Peer-Review Publications


S. Fritzsche
Photon Emission from Hollow Ions Near Surfaces
Atoms, 10 :37 (June 2022)
Ions with multiple inner-shell vacancies frequently arise due to their interaction with different targets, such as (intense) light pulses, atoms, clusters or bulk material. They are formed, in addition, if highly charged ions approach surfaces and capture electrons at rather large distances. To explore the interaction of such hollow ions and their subsequent relaxation, photon spectra in different frequency regions have been measured and compared to calculations. To support these and related measurements, we here show within the framework of the Jena Atomic Calculator (JAC) how (additional) electrons in outer shells modify photon emission and lead to characteristic shifts in the observed spectra. Further, for highly charged Ar ions in KLm (m = 1 ... 8) configurations, we analyze the mean relaxation time for their stabilization into the different ground configurations. These examples demonstrate how a powerful and flexible toolbox such as JAC will be useful (and necessary) in order to model the photon and electron emission of ions as they occur not only near surfaces but also in astro-, atomic and plasma physics.
A. Sainte-Marie, L. Fedeli, N. Zaïm, F. Karbstein, and H. Vincenti
Quantum vacuum processes in the extremely intense light of relativistic plasma mirror sources
New J. Phys., 24 :065005 (June 2022)
The advent of petawatt-class laser systems allows generating electromagnetic fields of unprecedented strength in a controlled environment, driving increasingly more efforts to probe yet unobserved processes through their interaction with the quantum vacuum. Still, the lowest intensity scale governing these effects lies orders of magnitude beyond foreseen capabilities, so that such endeavor is expected to remain extremely challenging. In recent years, however, plasma mirrors have emerged as a promising bridge across this gap, by enabling the conversion of intense infrared laser pulses into coherently focused Doppler harmonic beams lying in the X-UV range. In this work, we present predictions on the quantum vacuum signatures produced when such beams are focused to intensities between 1024 and 1028 W cm−2, specifically photon–photon scattering and electron–positron pair creation. These signatures are computed via the stimulated vacuum formalism, combined with a model of perfectly focused beam built from PIC-generated harmonics spectra, and implemented on state-of-the-art massively parallel numerical tools. In view of identifying experimentally favorable configurations, we also consider the coupling of the focused harmonic beam with an auxiliary optical beam, and provide comparison with other established schemes. Our results show that a single coherently focused harmonic beam can produce as much scattered photons as two infrared pulses in head-on collision, and confirm that the coupling of the harmonic beam to an auxiliary beam gives rise to significant levels of inelastic scattering, and hence holds the potential to strongly improve the attainable signal to noise ratios in experiments.
D. Erb, J. Perlich, V. Roth, R. Röhlsberger, and K. Schlage
Real-Time Observation of Temperature-Induced Surface Nanofaceting in M-Plane alpha-Al2O3
ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 14 :31373 (June 2022)
The spontaneous crystal surface reconstruction of M-plane alpha-Al2O3 is employed for nanopatterning and nanofabrication in various fields of research including, among others, magnetism, superconductivity, and optoelectronics. In this reconstruction process the crystalline surface transforms from a planar morphology to one with a nanoscale ripple patterning. However, the high sample temperature required to induce surface reconstruction made in situ studies of the process seem unfeasible. The kinetics of ripple pattern formation therefore remained uncertain, and thus production of templates for nanofabrication could not advance beyond a trial-and-error stage. We present an approach combining in situ real-time grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering experiments (GISAXS) with model-based analysis and with ex situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) to observe this morphological transition in great detail. Our approach provides time-resolved information about all relevant morphological parameters required to trace the surface topography on the nanometer scale during reconstruction, i.e., the time dependence of the pattern wavelength, the ripple length, width, and height, and thus their facet angles. It offers a comprehensive picture of this process exemplified by a M-plane alpha-Al2O3 surface annealed at 1325 degrees C for 930 min. Fitting the model parameters to the experimental GISAXS data revealed a Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov type of behavior for the pattern wavelength and a predominantly linear time dependence of the other parameters. In this case the reconstruction resulted in a crystalline surface fully patterned with asymmetric ripple-shaped nanostructures of 75 nm periodicity, 15 nm in height, and 630 nm in length. By elucidating the time dependence of these morphological parameters, this study shows a powerful way to significantly advance the predictability of annealing outcome and thus to efficiently customize nanopatterned alpha-Al2O3 templates for improved nanofabrication routines.
