Peer-Review Publications

2013

Y. Nakano, Y. Takano, T. Ikeda, Y. Kanai, S. Suda, T. Azuma, H. Bräuning, A. Bräuning-Demian, D. Dauvergne, T. Stöhlker, and Y. Yamazaki
Resonant coherent excitation of the lithiumlike uranium ion - A scheme for heavy-ion spectroscopy
Phys. Rev. A, 87 :060501 (June 2013)
Abstract:
We report our observation of the resonant fluorescence from highly charged uranium ions. Using the resonant coherent excitation (RCE) technique, the 2s-2p_(3/2) transition in 191.68 MeV/u Li-like U^(89+) ions was excited at 4.5 keV with a resonance width of 4.4 eV. The result demonstrated that the RCE can be applied to resonant fluorescence spectroscopy of high-Z ions up to uranium with high efficiency and resolution.
G. Sarri, W. Schumaker, A. Di Piazza, M. Vargas, B. Dromey, M. E. Dieckmann, V. Chvykov, A. Maksimchuk, V. Yanovsky, Z. H. He, B. X. Hou, J. A. Nees, A. G. R. Thomas, C. H. Keitel, M. Zepf, and K. Krushelnick
Table-Top Laser-Based Source of Femtosecond, Collimated, Ultrarelativistic Positron Beams
Phys. Rev. Lett., 110 :255002 (June 2013)
Abstract:
The generation of ultrarelativistic positron beams with short duration (τ_e+≃30  fs), small divergence (θ_e+≃3  mrad), and high density (n_e+≃10^14–10^15  cm−3) from a fully optical setup is reported. The detected positron beam propagates with a high-density electron beam and γ rays of similar spectral shape and peak energy, thus closely resembling the structure of an astrophysical leptonic jet. It is envisaged that this experimental evidence, besides the intrinsic relevance to laser-driven particle acceleration, may open the pathway for the small-scale study of astrophysical leptonic jets in the laboratory.
K. Baker, G. Cantatore, S. A. Cetin, M. Davenport, K. Desch, B. Döbrich, H. Gies, I. G. Irastorza, J. Jäckel, A. Lindner, T. Papaevangelou, M. Pivovaroff, G. Raffelt, J. Redondo, A. Ringwald, Y. Semertzidis, A. Siemko, M. Sulc, A. Upadhye, and K. Zioutas
The quest for axions and other new light particles
Ann. Phys. (Berlin), 525 :A93 (June 2013)
Abstract:
Standard Model extensions often predict low-mass and very weakly interacting particles, such as the axion. A number of small-scale experiments at the intensity/precision frontier are actively searching for these elusive particles, complementing searches for physics beyond the Standard Model at colliders. Whilst a next generation of experiments will give access to a huge unexplored parameter space, a discovery would have a tremendous impact on our understanding of fundamental physics.
M. Krebs, S. Hädrich, S. Demmler, J. Rothhardt, A. Zaïr, L. Chipperfield, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann
Towards isolated attosecond pulses at megahertz repetition rates
Nat. Photonics, 7 :555 (June 2013)
Abstract:
The strong-field process of high-harmonic generation is the foundation for generating isolated attosecond pulses, which are the fastest controllable events ever induced. This coherent extreme-ultraviolet radiation has become an indispensable tool for resolving ultrafast motion in atoms and molecules. Despite numerous spectacular developments in the new field of attoscience the low data-acquisition rates imposed by low-repetition-rate (maximum of 3 kHz) laser systems hamper the advancement of these sophisticated experiments. Consequently, the availability of high-repetition-rate sources will overcome a major obstacle in this young field. Here, we present the first megahertz-level source of extreme-ultraviolet continua with evidence of isolated attosecond pulses using a fibre laser-pumped optical parametric amplifier for high-harmonic generation at 0.6 MHz. This 200-fold increase in repetition rate will enable and promote a vast variety of new applications, such as attosecond-resolution coincidence and photoelectron spectroscopy, or even video-rate acquisition for spatially resolved pump–probe measurements.
