Peer-Review Publications


M. Baumgartl, M. Chemnitz, C. Jauregui, T. Meyer, B. Dietzek, J. Popp, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann
All-fiber laser source for CARS microscopy based on fiber optical parametric frequency conversion
Opt. Express, 20 :4484 (February 2012)
A novel approach for an all-fiber mono-laser source for CARS microscopy is presented. An Yb-fiber laser generates 100 ps pulses, which later undergo narrowband in-fiber frequency conversion based on degenerate four-wave-mixing. The frequency conversion is optimized to access frequency shifts between 900 and 3200 cm^(−1), relevant for vibrational imaging. Inherently synchronized pump and Stokes pulses are available at one fiber end, readily overlapped in space and time. The source is applied to CARS spectroscopy and microscopy experiments in the CH-stretching region around 3000 cm^(−1). Due to its simplicity and maintenance-free operation, the laser scheme holds great potential for bio-medical applications outside laser laboratories.
R. Fraga, A. Kalinin, M. Kühnel, D. C. Hochhaus, A. Schottelius, J. Polz, M.C. Kaluza, P. Neumayer, and R. E. Grisenti
Compact cryogenic source of periodic hydrogen and argon droplet beams for relativistic laser-plasma generation
Rev. Sci. Instrum., 83 :025102 (February 2012)
We present a cryogenic source of periodic streams of micrometer-sized hydrogen and argon droplets as ideal mass-limited target systems for fundamental intense laser-driven plasma applications. The highly compact design combined with a high temporal and spatial droplet stability makes our injector ideally suited for experiments using state-of-the-art high-power lasers in which a precise synchronization between the laser pulses and the droplets is mandatory. We show this by irradiating argon droplets with multi-terawatt pulses.
M. Schnell, A. Sävert, B. Landgraf, M. Reuter, M. Nicolai, O. Jäckel, C. Peth, T. Thiele, O. Jansen, A. Pukhov, O. Willi, M.C. Kaluza, and C. Spielmann
Deducing the Electron-Beam Diameter in a Laser-Plasma Accelerator Using X-Ray Betatron Radiation
Phys. Rev. Lett., 108 :075001 (February 2012)
We investigate the properties of a laser-plasma electron accelerator as a bright source of keV x-ray radiation. During the interaction, the electrons undergo betatron oscillations and from the carefully measured x-ray spectrum the oscillation amplitude of the electrons can be deduced which decreases with increasing electron energies. From the oscillation amplitude and the independently measured x-ray source size of (1.8 ± 0.3)  μm we are able to estimate the electron bunch diameter to be (1.6 ± 0.3)  μm.
D. R. Atanasov, N. Winckler, D. Balabanski, L. Batist, F. Bosch, D. Boutin, C. Brandau, C. Dimopoulou, H. G. Essel, T. Fästermann, H. Geissel, I. Hachiuma, S. Hess, T. Izumikawa, P. Kienle, R. Knöbel, C. Kozhuharov, J. Kurcewicz, N. Kuzminchuk, S. A. Litvinov, Yu. A. Litvinov, R. S. Mao, R. Märtin, M. Mazzocco, G. Münzenberg, K. Namihira, F. Nolden, T. Ohtsubo, Z. Patyk, R. Reuschl, M. S. Sanjari, C. Scheidenberger, D. Shubina, U. Spillmann, M. Steck, T. Stöhlker, B. Sun, T. Suzuki, M. Trassinelli, I. I. Tupitsyn, H. Weick, M. Winkler, D. F. A. Winters, and T. Yamaguchi
Half-life measurements of stored fully ionized and hydrogen-like I-122 ions
Eur. Phys. J. A, 48 :22 (February 2012)
The half-lives of fully ionized and hydrogen-like (H-like) I-122 ions have been measured in a heavy-ion storage ring. The β^(+)-decay constants for both charge states and the electron capture (EC) decay constant of H-like ions have been determined. The EC-decay constant in H-like I-122 ions λ^(H-like)_(EC) = 7.35(33) · 10^(−4) s^(−1) is, within the uncertainty, the same as the one in neutral atoms. This result is in agreement with the estimates of recent theoretical considerations on the EC-decay of few-electron ions that explicitly take into account the conservation of the total angular momentum of the nucleus plus lepton(s) system and its projections. No firm confirmation could be concluded from our results on the predicted effect that allowed Gamow-Teller transitions become forbidden if the initial and final total angular momenta are not equal.