T. Heuermann, Z. Wang, M. Lenski, M. Gebhardt, C. Gaida, M. Abdelaal, J. Buldt, M. Mueller, A. Klenke, and J. Limpert
Ultrafast Tm-doped fiber laser system delivering 1.65-mJ, sub-100-fs pulses at a 100-kHz repetition rate
Opt. Lett., 47 :3095 (June 2022)
High-energy, ultrafast, short-wavelength infrared laser sources with high average power are important tools for industrial and scientific applications. Through the coherent combination of four ultrafast thulium-doped rod-type fiber amplifiers, we demonstrate a Tm-doped chirped pulse amplification system with a compressed pulse energy of 1.65 mJ and 167 W of average output power at a repetition rate of 101 kHz. The system delivers 85 fs pulses with a peak power of 15 GW. Additionally, the system presents a high long- and short-term stability. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest average output power short wavelength IR, mJ-class source to date. This result shows the potential of coherent beam combining techniques in the short wavelength infrared spectral region for the power scalability of these systems.
P. Martin, H. Ahmed, D. Doria, A. Alejo, R. Clarke, S. Ferguson, J. Fernandez-Tobias, R. R. Freeman, J. Fuchs, A. Green, J. S. Green, D. Gwynne, F. Hanton, J. Jarrett, D. Jung, K. F. Kakolee, A. G. Krygier, C. L. S. Lewis, A. McIlvenny, P. McKenna, J. T. Morrison, Z. Najmudin, K. Naughton, G. Nersisyan, P. Norreys, M. Notley, M. Roth, J. A. Ruiz, C. Scullion, M. Zepf, S. Zhai, M. Borghesi, and S. Kar
Absolute calibration of Fujifilm BAS-TR image plate response to laser driven protons up to 40 MeV
Rev. Sci. Instrum., 93 :053303 (May 2022)
Image plates (IPs) are a popular detector in the field of laser driven ion acceleration, owing to their high dynamic range and reusability. An absolute calibration of these detectors to laser-driven protons in the routinely produced tens of MeV energy range is, therefore, essential. In this paper, the response of Fujifilm BAS-TR IPs to 1-40 MeV protons is calibrated by employing the detectors in high resolution Thomson parabola spectrometers in conjunction with a CR-39 nuclear track detector to determine absolute proton numbers. While CR-39 was placed in front of the image plate for lower energy protons, it was placed behind the image plate for energies above 10 MeV using suitable metal filters sandwiched between the image plate and CR-39 to select specific energies. The measured response agrees well with previously reported calibrations as well as standard models of IP response, providing, for the first time, an absolute calibration over a large range of proton energies of relevance to current experiments.
A. Steinkopff, C. Aleshire, A. Klenke, C. Jauregui, and J. Limpert
Mitigation of thermally-induced performance limitations in coherently-combined multicore fiber amplifiers
Opt. Express, 30 :16896 (May 2022)
Multicore fiber (MCF) amplifiers have gained increasing interest over the past years and shown their huge potential in first experiments. However, high thermal loads can be expected when operating such an amplifier at its limit. Especially in short MCF amplifiers that are pumped in counter-propagation, this leads to non-uniform mode-shrinking in the cores and, consequently, to a degradation of the system performance. In this work we show different ways to counteract the performance limitations induced by thermal effects in coherently-combined, multicore fiber amplifiers. First, we will show that pumping MCFs in co-propagation will significantly improve the combinable average power since the thermal load at the fiber end is reduced. However, this approach might not be favorable for high energy extraction. Therefore, we will introduce a new MCF design pumped in counter-propagation that leads to a reduction of the thermal load at the fiber end, which will allow for both high combined output power and pulse energy.
B. Marx-Glowna, B. Grabiger, R. Loetzsch, I. Uschmann, A. T. Schmitt, K. S. Schulze, A. Last, T. Roth, S. Antipov, H.-P. Schlenvoigt, I. Sergueev, O. Leupold, R. Roehlsberger, and G.G. Paulus
Scanning high-sensitive x-ray polarization microscopy
New J. Phys., 24 :053051 (May 2022)
We report on the realization of an extremely sensitive x-ray polarization microscope, allowing to detect tiniest polarization changes of 1 in 100 billion (10(-11)) with a mu m-size focused beam. The extreme degree of polarization purity places the most stringent requirements on the orientation of the polarizer and analyzer crystals as well as the composition and the form fidelity of the lenses, which must not exhibit any birefringence. The results show that these requirements are currently only met by polymer lenses. Highly sensitive scanning x-ray polarization microscopy thus is established as a new method. It can provide new insights in a wide range of applications ranging from quantum electrodynamics and quantum optics to x-ray spectroscopy, materials research, and laser physics.
