulus
Long-range quasi-non-diffracting Gauss-Bessel beams in a few-cycle laser field
Opt. Express, 29 :10997 (March 2021)
Many applications ranging from nonlinear optics to material processing would benefit from pulsed ultrashort (quasi-)non-diffracting Gauss-Bessel beams (GBBs). Here we demonstrate a straightforward yet efficient method for generating such zeroth- and first-order GBBs using a single reflective spatial light modulator. Even in the sub-8-fs range there are no noticeable consequences for the measured pulse duration. The only effect is a weak coloring of the outer-lying satellite rings of the beams due to the spectrum spanning over more than 300 nm. The obtained beams have diffraction half-angles below 40 mu rad and reach propagation distances in excess of 1.5 m.
J. White, S. Wang, W. Eschen, and J. Rothhardt
Real-time phase-retrieval and wavefront sensing enabled by an artificial neural network
Opt. Express, 29 :1 (March 2021)
In this manuscript we demonstrate a method to reconstruct the wavefront of focused beams from a measured diffraction pattern behind a diffracting mask in real-time. The phase problem is solved by means of a neural network, which is trained with simulated data and verified with experimental data. The neural network allows live reconstructions within a few milliseconds, which previously with iterative phase retrieval took several seconds, thus allowing the adjustment of complex systems and correction by adaptive optics in real time. The neural network additionally outperforms iterative phase retrieval with high noise diffraction patterns.