S. Eyring, C. Kern, M. Zürch, and C. Spielmann
Improving high-order harmonic yield using wavefront-controlled ultrashort laser pulses
Opt. Express, 20 :5601 (February 2012)
In this work we show that it is possible to increase the high-order harmonic yield when using wavefront-shaped laser beams. The investigation of the beam profile near the interaction region shows that the optimized beam is asymmetric and has a larger diameter. Thus, the optimized beam leads to a higher yield even if the peak intensity is lower compared to an unoptimized beam. This indicates that the wavefront of the fundamental laser beam and, accordingly, the focal profile play an important role in the efficient generation of high-order harmonic radiation.
M. Schulz, R. Riedel, A. Willner, S. Duesterer, M. J. Prandolini, J. Feldhaus, B. Faatz, J. Rossbach, M. Drescher, and F. Tavella
Pulsed operation of a high average power Yb:YAG thin-disk multipass amplifier
Opt. Express, 20 :5038 (February 2012)
An Yb:YAG thin-disk multipass laser amplifier system was developed operating in a 10 Hz burst operation mode with 800 µs burst duration and 100 kHz intra-burst repetition rate. Methods for the suppression of parasitic amplified spontaneous emission are presented. The average output pulse energy is up to 44.5 mJ and 820 fs compressed pulse duration. The average power of 4.45 kW during the burst is the highest reported for this type of amplifier.
F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, H.-J. Otto, T. Eidam, A. Liem, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann
Thermally induced waveguide changes in active fibers
Opt. Express, 20 :3997 (February 2012)
Thermally induced waveguide changes become significant for very large mode area fibers. This results in a reduction of the mode-field diameter, but simultaneously in an improvement of the beam quality. In this work the first systematic experimental characterization of the reduction of the mode-field diameter in various fibers during high-power operation is carried out. It is shown that the reduction of the mode-field diameter shows a characteristic behavior that scales with the core size but that is independent of the particular fiber design. Furthermore, the strength of the actual index change is experimentally estimated, and its use to overcome avoided crossings is discussed and experimentally demonstrated.
K. Jansen, F. Karbstein, A. Nagy, and M. Wagner
Lambda_MS from the static potential for QCD with n_f=2 dynamical quark flavors
J. High Energ. Phys., 025 :1 (January 2012)
We determine Lambda((MS)over-bar) for QCD with n_f  = 2 dynamical quark flavors by fitting the QQ̅ static potential known analytically in the perturbative regime up to terms of O(α^4_s) and ~ α^4_s ln(α_s) to corresponding results obtained from lattice simulations. This has become possible, due to recent advances in both perturbative calculations, namely the determination and publication of the last missing contribution to the QQ̅ static potential at O(α^4_s), and lattice simulations with n_f  = 2 dynamical quark flavors performed at the rather fine lattice spacing of a ≈ 0.042 fm. Imposing conservative error estimates we obtain Lambda((MS)over-bar) = 315(30) MeV.
C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, H.-J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann
Temperature-induced index gratings and their impact on mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems
Opt. Express, 20 :440 (January 2012)
Mode-interference along an active fiber in high-power operation gives rise to a longitudinally oscillating temperature profile which, in turn, is converted into a strong index grating via the thermo-optic effect. In the case of mode beating between the fundamental mode and a radially anti-symmetric mode such a grating exhibits two periodic features: a main one which is radially symmetric and has half the period of the modal beating, and a second one that closely follows the mode interference pattern and has its same period. In the case of modal beating between two radially symmetric modes the thermally induced grating only has radially symmetric features and exhibits the same period of the mode interference. The relevance of such gratings in the context of the recently observed mode instabilities of high-power fiber laser systems is discussed.


J. Rothhardt, S. Hädrich, H. Carstens, N. Herrick, S. Demmler, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann
1 MHz repetition rate hollow fiber pulse compression to sub-100-fs duration at 100 W average power
Opt. Lett., 36 :4605 (December 2011)
We report on nonlinear pulse compression at very high average power. A high-power fiber chirped pulse amplification system based on a novel large pitch photonic crystal fiber delivers 700 fs pulses with 200 μJ pulse energy at a 1 MHz repetition rate, resulting in 200 W of average power. Subsequent spectral broadening in a xenon-filled hollow-core fiber and pulse compression with chirped mirrors is employed for pulse shortening and peak power enhancement. For the first time, to our knowledge, more than 100 W of average power are transmitted through a noble-gas-filled hollow fiber. After pulse compression of 81 fs, 93 μJ pulses are obtained at a 1 MHz repetition rate.