B. Zhu, A. Gumberidze, T. Over, G. Weber, Z. Andelkovic, A. Bräuning-Demian, R. J. Chen, D. Dmytriiev, O. Forstner, C. Hahn, F. Herfurth, M. O. Herdrich, P.-M. Hillenbrand, A. Kalinin, F. M. Kröger, M. Lestinsky, Yu. A. Litvinov, E. B. Menz, W. Middents, T. Morgenroth, N. Petridis, P. Pfäfflein, M. S. Sanjari, R. S. Sidhu, U. Spillmann, R. Schuch, S. Schippers, S. Trotsenko, L. Varga, G. Vorobyev, and T. Stöhlker
X-ray emission associated with radiative recombination for Pb⁸²⁺ ions at threshold energies
Phys. Rev. A, 105 :052804 (May 2022)
For decelerated bare lead ions at a low beam energy of 10 MeV/u, the x-ray emission associated with radiative recombination (RR) at threshold energies has been studied at the electron cooler of CRYRING@ESR at GSI, Darmstadt. In our experiment, we observed the full x-ray emission pattern by utilizing dedicated x-ray detection chambers installed at 0∘ and 180∘ observation geometry. Most remarkably, no line distortion effects due to delayed emission are present in the well-defined x-ray spectra, spanning a wide range of x-ray energies (from about 5 to 100 keV), which enables us to identify fine-structure resolved Lyman, Balmer, and Paschen x-ray lines along with the RR transitions into the K, L, and M shells of the ions. For comparison with theory, an elaborate theoretical model is established taking into account the initial population distribution via RR for all atomic levels up to Rydberg states with principal quantum number n=165 in combination with time-dependent feeding transitions. Within the statistical accuracy, the experimental data are in very good agreement with the results of rigorous relativistic predictions. Most notably, this comparison sheds light on the contribution of prompt and delayed x-ray emission (up to 70 ns) to the observed x-ray spectra, originating in particular from yrast transitions into inner shells.
A. de Beurs, L. Lötgering, M. Herczog, M. Du, K. Eikema, and S. Witte
aPIE: an angle calibration algorithm for reflection ptychography
Opt. Lett., 47 :1949 (April 2022)
Reflection ptychography is a lensfree microscopy technique particularly promising in regions of the electromagnetic spectrum where imaging optics are inefficient or not available. This is the case in tabletop extreme ultraviolet microscopy and grazing incidence small angle x ray scattering experiments. Combining such experimental configurations with ptychography requires accurate knowledge of the relative tilt between the sample and the detector in non-coplanar scattering geometries. Here, we describe an algorithm for tilt estimation in reflection ptychography. The method is verified experimentally, enabling sample tilt determination within a fraction of a degree. Furthermore, the angle-estimation uncertainty and reconstruction quality are studied for both smooth and highly structured beams.
C. Aleshire, A. Steinkopff, A. Klenke, C. Jauregui, S. Kuhn, J. Nold, N. Haarlammert, T. Schreiber, and J. Limpert
High-energy Q-switched 16-core tapered rod-type fiber laser system
Opt. Lett., 47 :1725 (April 2022)
High-energy Q-switched master oscillator power amplifier systems based on rod-type 4 × 4 multicore fibers are demonstrated, achieving energy up to 49 mJ in ns-class pulses. A tapered fiber geometry is tested that maintains low mode order in large multimode output cores, improving beam quality in comparison to a similar fiber with no taper. The tapered fiber design can be scaled both in the number of amplifying cores and in the dimensions of the cores themselves, providing a potential route toward joule-class fiber lasers systems.
