Peer-Review Publications


C. Heyl, M. Seidel, E. Escoto, A. Schoenberg, S. Carlstroem, G. Arisholm, T. Lang, and I. Hartl
High-energy bow tie multi-pass cells for nonlinear spectral broadening applications
J. Phys. Photonics, 4 :014002 (January 2022)
Multi-pass cells (MPCs) have emerged as very attractive tools for spectral broadening and post-compression applications. We discuss pulse energy limitations of standard MPCs considering basic geometrical scaling principles and introduce a novel energy scaling method using a MPC arranged in a bow tie geometry. Employing nonlinear pulse propagation simulations, we numerically demonstrate the compression of 125 mJ, 1 ps pulses to 50 fs using a compact 2 m long setup and outline routes to extend our approach into the Joule-regime.
S. Keppler, N. Elkina, G. A. Becker, J. Hein, M. Hornung, M. Mäusezahl, C. Rödel, I. Tamer, M. Zepf, and M.C. Kaluza
Intensity scaling limitations of laser-driven proton acceleration in the TNSA-regime
Phys. Rev. Research, 4 :013065 (January 2022)
We report on experimental results on laser-driven proton acceleration using high-intensity laser pulses. We present power law scalings of the maximum proton energy with laser pulse energy and show that the scaling exponent 4 strongly depends on the scale length of the preplasma, which is affected by the temporal intensity contrast. At lower laser intensities, a shortening of the scale length leads to a transition from a square root toward a linear scaling. Above a certain threshold, however, a significant deviation from this scaling is observed. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations show that, in this case, the electric field accelerating the ions is generated earlier and has a higher amplitude. However, since the acceleration process starts earlier as well, the fastest protons outrun the region of highest field strength, ultimately rendering the acceleration less effective. Our investigations thus point to a principle limitation of the proton energy in the target normal sheath acceleration regime, which would explain why a significant increase of the maximum proton energy above the limit of 100 MeV has not yet been achieved.
F. Karbstein
Large N external-field quantum electrodynamics
J. High Energ. Phys., 01 :057 (January 2022)
We advocate the study of external-field quantum electrodynamics with N charged particle flavors. Our main focus is on the Heisenberg-Euler effective action for this theory in the large N limit which receives contributions from all loop orders. The contributions beyond one loop stem from one-particle reducible diagrams. We show that specifically in constant electromagnetic fields the latter are generated by the one-loop Heisenberg-Euler effective Lagrangian. Hence, in this case the large N Heisenberg-Euler effective action can be determined explicitly at any desired loop order. We demonstrate that further analytical insights are possible for electric-and magnetic-like field configurations characterized by the vanishing of one of the secular invariants of the electromagnetic field and work out the all-orders strong field limit of the theory.
E. Eftekhari-Zadeh, M. S. Blümcke, Z. Samsonova, R. Loetzsch, I. Uschmann, M. Zapf, C. Ronning, O. N. Rosmej, D. Kartashov, and C. Spielmann
Laser energy absorption and x-ray generation in nanowire arrays irradiated by relativistically intense ultra-high contrast femtosecond laser pulses
Phys. Plasmas, 29 :013301 (January 2022)
We report here on the results of comparative experimental measurements of laser energy absorption in a bulk and different morphology nanowire arrays interacting with relativistically intense, ultra-high temporal contrast femtosecond laser pulses. We compare polished, flat bulk samples with vertically and randomly oriented nanowires made of ZnO semiconductor material. The optical absorption of the 45° incident laser pulses of ∼40 fs duration with a central wavelength of 400 nm at intensities above 1019Wcm2 was determined using an integrating Ulbricht sphere. We demonstrate an almost twofold enhancement of absorption in both nanowire morphologies with an average of (79.6±1.9)% in comparison to the flat bulk sample of (45.8±1.9)%. The observed substantially enhanced absorption in nanowire arrays is also confirmed by high-resolution x-ray emission spectroscopy. The spectral analysis of the K-shell x-ray emission lines revealed that the He-like resonance line emission from highly ionized Zn (Zn28+) is only present in the case of nanowire arrays, whereas, for the flat bulk samples, only neutral and low charge states were observed. Our numerical simulations, based on radiative-collisional kinetic code FLYCHK, well reproduce the measured He-like emission spectrum and suggest that high charge state observed in nanowire arrays is due to substantially higher plasma temperature. Our results, which were measured for the first time with femtosecond laser pulses, can be used to benchmark theoretical models and numerical codes for the relativistic interaction of ultrashort laser pulses with nanowires.
M. Kobayashi, K. Hayakawa, Y. Yoshida, and R. Röhlsberger
Mössbauer spectroscopic camera for operando measurement of pattern formation processes
Hyperfine Interact., 243 :9 (January 2022)
P. Palmeri, J. Deprince, M. A. Bautista, S. Fritzsche, J. A. García, T. R. Kallman, C. Mendoza, and P. Quinet
Plasma environment effects on K lines of astrophysical interest
Astron. Astrophys., 657 :11 (January 2022)
Aims. We calculate the plasma environment effects on the ionization potentials (IPs) and K-thresholds used in the modeling of K lines for all the ions belonging to the isonuclear sequences of abundant elements apart from oxygen and iron, namely: carbon, silicon, calcium, chromium, and nickel. These calculations are used to extend the data points for the fits of the universal formulae, first proposed in our fourth paper of this series, to predict the IP and K-threshold lowerings in any elemental ion. Methods. We used the fully relativistic multi-configuration Dirac-Rock method and approximated the plasma electron-nucleus and electron-electron screenings with a time-averaged Debye-Huckel potential. Results. We report the modified ionization potentials and K-threshold energies for plasmas characterized by electron temperatures and densities in the ranges of 10(5)-10(2) K and 10(18)-10(22) cm(-3). In addition, the improved universal fitting formulae are obtained. Conclusions. We conclude that since explicit calculations of the atomic structures for each ion of each element under different plasma conditions is impractical, the use of these universal formulae for predicting the IP and K-threshold lowerings in plasma modeling codes is still recommended. However, their comparatively moderate to low accuracies may affect the predicted opacities with regard to certain cases under extreme plasma conditions that are characterized by a plasma screening parameter of mu > 0.2 a.u., especially for the K-thresholds.
