Referierte Publikationen


P.-M. Hillenbrand, K. N. Lyashchenko, S. Hagmann, O. Andreev, D. Banaś, E. P. Benis, I. Bondarev, C. Brandau, E. De Filippo, O. Forstner, J. Glorius, R. E. Grisenti, A. Gumberidze, D. L. Guo, M. O. Herdrich, M. Lestinsky, Y. Litvinov, V. Pagano, N. Petridis, M. S. Sanjari, D. Schury, U. Spillmann, S. Trotsenko, M. Vockert, A. B. Voitkiv, G. Weber, and T. Stoehlker
Electron-loss-to-continuum cusp in collisions of U89+ with N-2 and Xe
Phys. Rev. A, 104 :012809 (July 2021)
We study the electron-loss-to-continuum (ELC) cusp experimentally and theoretically by comparing the ionization of U89+ projectiles in collisions with N-2 and Xe targets, at a beam energy of 75.91 MeV/u. The coincidence measurement between the singly ionized projectile and the energy of the emitted electron is used to compare the shape of the ELC cusp at weak and strong perturbations. A significant energy shift for the centroid of the electron cusp is observed for the heavy target of Xe as compared to the light target of N-2. Our results provide a stringent test for fully relativistic calculations of double-differential cross sections performed in the first-order approximation and in the continuum-distorted-wave approach.
J. Hofbrucker, B. Böning, A. V. Volotka, and S. Fritzsche
Elliptical dichroism in biharmonic ionization of atoms
Phys. Rev. A, 104 :013102 (July 2021)
In multiphoton ionization of atoms, elliptical dichroism may arise in the photoelectron angular distributions due to the interference of the possible ionization pathways. We here consider the interaction of atoms with an elliptically polarized biharmonic $(ømega + 2ømega)$ field which simultaneously allows one- and two-photon ionization of the atoms. The interference between these two ionization pathways introduces contributions to the elliptical dichroism in addition to the dichroism that arises from the two-photon ionization alone. We show that these additional dichroism contributions can lead to a stronger dichroism in comparison to the one arising from two-photon ionization only. We present a relativistic analysis of the corresponding photoelectron angular distributions and discuss individual contributions to the dichroic phenomena. Detailed computations have been performed for biharmonic ionization of neutral helium atoms.
P. Wustelt, F. Oppermann, S. Mhatre, M. Kuebel, A. Sayler, M. Lein, S. Graefe, and G. Paulus
Laser-Driven Anharmonic Oscillator: Ground-State Dissociation of the Helium Hydride Molecular Ion by Midinfrared Pulses
Phys. Rev. Lett., 127 :043202 (July 2021)
The vibrational motion of molecules represents a fundamental example of an anharmonic oscillator. Using a prototype molecular system, HeH+, we demonstrate that appropriate laser pulses make it possible to drive the nuclear motion in the anharmonic potential of the electronic ground state, increasing its energy above the potential barrier and facilitating dissociation by purely vibrational excitation. We find excellent agreement between the frequency-dependent response of the helium hydride molecular cation to both classical and quantum mechanical simulations, thus removing any ambiguities through electronic excitation. Our results provide access to the rich dynamics of anharmonic quantum oscillator systems and pave the way to state-selective control schemes in ground-state chemistry by the adequate choice of the laser parameters.