M. Hoesch, J. Seltmann, F. Trinter, S. Kuhn, M. Togawa, R. Steinbrügge, S. Bernitt, and J. R. C. Lopez-Urrutia
Highly Charged Ions for High-Resolution Soft X-ray Grating Monochromator Optimisation
14th International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation (April 2022)
W. Eschen, L. Loetgering, V. Schuster, R. Klas, A. Kirsche, L. Berthold, M. Steinert, T. Pertsch, H. Gross, M. Krause, J. Limpert, and J. Rothhardt
Material-specific high-resolution table-top extreme ultraviolet microscopy
Light Sci. Appl., 11 :2678 (April 2022)
Microscopy with extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation holds promise for high-resolution imaging with excellent material contrast, due to the short wavelength and numerous element-specific absorption edges available in this spectral range. At the same time, EUV radiation has significantly larger penetration depths than electrons. It thus enables a nano-scale view into complex three-dimensional structures that are important for material science, semiconductor metrology, and next-generation nano-devices. Here, we present high-resolution and material-specific microscopy at 13.5 nm wavelength. We combine a highly stable, high photon-flux, table-top EUV source with an interferometrically stabilized ptychography setup. By utilizing structured EUV illumination, we overcome the limitations of conventional EUV focusing optics and demonstrate high-resolution microscopy at a half-pitch lateral resolution of 16 nm. Moreover, we propose mixed-state orthogonal probe relaxation ptychography, enabling robust phase-contrast imaging over wide fields of view and long acquisition times. In this way, the complex transmission of an integrated circuit is precisely reconstructed, allowing for the classification of the material composition of mesoscopic semiconductor systems.
J. B. Ohland, U. Eisenbarth, B. Zielbauer, Y. Zobus, D. Posor, J. Hornung, D. Reemts, and V. Bagnoud
Ultra-compact post-compressor on-shot wavefront measurement for beam correction at PHELIX
HPLaser, 10 :18 (April 2022)
In order to reach the highest intensities, modern laser systems use adaptive optics to control their beam quality. Ideally, the focal spot is optimized after the compression stage of the system in order to avoid spatio-temporal couplings. This also requires a wavefront sensor after the compressor, which should be able to measure the wavefront on-shot. At PHELIX, we have developed an ultra-compact post-compressor beam diagnostic due to strict space constraints, measuring the wavefront over the full aperture of 28 cm. This system features all-reflective imaging beam transport and a high dynamic range in order to measure the wavefront in alignment mode as well as on shot.
J. Stierhof, S. Kuhn, M. Winter, P. Micke, R. Steinbrügge, C. Shah, N. Hell, M. Bissinger, M. Hirsch, R. Ballhausen, M. Lang, C. Gräfe, S. Wipf, R. Cumbee, G. L. Betancourt-Martinez, S. Park, J. Niskanen, M. Chung, F. S. Porter, T. Stöhlker, T. Pfeifer, G. V. Brown, S. Bernitt, P. Hansmann, J. Wilms, J. R. Crespo López-Urrutia, and M. A. Leutenegger
A new benchmark of soft X-ray transition energies of Ne, CO2, and SF6: paving a pathway towards ppm accuracy
Eur. Phys. J. D, 76 :38 (March 2022)
A key requirement for the correct interpretation of high-resolution X-ray spectra is that transition energies are known with high accuracy and precision. We investigate the K-shell features of Ne, CO2, and SF6 gases, by measuring their photo ion-yield spectra at the BESSY II synchrotron facility simultaneously with the 1s–np fluorescence emission of He-like ions produced in the Polar-X EBIT. Accurate ab initio calculations of transitions in these ions provide the basis of the calibration. While the CO2 result agrees well with previous measurements, the SF6 spectrum appears shifted by ∼0.5 eV, about twice the uncertainty of the earlier results. Our result for Ne shows a large departure from earlier results, but may suffer from larger systematic effects than our other measurements. The molecular spectra agree well with our results of time-dependent density functional theory. We find that the statistical uncertainty allows calibrations in the desired range of 1–10 meV, however, systematic contributions still limit the uncertainty to ∼40–100 meV, mainly due to the temporal stability of the monochromator energy scale. Combining our absolute calibration technique with a relative energy calibration technique such as photoelectron energy spectroscopy will be necessary to realize its full potential of achieving uncertainties as low as 1–10 meV.