A. Klenke, E. Seise, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann
Basic considerations on coherent combining of ultrashort laser pulses
Opt. Express, 19 :25379 (December 2011)
Coherent combining is a novel approach to scale the performance of laser amplifiers. The use of ultrashort pulses in a coherent combining setup results in new challenges compared to continuous wave operation or to pulses on the nanosecond timescale, because temporal and spectral effects such as self-phase modulation, dispersion and the optical path length difference between the pulses have to be considered. In this paper the impact of these effects on the combining process has been investigated and simple analytical equations for the evaluation of this impact have been obtained. These formulas provide design guidelines for laser systems using coherent combining. The results show that, in spite of the temporal and spectral effects mentioned above, for a carefully adjusted and stabilized system an excellent efficiency of the combining process can still be achieved.
N. I. Shvetsov-Shilovski, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, and G.G. Paulus
Carrier-envelope phase effect in the yield of sequential ionization by an intense few-cycle laser pulse
New J. Phys., 13 :123015 (December 2011)
The relative yield of highly charged atomic ions produced by a short (4–6 fs at FWHM) intense (10^14 – 5 × 10^18 W cm^(−2)) laser pulse was investigated by numerical solution of the rate equations. We predict oscillations of the ion yield as a function of the absolute phase. A distinctive property of this phase dependence is that it can only be observed when at least two ions have comparable yields. It is shown that with currently available laser systems the effect should be experimentally detectable for various rare gas atoms: Xe, Kr, Ar and Ne.
M. Grech, S. Skupin, A. Diaw, T. Schlegel, and V. T. Tikhonchuk
Energy dispersion in radiation pressure accelerated ion beams
New J. Phys., 13 :123003 (December 2011)
We address the problem of energy dispersion of radiation pressure accelerated (RPA) ion beams emerging from a thin target. Two different acceleration regimes, namely phase-stable acceleration and multistage acceleration, are considered by means of analytical modeling and one-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. Our investigations offer a deeper understanding of RPA and allow us to derive some guidelines for generating monoenergetic ion beams.
F. Stutzki, H. Otto, F. Jansen, C. Gaida, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann
High-speed modal decomposition of mode instabilities in high-power fiber lasers
Opt. Lett., 36 :4572 (December 2011)
A high-speed mode analysis technique is required to gain fundamental understanding of mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems. In this work a technique, purely based on the intensity profile of the beam, is demonstrated to be ideally suited to analyze fiber laser dynamics. This technique, together with a high-speed camera, has been applied to the study of the temporal dynamics of mode instabilities at high average powers with up to 20,000 frames per second. These measurements confirm that energy transfer between the fluctuating transversal modes takes place in millisecond-time-scale.
A. Klenke, E. Seise, S. Demmler, J. Rothhardt, S. Breitkopf, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann
Coherently-combined two channel femtosecond fiber CPA system producing 3 mJ pulse energy
Opt. Express, 19 :24280 (November 2011)
We present a fiber CPA system consisting of two coherently combined fiber amplifiers, which have been arranged in an actively stabilized Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Pulse durations as short as 470 fs and pulse energies of 3 mJ, corresponding to 5.4 GW of peak power, have been achieved at an average power of 30 W.
A. Willner, F. Tavella, M. Yeung, T. Dzelzainis, C. Kamperidis, M. Bakarezos, D. Adams, R. Riedel, M. Schulz, M. C. Hoffmann, W. Hu, J. Rossbach, M. Drescher, V. S. Yakovlev, N. A. Papadogiannis, M. Tatarakis, B. Dromey, and M. Zepf
Efficient control of quantum paths via dual-gas high harmonic generation
New J. Phys., 13 :113001 (November 2011)
The accurate control of the relative phase of multiple distinct sources of radiation produced by high harmonic generation is of central importance in the continued development of coherent extreme UV (XUV) and attosecond sources. Here, we present a novel approach which allows extremely accurate phase control between multiple sources of high harmonic radiation generated within the Rayleigh range of a single-femtosecond laser pulse using a dual-gas, multi-jet array. Fully ionized hydrogen acts as a purely passive medium and allows highly accurate control of the relative phase between each harmonic source. Consequently, this method allows quantum path selection and rapid signal growth via the full coherent superposition of multiple HHG sources (the so-called quasi-phase-matching). Numerical simulations elucidate the complex interplay between the distinct quantum paths observed in our proof-of-principle experiments.