D. Banaś, A. Gumberidze, S. Trotsenko, A. V. Volotka, A. Surzhykov, H. F. Beyer, F. Bosch, A. Bräuning-Demian, S. Fritzsche, S. Hagmann, C. Kozhuharov, A. Kumar, X. Ma, R. Mann, P. H. Mokler, D. Sierpowski, U. Spillmann, S. Tashenov, Z. Stachura, A. Warczak, and T. Stöhlker
Two-photon energy distribution from the decay of the 2 ¹S₀ state in He-like uranium
Phys. Rev. A, 87 :062510 (June 2013)
Abstract:
We have performed a measurement of the spectral shape from the two-photon decay of the 1s2s 1S0 state in He-like uranium. The two-photon emission followed the ionization of initially Li-like uranium ions in collisions with a N2 gas-jet target. The measured shape of the two-photon energy distribution shows good agreement with results of the relativistic calculations that take into account the electron-electron interaction rigorously up to the first order in quantum electrodynamic perturbation expansion. From the full width at half maximum of the measured two-photon energy distribution, we confirm the theoretically predicted modification of the shape due to the relativistic effects.
D. C. Hochhaus, B. Aurand, M. Basko, B. Ecker, T. Kühl, T. Ma, F. Rosmej, B. Zielbauer, and P. Neumayer
X-ray radiographic expansion measurements of isochorically heated thin wire targets
Phys. Plasmas, 20 :062703 (June 2013)
Abstract:
Solid density matter at temperatures ranging from 150 eV to < 5 eV has been created by irradiating thin wire targets with high-energy laser pulses at intensities ≈ 10^18 W/cm^2 . Energy deposition and transport of the laser-produced fast electrons are inferred from spatially resolved Kα-spectroscopy. Time resolved x-ray radiography is employed to image the target mass density up to solid density and proves isochoric heating. The subsequent hydrodynamic evolution of the target is observed for up to 3 ns and is compared to radiation-hydrodynamic simulations. At distances of several hundred micrometers from the laser interaction region, where temperatures of 5–20 eV and small temperature gradients are found, the hydrodynamic evolution of the wire is a near axially symmetric isentropic expansion, and good agreement between simulations and radiography data confirms heating of the wire over hundreds of micrometers.
A. Gumberidze, D. Thorn, C. Fontes, B. Najjari, H. Zhang, A. Surzhykov, A. Voitkiv, S. Fritzsche, D. Banaś, H. Beyer, W. Chen, R. DuBois, S. Geyer, R. Grisenti, S. Hagmann, M. Hegewald, S. Hess, C. Kozhuharov, R. Märtin, I. Orban, N. Petridis, R. Reuschl, A. Simon, U. Spillmann, M. Trassinelli, S. Trotsenko, G. Weber, D. Winters, N. Winters, D. Yu, and T. Stöhlker
Electron- and Proton-Impact Excitation of Hydrogenlike Uranium in Relativistic Collisions
Phys. Rev. Lett., 110 :213201 (May 2013)
Abstract:
The K shell excitation of H-like uranium (U91+) in relativistic collisions with different gaseous targets has been studied at the experimental storage ring at GSI Darmstadt. By performing measurements with different targets as well as with different collision energies, we were able to observe for the first time the effect of electron-impact excitation (EIE) process in the heaviest hydrogenlike ion. The large fine-structure splitting in H-like uranium allowed us to unambiguously resolve excitation into different L shell levels. State-of-the-art calculations performed within the relativistic framework which include excitation mechanisms due to both protons (nucleus) and electrons are in good agreement with the experimental findings. Moreover, our experimental data clearly demonstrate the importance of including the generalized Breit interaction in the treatment of the EIE process.
A. Surzhykov, Y. Litvinov, T. Stöhlker, and S. Fritzsche
Hyperfine-induced effects on the linear polarization of Kα₁ emission from heliumlike ions
Phys. Rev. A, 87 :052507 (May 2013)
Abstract:
The linear polarization of the characteristic photon emission from few-electron ions is studied for its sensitivity with regard to the nuclear spin and magnetic moment of the ions. Special attention is paid, in particular, to the Kα1 (1s2p3/2 1,3P1,2→1s2 1S0) decay of selected heliumlike ions following the radiative electron capture into initially hydrogenlike species. Based on the density matrix theory, a unified description is developed that includes both the many-electron and hyperfine interactions as well as the multipole-mixing effects arising from the expansion of the radiation field. It is shown that the polarization of the Kα1 line can be significantly affected by the mutipole mixing between the leading M2 and hyperfine-induced E1 components of 1s2p 3P2,Fi→1s2 1S0,Ff transitions. This E1-M2 mixing strongly depends on the nuclear properties of the considered isotopes and can be addressed experimentally at existing heavy-ion storage rings.