S. Haedrich, E. Shestaev, M. Tschernajew, F. Stutzki, N. Walther, F. Just, M. Kienel, I. Seres, P. Jójárt, Z. Bengery, B. Gilicze, Z. Várallyay, A. Borzsonyi, M. Mueller, C. Grebing, A. Klenke, D. Hoff, G. Paulus, T. Eidam, and J. Limpert
Carrier-envelope phase stable few-cycle laser system delivering more than 100 W, 1 mJ, sub-2-cycle pulses
Opt. Lett., 47 :1537 (March 2022)
Two-stage multipass-cell compression of a fiber-chirpedpulse amplifier system to the few-cycle regime is presented. The output delivers a sub-2-cycle (5.8 fs), 107W average power, 1.07 mJ pulses at 100kHz centered at 1030nm with excellent spatial beam quality (M-2 =1.1, Strehl ratio S = 0.98), pointing stability (2.3 mu rad), and superior long-term average power stability of 0.1% STD over more than 8 hours. This is combined with a carrier-envelope phase stability of 360mrad in the frequency range from 10Hz to 50kHz, i.e., measured on a single-shot basis. This unique system will serve as an HR1 laser for the Extreme Light Infrastructure Attosecond Light Pulse Source research facility to enable high repetition rate isolated attosecond pulse generation
M. Zimmer, S. Scheuren, A. Kleinschmidt, N. Mitura, A. Tebartz, G. Schaumann, T. Abel, T. Ebert, M. Hesse, S. Zaehter, S. Vogel, O. Merle, R.-J. Ahlers, S. Pinto, M. Peschke, T. Kroell, V. Bagnoud, C. Roedel, and M. Roth
Demonstration of non-destructive and isotope-sensitive material analysis using a short-pulsed laser-driven epi-thermal neutron source
Nat. Commun., 13 :2051 (March 2022)
High-power laser beams can be used to accelerate neutron beams. Here the authors demonstrate the application of laser-driven neutron beams to neutron resonance spectroscopy and neutron resonance imaging. Neutrons are a valuable tool for non-destructive material investigation as their interaction cross sections with matter are isotope sensitive and can be used complementary to x-rays. So far, most neutron applications have been limited to large-scale facilities such as nuclear research reactors, spallation sources, and accelerator-driven neutron sources. Here we show the design and optimization of a laser-driven neutron source in the epi-thermal and thermal energy range, which is used for non-invasive material analysis. Neutron resonance spectroscopy, neutron radiography, and neutron resonance imaging with moderated neutrons are demonstrated for investigating samples in terms of isotope composition and thickness. The experimental results encourage applications in non-destructive and isotope-sensitive material analysis and pave the way for compact laser-driven neutron sources with high application potential.
D. Budker, J. Berengut, V. Flambaum, M. Gorchtein, J. Jin, F. Karbstein, M. Krasny, Y. Litvinov, A. Pálffy, V. Pascalutsa, A. Petrenko, A. Surzhykov, P. Thirolf, M. Vanderhaeghen, H. Weidenmüller, and V. Zelevinsky
Expanding Nuclear Physics Horizons with the Gamma Factory
Ann. Phys. (Berlin), 534 (3) :2100284 (March 2022)
Abstract The Gamma Factory (GF) is an ambitious proposal, currently explored within the CERN Physics Beyond Colliders program, for a source of photons with energies up to ≈400 MeV and photon fluxes (up to ≈1017 photons s-1) exceeding those of the currently available gamma sources by orders of magnitude. The high-energy (secondary) photons are produced via resonant scattering of the primary laser photons by highly relativistic partially-stripped ions circulating in the accelerator. The secondary photons are emitted in a narrow cone and the energy of the beam can be monochromatized, down to 10-3...10-6 level, via collimation, at the expense of the photon flux. This paper surveys the new opportunities that may be afforded by the GF in nuclear physics and related fields.
V. P. Kosheleva, A. V. Volotka, D. A. Glazov, D. V. Zinenko, and S. Fritzsche
g Factor of Lithiumlike Silicon and Calcium: Resolving the Disagreement between Theory and Experiment
Phys. Rev. Lett., 128 :103001 (March 2022)
The bound-electron g factor is a stringent tool for tests of the standard model and the search for new physics. The comparison between an experiment on the g factor of lithiumlike silicon and the two recent theoretical values revealed the discrepancies of 1.7 sigma [Glazov et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 123, 173001 (2019)] and 5.2 sigma [Yerokhin et al. Phys. Rev. A 102, 022815 (2020)]. To identify the reason for this disagreement, we accomplish large-scale high-precision computation of the interelectronic-interaction and many-electron QED corrections. The calculations are performed within the extended Furry picture of QED, and the dependence of the final values on the choice of the binding potential is carefully analyzed. As a result, we significantly improve the agreement between the theory and experiment for the g factor of lithiumlike silicon. We also report the most accurate theoretical prediction to date for lithiumlike calcium, which perfectly agrees with the experimental value.