S. Willing, K. Schlage, L. Bocklage, M. M. R. Moayed, T. Gurieva, G. Meier, and R. Röhlsberger
Novel Tunnel Magnetoresistive Sensor Functionalities via Oblique-Incidence Deposition
ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 13 :32343 (July 2021)
Controlling the magnetic properties of ultrathin films remains one of the main challenges to the further development of tunnel magnetoresistive (TMR) device applications. The magnetic response in such devices is mainly governed by extending the primary TMR trilayer with the use of suitable contact materials. The transfer of magnetic anisotropy to ferromagnetic electrodes consisting of CoFeB layers results in a field-dependent TMR response, which is determined by the magnetic properties of the CoFeB as well as the contact materials. We flexibly apply oblique-incidence deposition (OID) to introduce arbitrary intrinsic in-plane anisotropy profiles into the magnetic layers. The OID-induced anisotropy shapes the magnetic response and eliminates the requirement of additional magnetic contact materials. Functional control is achieved via an adjustable shape anisotropy that is selectively tailored for the ultrathin CoFeB layers. This approach circumvents previous limitations on TMR devices and allows for the design of new sensing functionalities, which can be precisely customized to a specific application, even in the high field regime. The resulting sensors maintain the typical TMR signal strength as well as a superb thermal stability of the tunnel junction, revealing a striking advantage in functional TMR design using anisotropic interfacial roughness.
R. Hollinger, E. Haddad, M. Zapf, V. Shumakova, P. Herrmann, R. Roeder, I. Uschmann, U. Reisloehner, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuska, F. Légaré, M. Zuerch, C. Ronning, C. Spielmann, and D. Kartashov
Role of free-carrier interaction in strong-field excitations in semiconductors
Phys. Rev. B, 104 :035203 (July 2021)
The interaction of laser pulses with condensed matter forms the basis of light-wave-driven electronics potentially enabling tera- and petahertz switching rate applications. Carrier control using near- and midinfrared pulses is appealing for integration into existing platforms. Toward this end, a fundamental understanding of the complexity of phenomena concerning sub-band-gap driven semiconductors such as high harmonic generation, carrier excitation due to multiphoton absorption, and interband tunneling as well as carrier-carrier interactions due to strong acceleration in infrared transients is important. Here, stimulated emission from polycrystalline ZnO thin films for pump wavelengths between 1.2 mu m (1 eV) and 10 mu m (0.12 eV) is observed. Contrary to the expected higher intensity threshold for longer wavelengths, the lowest threshold pump intensity for stimulated emission is obtained for the longest pump wavelength corroborating the importance of collisional excitation upon intraband electron acceleration.
F. Liu, Z. Chen, T. Morishita, K. Bartschat, B. Böning, and S. Fritzsche
Single-cycle versus multicycle nonsequential double ionization of argon
Phys. Rev. A, 104 :013105 (July 2021)
Using an improved quantitative rescattering model, we calculate the correlated two-electron momentum distributions (CMDs) for nonsequential double ionization of Ar exposed to intense laser pulses with a wavelength of 790 nm at a peak intensity of 1.0×10¹⁴ W/cm². We analyze the drastic variations in the CMDs that were observed by Kübel et al. [New J. Phys. 16, 033008 (2014)] in the transition from near-single-cycle to multicycle driving laser pulses. Our model reproduces their experimental data well. We also find that the transition from near-single-cycle to multicycle driving laser pulses depends strongly on the details of the pulse envelope. Special attention is paid to the mechanisms responsible for the cross-shaped structure observed experimentally with 4 fs pulses. Our analysis reveals that the cross-shaped structure in the carrier-envelope phase-averaged CMD for near-single-cycle pulses can be attributed to strong backward scattering of the recolliding electron as well as the narrow momentum distributions of the tunnel-ionized electrons compared to those for long pulses. This also explains why the cross-shaped distributions collapse to a rather structureless distribution when the pulse duration is increased to 8 fs.