N. A. Tahir, A. Shutov, A. P. Zharkov, P. Spiller, A. R. Piriz, G. Rodriguez Prietoc, C. Deutsch, and T. Stöhlker
Ion Beam Driven High Energy Density Physics Studies at FAIR at Darmstadt: The HEDgeHOB Collaboration
Contrib. Plasm. Phys., 53 :292 (May 2013)
Abstract:
High Energy Density (HED) physics spans over numerous areas of basic and applied physics, for example, astrophysics, planetary physics, geophysics, inertial fusion and many others. Due to this reason, it has been a subject of very active research over the past many decades. Static as well as dynamic methods have been applied to generate samples of HED matter in the laboratory. The most commonly used tool in the static techniques is the diamond anvil cell while the dynamic methods involve shock compression of matter. During the past fifteen years, great progress has been made on the development of bunched intense particle beams that have emerged as an additional new tool for studying HED physics. In this paper we present two experiment designs that have been worked out for HED physics studies at the Facility for Antiprotons and Ion Research (FAIR) at Darmstadt. This facility has entered into construction phase and will provide one of the largest and most powerful particle accelerators in the world. (© 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
W. Q. Wen, M. Lochmann, X. Ma, M. Bussmann, D. F. A. Winters, W. Nörtershäuser, B. Botermann, C. Geppert, N. Frömmgen, M. Hammen, V. Hannen, R. Jöhren, T. Kühl, Yu. A. Litvinov, R. Sanchez, T. Stöhlker, J. Vollbrecht, C. Weinheimer, C. Dimopoulou, F. Nolden, and M. Steck
Optical measurement of the longitudinal ion distribution of bunched ion beams in the ESR
Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A, 90 :711 (May 2013)
Abstract:
An optical technique to study the longitudinal distribution of ions in a bunched ion beam circulating in a storage ring is presented. It is based on the arrival-time analysis of photons emitted after collisional excitation of residual gas molecules. The beam-induced fluorescence was investigated in the ultraviolet regime with a channeltron and in the visible region using a photomultiplier tube. Both were applied to investigate the longitudinal shape of bunched and electron-cooled (209)^Bi^(80+) ion beams at about 400 MeV/u in the experimental storage ring (ESR) at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt, Germany. Bunch lengths were determined with an uncertainty of about 0.5 m using the UV-sensitive channeltron and with slightly lower accuracy from the photomultiplier data due to the slower transitions in the red region of the spectrum. The Gaussian shape of the longitudinal distribution of ions inside the bunch was confirmed. With the information of the transverse beam size that can be measured simultaneously by a newly installed ionization profile monitor (IPM) at the ESR, an accurate determination of the ion density in the bunched beam will be allowed.
M. Yeung, B. Dromey, D. Adams, S. Cousens, R. Hörlein, Y. Nomura, G. D. Tsakiris, and M. Zepf
Beaming of High-Order Harmonics Generated from Laser-Plasma Interactions
Phys. Rev. Lett., 110 :16 (April 2013)
Abstract:
Beam divergences of high-order extreme ultraviolet harmonics from intense laser interactions with steep plasma density gradients are studied through experiment and Fourier analysis of the harmonic spatial phase. We show that while emission due to the relativistically oscillating mirror mechanism can be explained by ponderomotive surface denting, in agreement with previous results, the divergence of the emission due to the coherent wake emission mechanism requires a combination of the dent phase and an intrinsic emission phase. The temporal dependence of the divergences for both mechanisms is highlighted while it is also shown that the coherent wake emission divergence can be small in circumstances where the phase terms compensate each other.
S. Kahaly, S. Monchocé, H. Vincenti, T. Dzelzainis, B. Dromey, M. Zepf, Ph. Martin, and F. Quéré
Direct Observation of Density-Gradient Effects in Harmonic Generation from Plasma Mirrors
Phys. Rev. Lett., 110 :175001 (April 2013)
Abstract:
High-order harmonics and attosecond pulses of light can be generated when ultraintense, ultrashort laser pulses reflect off a solid-density plasma with a sharp vacuum interface, i.e., a plasma mirror. We demonstrate experimentally the key influence of the steepness of the plasma-vacuum interface on the interaction, by measuring the spectral and spatial properties of harmonics generated on a plasma mirror whose initial density gradient scale length L is continuously varied. Time-resolved interferometry is used to separately measure this scale length.