N. Petridis, A. Kalinin, U. Popp, V. Gostishchev, Y. Litvinov, C. Dimopoulou, F. Nolden, M. Steck, C. Kozhuharov, D. B. Thorn, A. Gumberidze, S. Trotsenko, S. Hagmann, U. Spillmann, D. F. A. Winters, R. Dörner, T. Stöhlker, and R. E. Grisenti
Energy loss and cooling of relativistic highly charged uranium ions interacting with an internal hydrogen droplet target beam
Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A, 656 :1 (November 2011)
We present measurements of the energy loss of relativistic highly charged uranium ions interacting with a target beam of near-liquid density hydrogen droplets at the experimental storage ring (ESR) at GSI. Our results reveal that a liquid droplet target beam virtually behaves like a homogeneous gas jet target with respect to both energy loss and ion beam cooling. We also provide first results on ion beam cooling efficiency at high hydrogen area target densities, which are consistent with numerical estimations based on a simple model of the cooling force.
A. V. Maiorova, V. M. Shabaev, A. V. Volotka, V. A. Zaytsev, G. Plunien, and T. Stöhlker
Parity nonconservation effect in resonance recombination of polarized electrons with heavy hydrogen-like ions
J. Phys. B, 44 :225003 (November 2011)
Parity nonconservation (PNC) effect in recombination of a polarized electron with a heavy H-like ion in the case of resonance with a doubly excited state of the corresponding He-like ion is studied. It is assumed that photons of the energy corresponding to the one-photon decay of the doubly excited state into the 2 1S0 or 2 3P0 state are detected at a given angle with respect to the incident electron momentum. Calculations are performed for helium-like thorium (Z = 90) and gadolinium (Z = 64), where the 2 1^S_0 and 2 3^P_0 levels are near to cross and, therefore, the PNC effect is strongly enhanced.
L. Willingale, A. G. R. Thomas, P. M. Nilson, M.C. Kaluza, S. Bandyopadhyay, A. E. Dangor, R. G. Evans, P. Fernandes, M. G. Haines, C. Kamperidis, R. J. Kingham, S. Minardi, M. Notley, C. P. Ridgers, W. Rozmus, M. Sherlock, M. Tatarakis, M. S. Wei, Z. Najmudin, and K. Krushelnick
Proton probe measurement of fast advection of magnetic fields by hot electrons
Plasma Phys. Contr. F., 53 :124026 (November 2011)
A laser generated proton beam was used to measure the megagauss strength self-generated magnetic fields from a nanosecond laser interaction with an aluminum target. At intensities of 10^15  W cm^−2 , the significant hot electron production and strong heat fluxes result in non-local transport becoming important to describe the magnetic field dynamics. Two-dimensional implicit Vlasov–Fokker–Planck modeling shows that fast advection of the magnetic field from the focal region occurs via the Nernst effect at significantly higher velocities than the sound speed, v_N / c_s ≈ 10.
E. Seise, A. Klenke, S. Breitkopf, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann
88 W 0.5 mJ femtosecond laser pulses from two coherently combined fiber amplifiers
Opt. Lett., 36 :3858 (October 2011)
The generation of 0.5 mJ femtosecond laser pulses by coherent combining of two high power high energy fiber chirped-pulse amplifiers is reported. The system is running at a repetition frequency of 175 kHz producing 88 W of average power after the compressor unit. Polarizing beam splitters have been used to realize an amplifying Mach–Zehnder interferometer, which has been stabilized with a Hänsch–Couillaud measurement system. The stabilized system possesses a measured residual rms phase difference fluctuation between the two branches as low as λ/70 rad at the maximum power level. The experiment proves that coherent addition of femtosecond fiber lasers can be efficiently and reliably performed at high B-integral and considerable thermal load in the individual amplifiers.
A. Willner, F. Tavella, M. Yeung, T. Dzelzainis, C. Kamperidis, M. Bakarezos, D. Adams, M. Schulz, R. Riedel, M. C. Hoffmann, W. Hu, J. Rossbach, M. Drescher, N. A. Papadogiannis, M. Tatarakis, B. Dromey, and M. Zepf
Coherent Control of High Harmonic Generation via Dual-Gas Multijet Arrays
Phys. Rev. Lett., 107 :175002 (October 2011)
High harmonic generation (HHG) is a central driver of the rapidly growing field of ultrafast science. We present a novel quasiphase-matching (QPM) concept with a dual-gas multijet target leading, for the first time, to remarkable phase control between multiple HHG sources (>2) within the Rayleigh range. The alternating jet structure with driving and matching zones shows perfect coherent buildup for up to six QPM periods. Although not in the focus of the proof-of-principle studies presented here, we achieved competitive conversion efficiencies already in this early stage of development.