W. Eschen, S. Wang, C. Liu, R. Klas, M. Steinert, S. Yulin, H. Meissner, M. Bussmann, T. Pertsch, J. Limpert, and J. Rothhardt
Towards attosecond imaging at the nanoscale using broadband holography-assisted coherent imaging in the extreme ultraviolet
Communications Physics, 4 :154 (July 2021)
The inherently broad bandwidth of attosecond pulses conflicts with the coherence requirements of lensless imaging. Here, broadband holography-assisted coherent imaging is demonstrated with a resolution of less than 35 nm. Nanoscale coherent imaging has emerged as an indispensable modality, allowing to surpass the resolution limit given by classical imaging optics. At the same time, attosecond science has experienced enormous progress and has revealed the ultrafast dynamics in complex materials. Combining attosecond temporal resolution of pump-probe experiments with nanometer spatial resolution would allow studying ultrafast dynamics on the smallest spatio-temporal scales but has not been demonstrated yet. To date, the large bandwidth of attosecond pulses poses a major challenge to high-resolution coherent imaging. Here, we present broadband holography-enhanced coherent imaging, which enables the combination of high-resolution coherent imaging with a large spectral bandwidth. By implementing our method at a high harmonic source, we demonstrate a spatial resolution of 34 nm in combination with a spectral bandwidth of 5.5 eV at a central photon energy of 92 eV. The method is single-shot capable and retrieves the spectrum from the measured diffraction pattern.
V. Schuster, C. Liu, R. Klas, P. Dominguez, J. Rothhardt, J. Limpert, and B. Bernhardt
Ultraviolet dual comb spectroscopy: a roadmap
Opt. Express, 29 :21859 (July 2021)
Dual Comb Spectroscopy proved its versatile capabilities in molecular fingerprinting in different spectral regions, but not yet in the ultraviolet (UV). Unlocking this spectral window would expand fingerprinting to the electronic energy structure of matter. This will access the prime triggers of photochemical reactions with unprecedented spectral resolution. In this research article, we discuss the milestones marking the way to the first UV dual comb spectrometer. We present experimental and simulated studies towards UV dual comb spectroscopy, directly applied to planned absorption measurements of formaldehyde (centered at 343 nm, 3.6 eV) and argon (80 nm, 16 eV). This will enable an unparalleled relative resolution of up to 10-9 - with a table-top UV source surpassing any synchrotron-linked spectrometer by at least two and any grating-based UV spectrometer by up to six orders of magnitude.
E. Mosman, and F. Karbstein
Vacuum birefringence and diffraction at an x-ray free-electron laser: From analytical estimates to optimal parameters
Phys. Rev. D, 104 :013006 (July 2021)
We study vacuum birefringence and x-ray photon scattering in the head-on collision of x-ray free electron and high-intensity laser pulses. Resorting to analytical approximations for the numbers of attainable signal photons, we analyze the behavior of the phenomenon under the variation of various experimental key-parameters and provide new analytical scalings. Our optimized approximations allow for quantitatively accurate results on the one-percent level. We in particular demonstrate that an appropriate choice of the x-ray focus and pulse duration can significantly improve the signal for given laser parameters, using the experimental parameters to be available at the Helmholtz International Beamline for Extreme Fields at the European XFEL as example. Our results are essential for the identification of the optimal choice of parameters in a discovery experiment of vacuum birefringence at the high-intensity frontier.
A. Gumberidze, D. Thorn, A. Surzhykov, C. Fontes, D. Banaś, H. Beyer, W. Chen, R. Grisenti, S. Hagmann, R. Hess, P.-M. Hillenbrand, P. Indelicato, C. Kozhuharov, M. Lestinsky, R. Märtin, N. Petridis, R. Popov, R. Schuch, U. Spillmann, S. Tashenov, S. Trotsenko, A. Warczak, G. Weber, W. Wen, D. Winters, N. Winters, Z. Yin, and T. Stöhlker
Angular Distribution of Characteristic Radiation Following the Excitation of He-Like Uranium in Relativistic Collisions
Atoms, 9 :20 (June 2021)
In this paper, we present an experimental and theoretical study of excitation processes for the heaviest stable helium-like ion, that is, He-like uranium occurring in relativistic collisions with hydrogen and argon targets. In particular, we concentrate on angular distributions of the characteristic K alpha radiation following the K -> L excitation of He-like uranium. We pay special attention to the magnetic sub-level population of the excited 1s2l(j) states, which is directly related to the angular distribution of the characteristic K alpha radiation. We show that the experimental data can be well described by calculations taking into account the excitation by the target nucleus as well as by the target electrons. Moreover, we demonstrate for the first time an important influence of the electron-impact excitation process on the angular distributions of the K alpha radiation produced by excitation of He-like uranium in collisions with different targets.