H. Otto, F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann
Improved Modal Reconstruction for Spatially and Spectrally Resolved Imaging
J. Lightwave Technol., 31 :1295 (April 2013)
Abstract:
Spatially and spectrally resolved imaging (S2) is a very sensitive, robust and elegant method to measure the power of excited modes in a fiber. For the common reconstruction technique an approximation is necessary, which is based on dominant fundamental mode content. In this work we present several algorithms that significantly improve the accuracy of modal reconstruction for weak excited fundamental mode content. We show that in some cases general analytical solutions exist that can completely overcome the former limitation. In addition, we introduce an iterative procedure to improve the mode modal reconstruction independent of the specific used algorithm.
A. Jochmann, A. Irman, U. Lehnert, J. Couperus, M. Kuntzsch, S. Trotsenko, A. Wagner, A. Debus, H.-P. Schlenvoigt, U. Helbig, S. Bock, K. Ledingham, T. Cowan, R. Sauerbrey, and U. Schramm
Operation of a picosecond narrow-bandwidth Laser–Thomson-backscattering X-ray source
Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. B, 309 :214 (April 2013)
Abstract:
A tunable source of intense ultra-short hard X-ray pulses represents a novel tool for the structural analysis of complex systems with unprecedented temporal and spatial resolution. With the simultaneous availability of a high power short-pulse laser system this provides unique opportunities at the forefront of relativistic light–matter interactions. At Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) we demonstrated the principle of such a light source (PHOENIX – Photon Electron collider for Narrow bandwidth Intense X-Rays) by colliding picosecond electron bunches from the ELBE linear accelerator with counter-propagating femtosecond laser pulses from the 150 TW Draco Ti:Sapphire laser system. The generated narrowband X-rays are highly collimated and can be reliably adjusted from 12 keV to 20 keV by tuning the electron energy (24–30 MeV). Ensuring the spatial–temporal overlap at the interaction point and suppressing the Bremsstrahlung background a signal to noise ratio of greater than 300 was reached.
I. Hofmann
Performance of solenoids versus quadrupoles in focusing and energy selection of laser accelerated protons
Phys. Rev. ST AB, 16 :041302 (April 2013)
Abstract:
Using laser accelerated protons or ions for various applications—for example in particle therapy or short-pulse radiographic diagnostics—requires an effective method of focusing and energy selection. We derive an analytical scaling for the performance of a solenoid compared with a doublet/triplet as function of the energy, which is confirmed by TRACEWIN simulations. Generally speaking, the two approaches are equivalent in focusing capability, if parameters are such that the solenoid length approximately equals its diameter. The scaling also shows that this is usually not the case above a few MeV; consequently, a solenoid needs to be pulsed or superconducting, whereas the quadrupoles can remain conventional. It is also important that the transmission of the triplet is found only 25% lower than that of the equivalent solenoid. Both systems are equally suitable for energy selection based on their chromatic effect as is shown using an initial distribution following the RPA simulation model by Yan et al. [ Phys. Rev. Lett. 103 135001 (2009)].
T. Kiefer, T. Schlegel, and M.C. Kaluza
Plasma expansion into vacuum assuming a steplike electron energy distribution
Phys. Rev. E, 87 :043110 (April 2013)
Abstract:
The expansion of a semi-infinite plasma slab into vacuum is analyzed with a hydrodynamic model implying a steplike electron energy distribution function. Analytic expressions for the maximum ion energy and the related ion distribution function are derived and compared with one-dimensional numerical simulations. The choice of the specific non-Maxwellian initial electron energy distribution automatically ensures the conservation of the total energy of the system. The estimated ion energies may differ by an order of magnitude from the values obtained with an adiabatic expansion model supposing a Maxwellian electron distribution. Furthermore, good agreement with data from experiments using laser pulses of ultrashort durations τ_L ≤ 80 fs is found, while this is not the case when a hot Maxwellian electron distribution is assumed.
D. Kiefer, M. Yeung, T. Dzelzainis, P. S. Foster, S. G. Rykovanov, C. L. S. Lewis, R. S. Marjoribanks, H. Ruhl, D. Habs, J. Schreiber, M. Zepf, and B. Dromey
Relativistic electron mirrors from nanoscale foils for coherent frequency upshift to the extreme ultraviolet
Nat. Commun., 4 :1763 (April 2013)
Abstract:
Reflecting light from a mirror moving close to the speed of light has been envisioned as a route towards producing bright X-ray pulses since Einstein’s seminal work on special relativity. For an ideal relativistic mirror, the peak power of the reflected radiation can substantially exceed that of the incident radiation due to the increase in photon energy and accompanying temporal compression. Here we demonstrate for the first time that dense relativistic electron mirrors can be created from the interaction of a high-intensity laser pulse with a freestanding, nanometre-scale thin foil. The mirror structures are shown to shift the frequency of a counter-propagating laser pulse coherently from the infrared to the extreme ultraviolet with an efficiency > 10^4 times higher than in the case of incoherent scattering. Our results elucidate the reflection process of laser-generated electron mirrors and give clear guidance for future developments of a relativistic mirror structure.