S. Fritzsche
Level Structure and Properties of Open f-Shell Elements
Atoms, 10 :7 (March 2022)
Open f-shell elements still constitute a great challenge for atomic theory owing to their (very) rich fine-structure and strong correlations among the valence-shell electrons. For these medium and heavy elements, many atomic properties are sensitive to the correlated motion of electrons and, hence, require large-scale computations in order to deal consistently with all relativistic, correlation and rearrangement contributions to the electron density. Often, different concepts and notations need to be combined for just classifying the low-lying level structure of these elements. With JAC, the Jena Atomic Calculator, we here provide a toolbox that helps to explore and deal with such elements with open d- and f-shell structures. Based on Dirac\textquotesingle s equation, JAC is suitable for almost all atoms and ions across the periodic table. As an example, we demonstrate how reasonably accurate computations can be performed for the low-lying level structure, transition probabilities and lifetimes for Th2+ ions with a 5f6d ground configuration. Other, and more complex, shell structures are supported as well, though often for a trade-off between the size and accuracy of the computations. Owing to its simple use, however, JAC supports both quick estimates and detailed case studies on open d- or f-shell elements.
S. Ramakrishna, J. Hofbrucker, and S. Fritzsche
Photoexcitation of atoms by cylindrically polarized Laguerre-Gaussian beams
Phys. Rev. A, 105 :033103 (March 2022)
We analyze the photoexcitation of atoms with a single valence electron by cylindrically polarized Laguerre-Gaussian beams. Theoretical analysis is performed within the framework of first-order perturbation theory and by expanding the vector potential of the Laguerre-Gaussian beam in terms of its multipole components. For cylindrically polarized Laguerre-Gaussian beams, we show that the (magnetic) sub-components of electric-quadrupole field vary significantly in the beam cross section with beam waist and radial distance from the beam axis. We discuss the influence of varying magnetic multipole components in the beam cross section on the sublevel population of a localized atomic target. In addition, we calculate the total excitation rate of electric-quadrupole transition (4s S-2(1/2) -> 3d D-2(5/2)) in a mesoscopic target of a Ca+ ion. These calculations shows that the total rate of excitation is sensitive to the beam waist and the distance between the center of the target and the beam axis. However, the excitation by a cylindrically polarized Laguerre-Gaussian beam is found more efficient in driving electric-quadrupole transition in the mesoscopic atomic target than the circularly polarized beams.
A. Volotka, D. Samoilenko, S. Fritzsche, V. Serbo, and A. Surzhykov
Polarization of Photons Scattered by Ultra-Relativistic Ion Beams
Ann. Phys., 534 :2100252 (March 2022)
A theoretical investigation of the elastic resonant scattering of photons by ultra-relativistic and partially stripped ions is presented. Particular attention in the study is given to the angular distribution and polarization of scattered photons as \textasciigrave \textasciigrave seen" in both the ion-rest and laboratory reference frames. In order to evaluate these angular and polarization properties, the irreducible polarization tensor approach is combined with the density matrix theory. If, furthermore, the ion-photon coupling is treated within the electric dipole approximation, this framework enables one to obtain simple analytical expressions for both the emission pattern and the polarization Stokes parameters of the outgoing radiation. These (analytical) expressions for the nS0 -> n \textasciigrave P1 -> nS0\textbackslash \textdollar n S_0 \textbackslash rightarrow n<\^>\textbackslash \textbackslash prime \textbackslash P_1 \textbackslash rightarrow n S_0\textbackslash \textdollar , nS1/2 -> n \textasciigrave P1/2 -> nS1/2\textbackslash \textdollar n S_\textbackslash 1/2\textbackslash \textbackslash rightarrow n<\^>\textbackslash \textbackslash prime \textbackslash P_\textbackslash 1/2\textbackslash \textbackslash rightarrow n S_\textbackslash 1/2\textbackslash \textbackslash \textdollar , and nS1/2 -> n \textasciigrave P3/2 -> nS1/2\textbackslash \textdollar n S_\textbackslash 1/2\textbackslash \textbackslash rightarrow n<\^>\textbackslash \textbackslash prime \textbackslash P_\textbackslash 3/2\textbackslash \textbackslash rightarrow n S_\textbackslash 1/2\textbackslash \textbackslash \textdollar transitions are displayed and analyzed , that are of interest for the Gamma Factory project and whose realization is currently under discussion at CERN. Based on the performed analysis, it is demonstrated that the resonantly scattered photons can be strongly (linearly or circularly) polarized, and that this polarization can be well controlled by adjusting either the emission angle and/or the polarization state of the incident radiation. Moreover, the potential of the photon scattering for measuring the spin-polarization of ion beams is also discussed in detail.