S. Salman, Y. Ma, K. Gürel, S. Schilt, C. Li, P. Pfäfflein, C. Mahnke, J. Fellinger, S. Droste, A. Mayer, O. Heckl, T. Südmeyer, C. Heyl, and I. Hartl
Comparison of two low-noise CEO frequency stabilization methods for an all-PM Yb:fiber NALM oscillator
OSA Continuum, 4 :1889 (June 2021)
H. Gies, and A. Salek
Curvature bound from gravitational catalysis in thermal backgrounds
Phys. Rev. D, 103 :125027 (June 2021)
We investigate the phenomenon of gravitational catalysis, i.e., curvature-induced chiral symmetry breaking and fermion mass generation, at finite temperature. Using a scale-dependent analysis, we derive a thermal bound on the curvature of local patches of spacetime. This bound quantifies regions in parameter space that remain unaffected by gravitational catalysis and thus are compatible with the existence of light fermions as observed in nature. While finite temperature generically relaxes the curvature bound, we observe a comparatively strong dependence of the phenomenon on the details of the curvature. Our bound can be applied to scenarios of quantum gravity, as any realistic candidate has to accommodate a sufficient number of light fermions. We argue that our bound therefore represents a test for quantum-gravity scenarios: A suitably averaged spacetime in the (trans-)Planckian regime that satisfies our curvature bound does not induce correspondingly large Planckian fermion masses by gravitational catalysis. The temperature dependence derived in this work facilitates to follow the fate of gravitational catalysis during the thermal history of the (quantum) Universe. In an application to the asymptotic-safety scenario of quantum gravity, our bound translates into a temperature-dependent upper bound on the number of fermion flavors.
Y. Ma, D. Seipt, K. Krushelnick, and A. G. R. Thomas
Generation of straight and curved hollow plasma channels by laser-generated nonlinear wakefields and studies of ultra-intense laser pulse guiding
Phys. Plasmas, 28 :063104 (June 2021)
We report on a study of highly controllable, quasi-static hollow plasma channels generated by ion motion following a laser–plasma interaction via numerical simulations. These channels are generated by ion motion in a nonlinear wakefield, which has an asymmetry between focusing and defocusing periods. Such plasma channels, driven by a fs duration, 100 TW level laser pulse, have the capability to guide more powerful laser pulses. Moreover, we show that curved plasma channels can be generated in a transverse density gradient plasma and all-optical guiding of a second, significantly more powerful laser pulse in such a curved plasma channel. This mechanism may be useful for creating plasma optics for multi-stage TeV laser plasma accelerators and compact synchrotron radiation sources.
B. Baghdasaryan, F. Steinlechner, and S. Fritzsche
Justifying the thin-crystal approximation in spontaneous parametric down-conversion for collinear phase matching
Phys. Rev. A, 103 :063508 (June 2021)
Spatially engineered photons from spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) are a valuable tool for studying and applying photonic entanglement. An advantage of SPDC is that simple expressions for the two-photon state can be obtained using justified approximations. In particular, the thin-crystal approximation has often been invoked in the engineering of high-dimensional entangled states. Knowledge of the conditions under which the thin-crystal approximation remains valid is essential for the realization of experimental setups. We provide a quantitative guideline on the validity of the thin-crystal approximation in calculating the two-photon spatial state. In particular, we show that the applicability of this regime is related to the focusing parameter (w) over barp = w(p)/root lambda(p) L, where w(p) and lambda(p) are the beam waist and wavelength of the pump beam, respectively, and L is the length of the nonlinear crystal. Additionally, the validity of the thin-crystal regime is investigated concerning the size of a subspace in the Laguerre Gaussian basis, into which the two-photon state can be projected in a given experiment.