S. Khan, Y. Cheng, M. Möller, K. Zhao, B. Zhao, M. Chini, G. Paulus, and Z. Chang
Ellipticity dependence of 400 nm-driven high harmonic generation
Appl. Phys. Lett., 99 :161106 (October 2011)
We studied the dependence of high harmonic generation efficiency on the ellipticity of 400 nm driving laser pulses at 7.7 × 10^14 W/cm2 and compared it with the 800 nm driving laser under the same conditions. The measured decrease of high harmonic yield with the ellipticity of the 400 nm laser is ∼1.5 times slower that of the 800 nm, which agrees well with theoretical predictions based on a semi-classical model. The results indicate that it is feasible to use the generalized double optical gating with 400 nm lasers for extracting single attosecond pulses with high efficiency.
S. Demmler, J. Rothhardt, A. M. Heidt, A. Hartung, E. G. Rohwer, H. Bartelt, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann
Generation of high quality, 1.3 cycle pulses by active phase control of an octave spanning supercontinuum
Opt. Express, 19 :20151 (October 2011)
Nonlinear pulse compression based on the generation of ultra-broadband supercontinuum (SC) in an all-normal dispersion photonic crystal fiber (ANDi PCF) is demonstrated. The highly coherent and smooth octave-spanning SC spectra are generated using 6 fs, 3 nJ pulses from a Ti:Sapphire oscillator for pumping a 13 mm piece of ANDi PCF. Applying active phase control has enabled the generation of 4.5 fs pulses. Additional spectral amplitude shaping has increased the bandwidth of the SC spectra further leading to nearly transform-limited pulses with a duration of 3.64 fs, which corresponds to only 1.3 optical cycles at a central wavelength of 810 nm. This is the shortest pulse duration achieved via compression of SC spectra generated in PCF to date. Due to the high stability and the smooth spectral intensity and phase distribution of the generated SC, an excellent temporal pulse quality exhibiting a pulse contrast of 14 dB with respect to the pre- and post-pulses is achieved.
U. Zastrau, V. Hilbert, C. Brown, T. Döppner, S. Dziarzhytski, E. Förster, S. H. Glenzer, S. Göde, G. Gregori, M. Harmand, D. Hochhaus, T. Laarmann, H. J. Lee, K. -H. Meiwes-Brör, P. Neumayer, A. Przystawik, P. Radcliffe, M. Schulz, S. Skruszewicz, F. Tavella, J. Tiggesbaeumker, S. Toleikis, and T. White
In-situ determination of dispersion and resolving power in simultaneous multiple-angle XUV spectroscopy
J. Instrum., 6 :P10001 (October 2011)
We report on the simultaneous determination of non-linear dispersion functions and resolving power of three flat-field XUV grating spectrometers. A moderate-intense short-pulse infrared laser is focused onto technical aluminum which is commonly present as part of the experimental setup. In the XUV wavelength range of 10-19 nm, the spectrometers are calibrated using Al-Mg plasma emission lines. This cross-calibration is performed in-situ in the very same setup as the actual main experiment. The results are in excellent agreement with ray-tracing simulations. We show that our method allows for precise relative and absolute calibration of three different XUV spectrometers.
B. Aurand, J. Seres, V. Bagnoud, B. Ecker, D. C. Hochhaus, P. Neumayer, E. Seres, C. Spielmann, B. Zielbauer, D. Zimmer, and T. Kühl
Laser driven X-ray parametric amplification in neutral gases-a new brilliant light source in the XUV
Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A, 653 :130 (October 2011)
In this paper we present the experimental setup and results showing a new type of strong-field parametric amplification of high-order harmonic radiation. With a simple semi-classical model, we can identify the most important experimental parameters, the spectral range and the small signal gain in gases. Using a single stage amplifier, a small signal gain of 8000 has been obtained in argon for the spectral range of 40 - 50 eV, using 350 fs, 7 mJ pulses at 1.05 μm. An outlook for an experiment employing a double stage gas system will be given.