K. Schulze, B. Grabiger, R. Loetzsch, B. Marx-Glowna, A. Schmitt, A. Garcia, W. Hippler, L. Huang, F. Karbstein, Z. Konopkova, H.-P. Schlenvoigt, J.-P. Schwinkendorf, C. Strohm, T. Toncian, I. Uschmann, H.-C. Wille, U. Zastrau, R. Röhlsberger, T. Stöhlker, T. Cowan, and G. Paulus
Towards perfectly linearly polarized x-rays
Phys. Rev. Research, 4 :013220 (March 2022)
In recent years, high-precision x-ray polarimeters have become a key method for the investigation of fundamental physical questions from solid-state physics to quantum optics. Here, we report on the verification of a polarization purity of better than 8×10−11 at an x-ray free-electron laser, which implies a suppression of the incoming photons to the noise level in the crossed polarizer setting. This purity provides exceptional sensitivity to tiny polarization changes and offers intriguing perspectives for fundamental tests of quantum electrodynamics.
F. Karbstein
Vacuum Birefringence at the Gamma Factory
Ann. Phys. (Berlin), 534 (3) :2100137 (March 2022)
Abstract The perspectives of studying vacuum birefringence at the Gamma Factory are explored. To this end, the parameter regime which can be reliably analyzed resorting to the leading contribution to the Heisenberg?Euler effective Lagrangian is assessed in detail. It is explicitly shown that?contrary to naive expectations?this approach allows for the accurate theoretical study of quantum vacuum signatures up to fairly large photon energies. The big advantage of this parameter regime is the possibility of studying the phenomenon in experimentally realistic, manifestly inhomogeneous pump and probe field configurations. Thereafter, two specific scenarios giving rise to a vacuum birefringence effect for traversing gamma probe photons are analyzed. In the first scenario the birefringence phenomenon is induced by a quasi-constant static magnetic field. In the second case it is driven by a counter-propagating high-intensity laser field.
N. Dimitrov, M. Zhekova, Y. Zhang, G. Paulus, and A. Dreischuh
Background-free femtosecond autocorrelation in collinearly-aligned inverted field geometry using optical vortices
Opt. Commun., 504 :127493 (February 2022)
Among the existing techniques for measuring ultrashort pulse durations, the two classical second-order methods - interferometric and the background-free autocorrelation - are distinguished due to their simplicity and reliability. In this work we report on a technique that allows realignment-free switching between these two modes of autocorrelation. It is based on a collinearly aligned inverted-field interferometer and an optical vortex plate that is added/removed in front of the device in order to switch between both modes. Experiment and theoretical modeling confirm the effectiveness of the technique down to the 10-fs range.
L. Doyle, P. Khademi, P. Hilz, A. Sävert, G. Schäfer, J. Schreiber, and M. Zepf
Experimental estimates of the photon background in a potential light-by-light scattering study
New J. Phys., 24 :025003 (February 2022)
High power short pulse lasers provide a promising route to study the strong field effects of the quantum vacuum, for example by direct photon-photon scattering in the all-optical regime. Theoretical predictions based on realistic laser parameters achievable today or in the near future predict scattering of a few photons with colliding Petawatt laser pulses, requiring single photon sensitive detection schemes and very good spatio-temporal filtering and background suppression. In this article, we present experimental investigations of this photon background by employing only a single high power laser pulse tightly focused in residual gas of a vacuum chamber. The focal region was imaged onto a single-photon sensitive, time gated camera. As no detectable quantum vacuum signature was expected in our case, the setup allowed for characterization and first mitigation of background contributions. For the setup employed, scattering off surfaces of imperfect optics dominated below residual gas pressures of 1 x 10(-4) mbar. Extrapolation of the findings to intensities relevant for photon-photon scattering studies is discussed.