R. Soguel, A. Volotka, D. Glazov, and S. Fritzsche
Many-Electron QED with Redefined Vacuum Approach
Symmetry, 13 :1014 (June 2021)
The redefined vacuum approach, which is frequently employed in the many-body perturbation theory, proved to be a powerful tool for formula derivation. Here, we elaborate this approach within the bound-state QED perturbation theory. In addition to general formulation, we consider the particular example of a single particle (electron or vacancy) excitation with respect to the redefined vacuum. Starting with simple one-electron QED diagrams, we deduce first- and second-order many-electron contributions: screened self-energy, screened vacuum polarization, one-photon exchange, and two-photon exchange. The redefined vacuum approach provides a straightforward and streamlined derivation and facilitates its application to any electronic configuration. Moreover, based on the gauge invariance of the one-electron diagrams, we can identify various gauge-invariant subsets within derived many-electron QED contributions.
M. Mueller, J. Buldt, H. Stark, C. Grebing, and J. Limpert
Multipass cell for high-power few-cycle compression
Opt. Lett., 46 :2678 (June 2021)
A multipass cell for nonlinear compression to few-cycle pulse duration is introduced composing dielectrically enhanced silver mirrors on silicon substrates. Spectral broadening with 388 W output average power and 776 mu J pulse energy is obtained at 82% cell transmission. A high output beam quality (M-2 < 1.2) and a high spatio-spectral homogeneity (97.5%), as well as the compressibility of the output pulses to 6.9 fs duration, are demonstrated. A finite element analysis reveals scalability of this cell to 2 kW average output power.
Y. Ma, D. Seipt, A. E. Hussein, S. Hakimi, N. F. Beier, S. B. Hansen, J. Hinojosa, A. Maksimchuk, J. Nees, K. Krushelnick, A. G. R. Thomas, and F. Dollar
The effects of laser polarization and wavelength on injection dynamics of a laser wakefield accelerator
Phys. Plasmas, 28 :063101 (June 2021)
Here, we investigate the effects of laser polarization and wavelength on electron injection dynamics in a laser wakefield accelerator. During the ionization process, electrons gain residual momentum and kinetic energy via above threshold ionization, which has a strong dependence on laser polarization. A circularly polarized laser pulse results in a much higher residual momentum and kinetic energy gain for the ionized electrons compared with the linearly polarized case. This residual momentum results in particle injection because of the sensitivity of particle trapping to the initial conditions and enhanced the total injected beam charge in both experiments and particle-in-cell simulations. Due to the strong correlation of above threshold ionization with laser wavelength, in this work we extended the investigation to long wavelength (up to 20 μm) drive pulses using particle-in-cell simulations. Owing to the gain in kinetic energy, it may be expected that the charge trapped would consistently increase for circular polarization with increasing laser wavelength, but this was not observed. Instead, there are oscillations with wavelength in the relative trapped charge between linear and circular polarization cases, which arise because of ionization and heating effects on the plasma. Our studies highlight the complex interplay between several different physical effects, including injection regimes—above threshold ionization assisted injection, wave-breaking injection by carrier-envelope-phase effects and ionization injection—ionization gradient induced laser pulse evolution, and thermal modifications to the wake structure that need considering when extrapolating laser wakefield acceleration to different wavelength regimes.
G. von Gersdorff, S. Panahiyan, and W. Chen
Unification of topological invariants in Dirac models
Phys. Rev. B, 103 :245146 (June 2021)
Topological phases of materials are characterized by topological invariants that are conventionally calculated by different means according to the dimension and symmetry class of the system. For topological materials described by Dirac models, we introduce a wrapping number as a unified approach to obtain the topological invariants in arbitrary dimensions and symmetry classes. Given a unit vector that parametrizes the momentum dependence of the Dirac model, the wrapping number describes the degree of the map from the Brillouin zone torus to the sphere formed by the unit vector that we call the Dirac sphere. This method is gauge-invariant and originates from the intrinsic features of the Dirac model and moreover places all known topological invariants, such as the Chern number, winding number, Pfaffian, etc, on equal footing.