P. Linusson, S. Fritzsche, J. H. D. Eland, M. Mucke, and R. Feifel
Single-photon multiple ionization forming double vacancies in the 2p subshell of argon
Phys. Rev. A, 87 :043409 (April 2013)
Abstract:
Single-photon ionization leading to two vacancies in the 2p subshell of argon is investigated experimentally using the photoelectron time-of-flight magnetic bottle coincidence technique. Three peaks corresponding to the 3P, 1D, and 1S states of the dication are found in the ionization energy range 535 to 562 eV. Multiconfigurational Dirac-Fock calculations were performed to estimate the single-photon double-ionization cross sections. Reasonable agreement between the measured and simulated spectra is found if single and double excitations are taken into account in the wave-function expansion.
R. Riedel, A. Al-Shemmary, M. Gensch, T. Golz, M. Harmand, N. Medvedev, M. J. Prandolini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, S. Toleikis, U. Wegner, B. Ziaja, N. Stojanovic, and F. Tavella
Single-shot pulse duration monitor for extreme ultraviolet and X-ray free-electron lasers
Nat. Commun., 4 :1731 (April 2013)
Abstract:
The resolution of ultrafast studies performed at extreme ultraviolet and X-ray free-electron lasers is still limited by shot-to-shot variations of the temporal pulse characteristics. Here we show a versatile single-shot temporal diagnostic tool that allows the determination of the extreme ultraviolet pulse duration and the relative arrival time with respect to an external pump-probe laser pulse. This method is based on time-resolved optical probing of the transient reflectivity change due to linear absorption of the extreme ultraviolet pulse within a solid material. In this work, we present measurements performed at the FLASH free-electron laser. We determine the pulse duration at two distinct wavelengths, yielding (184 ± 14) fs at 41.5 nm and (21 ± 19) fs at 5.5 nm. Furthermore, we demonstrate the feasibility to operate the tool as an online diagnostic by using a 20-nm-thin Si_(3)N_(4) membrane as target. Our results are supported by detailed numerical and analytical investigations.
N. Brambilla, F. Karbstein, and A. Vairo
Symmetries of the three-heavy-quark system and the color-singlet static energy at next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic order
Phys. Rev. D, 87 :074014 (April 2013)
Abstract:
We study the symmetries of the three-heavy-quark system under exchange of the quark fields within the effective field theory framework of potential nonrelativistic QCD. The symmetries constrain the form of the matching coefficients in the effective theory. We then focus on the color-singlet sector and determine the so far unknown leading ultrasoft contribution to the static potential, which is of order α_(s)^(4)ln⁡μ, and consequently to the static energy, which is of order α_(s)^(4)lnα_(s). Finally, in the case of an equilateral geometry, we solve the renormalization group equations and resum the leading ultrasoft logarithms for the static potential of three quarks in a color singlet, octet and decuplet representation.
J. Colgan, J. Abdallah, A. Ya. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, E. Wagenaars, N. Booth, O. Culfa, R. J. Dance, R. G. Evans, R. J. Gray, T. Kämpfer, K. L. Lancaster, P. McKenna, A. L. Rossall, I. Yu. Skobelev, K. S. Schulze, I. Uschmann, A. G. Zhidkov, and N. C. Woolsey
Exotic Dense-Matter States Pumped by a Relativistic Laser Plasma in the Radiation-Dominated Regime
Phys. Rev. Lett., 110 :125001 (March 2013)
Abstract:
In high-spectral resolution experiments with the petawatt Vulcan laser, strong x-ray radiation of KK hollow atoms (atoms without n=1 electrons) from thin Al foils was observed at pulse intensities of 3 × 10^(20)  W/cm^2. The observations of spectra from these exotic states of matter are supported by detailed kinetics calculations, and are consistent with a picture in which an intense polychromatic x-ray field, formed from Thomson scattering and bremsstrahlung in the electrostatic fields at the target surface, drives the KK hollow atom production. We estimate that this x-ray field has an intensity of > 5 × 10^(18)  W/cm^2 and is in the 3 keV range.