S. Fritzsche, and A. Surzhykov
Approximate Atomic Green Functions
Molecules, 26 :2660 (May 2021)
In atomic and many-particle physics, Green functions often occur as propagators to formally represent the (integration over the) complete spectrum of the underlying Hamiltonian. However, while these functions are very crucial to describing many second- and higher-order perturbation processes, they have hardly been considered and classified for complex atoms. Here, we show how relativistic (many-electron) Green functions can be approximated and systematically improved for few- and many-electron atoms and ions. The representation of these functions is based on classes of virtual excitations, or so-called excitation schemes, with regard to given bound-state reference configurations, and by applying a multi-configuration Dirac-Hartree-Fock expansion of all atomic states involved. A first implementation of these approximate Green functions has been realized in the framework of Jac, the Jena Atomic Calculator, and will facilitate the study of various multi-photon and/or multiple electron (emission) processes.
J. Körner, S. Zulic, J. Reiter, M. Lenski, J. Hein, R. Bödefeld, D. Rostohar, T. Mocek, and M.C. Kaluza
Compact, diode-pumped, unstable cavity Yb:YAG laser and its application in laser shock peening
Opt. Express, 29 :15724 (May 2021)
We present the setup of a compact, q-switched, cryogenically cooled Yb:YAG laser, which is capable of producing over 1 J output energy in a 10 ns pulse at 10 Hz. The system’s design is based on the recently published unstable cavity layout with gain shaping of the spatial intra-cavity intensity distribution. Using a hexagonal homogenized pump beam, the laser generated an according hexagonal output beam profile. The suitability of such laser properties for the intended use in a laser shock peening process is demonstrated. In the experiment an aluminum plate was treated and the generated residual stresses in the sample subsequently measured. Other applications of this laser system like laser pumping or surface cleaning are conceivable.
D. Seipt, C. P. Ridgers, D. Del Sorbo, and A. G. R. Thomas
Polarized QED cascades
New J. Phys., 23 :053025 (May 2021)
By taking the spin and polarization of the electrons, positrons and photons into account in the strong-field QED processes of nonlinear Compton emission and pair production, we find that the growth rate of QED cascades in ultra-intense laser fields can be substantially reduced. While this means that fewer particles are produced, we also found them to be highly polarized. We further find that the high-energy tail of the particle spectra is polarized opposite to that expected from Sokolov–Ternov theory, which cannot be explained by just taking into account spin-asymmetries in the pair production process, but results significantly from ‘spin-straggling’. We employ a kinetic equation approach for the electron, positron and photon distributions, each of them spin/polarization-resolved, with the QED effects of photon emission and pair production modelled by a spin/polarization dependent Boltzmann-type collision operator. For photon-seeded cascades, depending on the photon polarization, we find an excess or a shortage of particle production in the early stages of cascade development, which provides a path towards a controlled experiment. Throughout this paper we focus on rotating electric field configuration, which represent an idealized model and allows for a straightforward interpretation of the observed effects.
M. Ruijter, V. Petrillo, T. Teter, M. Valialshchikov, and S. Rykovanov
Signatures of the Carrier Envelope Phase in Nonlinear Thomson Scattering
Crystals, 11 :528 (May 2021)
High-energy radiation can be generated by colliding a relativistic electron bunch with a high-intensity laser pulse-a process known as Thomson scattering. In the nonlinear regime the emitted radiation contains harmonics. For a laser pulse whose length is comparable to its wavelength, the carrier envelope phase changes the behavior of the motion of the electron and therefore the radiation spectrum. Here we show theoretically and numerically the dependency of the spectrum on the intensity of the laser and the carrier envelope phase. Additionally, we also discuss what experimental parameters are required to measure the effects for a beamed pulse.
T. Helk, E. Berger, S. Jamnuch, L. Hoffmann, A. Kabacinski, J. Gautier, F. Tissandier, J.-P. Goddet, H.-T. Chang, J. Oh, C. Das Pemmaraju, T. Pascal, S. Sebban, C. Spielmann, and M. Zuerch
Table-top extreme ultraviolet second harmonic generation
Science Advances, 7 :2265 (May 2021)
The lack of available table-top extreme ultraviolet (XUV) sources with high enough fluxes and coherence properties has limited the availability of nonlinear XUV and x-ray spectroscopies to free-electron lasers ( FELs). Here, we demonstrate second harmonic generation (SHG) on a table-top XUV source by observing SHG near the TiM2,3 edge with a high-harmonic seeded soft x-ray laser. Furthermore, this experiment represents the first SHG experiment in the XUV. First-principles electronic structure calculations suggest the surface specificity and separate the observed signal into its resonant and nonresonant contributions. The realization of XUV-SHG on a table-top source opens up more accessible opportunities for the study of element-specific dynamics in multicomponent systems where surface, interfacial, and bulk-phase asymmetries play a driving role.
C. Gaida, M. Gebhardt, T. Heuermann, Z. Wang, C. Jauregui, and J. Limpert
Transverse mode instability and thermal effects in thulium-doped fiber amplifiers under high thermal loads
Opt. Express, 29 :14963 (May 2021)
We experimentally analyze the average-power-scaling capabilities of ultrafast, thulium-doped fiber amplifiers. It has been theoretically predicted that thulium-doped fiber laser systems, with an emission wavelength around 2 mu m, should be able to withstand much higher heat-loads than their Yb-doped counterparts before the onset of transverse mode instability (TMI) is observed. In this work we experimentally verify this theoretical prediction by operating thulium doped fibers at very high heat-load. In separate experiments we analyze the performance of two different large-core, thulium-doped fiber amplifiers. The first experiment aims at operating a short, very-large core, thulium-doped fiber amplifier at extreme heat-load levels of more than 300 W/m. Even at this extreme heat-load level, the onset of TMI is not observed. The second experiment maximizes the extractable average-output power from a large-core, thulium-doped, fiber amplifier. We have achieved a pump-limited average output power of 1.15 kW without the onset of TMI. However, during a longer period of operation at this power level the amplifier performance steadily degraded and TMI could be observed for average powers in excess of 847 W thereafter. This is the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that TMI has been reported in a thulium-doped fiber amplifier.
S. Skruszewicz, S. Fuchs, J. J. Abel, J. Nathanael, J. Reinhard, C. Rödel, F. Wiesner, M. Wuensche, P. Wachulak, A. Bartnik, K. Janulewicz, H. Fiedorowicz, and G.G. Paulus
Coherence tomography with broad bandwidth extreme ultraviolet and soft X-ray radiation
Appl. Phys. B, 127 :55 (April 2021)
We present an overview of recent results on optical coherence tomography with the use of extreme ultraviolet and soft X-ray radiation (XCT). XCT is a cross-sectional imaging method that has emerged as a derivative of optical coherence tomography (OCT). In contrast to OCT, which typically uses near-infrared light, XCT utilizes broad bandwidth extreme ultraviolet (XUV) and soft X-ray (SXR) radiation (Fuchs et al in Sci Rep 6:20658, 2016). As in OCT, XCT\textquotesingle s axial resolution only scales with the coherence length of the light source. Thus, an axial resolution down to the nanometer range can be achieved. This is an improvement of up to three orders of magnitude in comparison to OCT. XCT measures the reflected spectrum in a common-path interferometric setup to retrieve the axial structure of nanometer-sized samples. The technique has been demonstrated with broad bandwidth XUV/SXR radiation from synchrotron facilities and recently with compact laboratory-based laser-driven sources. Axial resolutions down to 2.2 nm have been achieved experimentally. XCT has potential applications in three-dimensional imaging of silicon-based semiconductors, lithography masks, and layered structures like XUV mirrors and solar cells.