M. Hornung, S. Keppler, R. Bödefeld, A. Kessler, H. Liebetrau, J. Körner, M. Hellwing, F. Schorcht, O. Jäckel, A. Sävert, J. Polz, A. K. Arunachalam, J. Hein, and M.C. Kaluza
High-intensity, high-contrast laser pulses generated from the fully diode-pumped Yb:glass laser system POLARIS
Opt. Lett., 38 :718 (March 2013)
Abstract:
We report on the first generation of high-contrast, 164 fs duration pulses from the laser system POLARIS reaching focused peak intensities in excess of 2×10^20  W/cm2. To our knowledge, this is the highest peak intensity reported so far that has been achieved with a diode-pumped, solid-state laser. Several passive contrast enhancement techniques have been specially developed and implemented, achieving a relative prepulse intensity smaller than 10^−8 at t=−30  ps before the main pulse. Furthermore a closed-loop adaptive-optics system has been installed. Together with angular chirp compensation, this method has led to a significant reduction of the focal spot size and an increase of the peak intensity.
J. Gunst, A. Surzhykov, A. Artemyev, S. Fritzsche, S. Tashenov, A. Maiorova, V. M. Shabaev, and T. Stöhlker
Parity-nonconservation effects on the radiative recombination of heavy hydrogenlike ions
Phys. Rev. A, 87 :032714 (March 2013)
Abstract:
Based on the theoretical analysis of the radiative recombination of heavy hydrogen-like ions with unpolarized electrons, a scheme is proposed for observing atomic parity nonconservation (PNC). The scheme employs the sensitivity of the polarization properties of recombination photons on the PNC-induced mixing of opposite-parity ionic levels. For the electron capture into the 1s2p(3)^P_(0) state of helium-like ions, in particular, the PNC leads to a rotation of the photon linear polarization on the angle, directly proportional to the 1s2p (3)^P_(0)–1s2s (1)^S_(0) mixing parameter. Owing to the recent advances in the development of x-ray polarimeters, the observation of such a rotation angle and, hence, the corresponding parity mixing is likely to become feasible in the future.
A. Hayrapetyan, K. Grigoryan, R. Petrosyan, and S. Fritzsche
Propagation of sound waves through a spatially homogeneous but smoothly time-dependent medium
Ann. Phys., 333 :47 (March 2013)
Abstract:
The propagation of sound through a spatially homogeneous but non-stationary medium is investigated within the framework of fluid dynamics. For a non-vortical fluid, especially, a generalized wave equation is derived for the (scalar) potential of the fluid velocity distribution in dependence of the equilibrium mass density of the fluid and the sound wave velocity. A solution of this equation for a finite transition period ττ is determined in terms of the hypergeometric function for a phenomenologically realistic, sigmoidal change of the mass density and sound wave velocity. Using this solution, it is shown that the energy flux of the sound wave is not conserved but increases always for the propagation through a non-stationary medium, independent of whether the equilibrium mass density is increased or decreased. It is found, moreover, that this amplification of the transmitted wave arises from an energy exchange with the medium and that its flux is equal to the (total) flux of the incident and the reflected wave. An interpretation of the reflected wave as a propagation of sound backward in time is given in close analogy to Feynman and Stueckelberg for the propagation of anti-particles. The reflection and transmission coefficients of sound propagating through a non-stationary medium is analyzed in more detail for hypersonic waves with transition periods ττ between 15 and 200 ps as well as the transformation of infrasound waves in non-stationary oceans.
B. Aurand, S. Kuschel, O. Jäckel, C. Rödel, H. Y. Zhao, S. Herzer, A. E. Paz, J. Bierbach, J. Polz, B. Elkin, G.G. Paulus, A. Karmakar, P. Gibbon, T. Kühl, and M.C. Kaluza
Radiation pressure-assisted acceleration of ions using multi-component foils in high-intensity laser-matter interactions
New J. Phys., 15 :033031 (March 2013)
Abstract:
Experimental results on the acceleration of protons and carbon ions from ultra-thin polymer foils at intensities of up to 6 × 10^(19) W cm^(−2) are presented revealing quasi-monoenergetic spectral characteristics for different ion species at the same time. For carbon ions and protons, a linear correlation between the cutoff energy and the peak energy is observed when the laser intensity is increased. Particle-in-cell simulations supporting the experimental results imply an ion acceleration mechanism driven by the radiation pressure as predicted for multi-component foils at these intensities.