C. Wu, L. Li, M. Yeung, S. Wu, S. Cousens, S. Tietze, B. Dromey, C. Zhou, S. Ruan, and M. Zepf
Proposal for complete characterization of attosecond pulses from relativistic plasmas
Opt. Express, 30 :389 (January 2022)
In this study, we propose two full-optical-setup and single-shot measurable approaches for complete characterization of attosecond pulses from surface high harmonic generation (SHHG): SHHG-SPIDER (spectral phase interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction) and SHHG-SEA-SPIDER (spatially encoded arrangement for SPIDER). 1D- and 2D-EPOCH PIC (particle-in-cell) simulations were performed to generate the attosecond pulses from relativistic plasmas under different conditions. Pulse trains dominated by single isolated peak as well as complex pulse train structures are extensively discussed for both methods, which showed excellent accuracy in the complete reconstruction of the attosecond field with respect to the direct Fourier transformed result. Kirchhoff integral theorem has been used for the near-to-far-field transformation. This far-field propagation method allows us to relate these results to potential experimental implementations of the scheme. The impact of comprehensive experimental parameters for both apparatus, such as spectral shear, spatial shear, cross-angle, time delay, and intensity ratio between the two replicas has been investigated thoroughly. These methods are applicable to complete characterization for SHHG attosecond pulses driven by a few to hundreds of terawatts femtosecond laser systems.
F. C. Salgado, N. Cavanagh, M. Tamburini, D. W. Storey, R. Beyer, P. H. Bucksbaum, Z. Chen, A. Di Piazza, E. Gerstmayr, H. Harsh, E. Isele, A. R. Junghans, C. H. Keitel, S. Kuschel, C. F. Nielsen, D. A. Reis, C. Roedel, G. Sarri, A. Seidel, C. Schneider, I. Uggerhoj, J. Wulff, V. Yakimenko, C. Zepter, S. Meuren, and M. Zepf
Single particle detection system for strong-field QED experiments
New J. Phys., 24 :015002 (January 2022)
Measuring signatures of strong-field quantum electrodynamics (SF-QED) processes in an intense laser field is an experimental challenge: it requires detectors to be highly sensitive to single electrons and positrons in the presence of the typically very strong x-ray and gamma-photon background levels. In this paper, we describe a particle detector capable of diagnosing single leptons from SF-QED interactions and discuss the background level simulations for the upcoming Experiment-320 at FACET-II (SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory). The single particle detection system described here combines pixelated scintillation LYSO screens and a Cherenkov calorimeter. We detail the performance of the system using simulations and a calibration of the Cherenkov detector at the ELBE accelerator. Single 3 GeV leptons are expected to produce approximately 537 detectable photons in a single calorimeter channel. This signal is compared to Monte-Carlo simulations of the experiment. A signal-to-noise ratio of 18 in a single Cherenkov calorimeter detector is expected and a spectral resolution of 2% is achieved using the pixelated LYSO screens.
M. Seidel, F. Pressacco, O. Akcaalan, T. Binhammer, J. Darvill, N. Ekanayake, M. Frede, U. Grosse-Wortmann, M. Heber, C. Heyl, D. Kutnyakhov, C. Li, C. Mohr, J. Mueller, O. Puncken, H. Redlin, N. Schirmel, S. Schulz, A. Swiderski, H. Tavakol, H. Tuennermann, C. Vidoli, L. Wenthaus, N. Wind, L. Winkelmann, B. Manschwetus, and I. Hartl
Ultrafast MHz-Rate Burst-Mode Pump-Probe Laser for the FLASH FEL Facility Based on Nonlinear Compression of ps-Level Pulses from an Yb-Amplifier Chain
Laser Photon. Rev., 1 :2100268 ( 2022)
The Free-Electron Laser (FEL) FLASH offers the worldwide still unique capability to study ultrafast processes with high-flux, high-repetition rate extreme ultraviolet, and soft X-ray pulses. The vast majority of experiments at FLASH are of pump-probe type. Many of them rely on optical ultrafast lasers. Here, a novel FEL facility laser is reported which combines high average power output from Yb:YAG amplifiers with spectral broadening in a Herriott-type multipass cell and subsequent pulse compression to sub-100-fs durations. Compared to other facility lasers employing optical parametric amplification, the new system comes with significantly improved noise figures, compactness, simplicity, and power efficiency. Like FLASH, the optical laser operates with 10-Hz burst repetition rate. The bursts consist of 800-mu s long trains of up to 800 ultrashort pulses being synchronized to the FEL with femtosecond precision. In the experimental chamber, pulses with up to 50-mu J energy, 60-fs full-width half-maximum duration and 1-MHz rate at 1.03-mu m wavelength are available and can be adjusted by computer-control. Moreover, nonlinear polarization rotation is implemented to improve laser pulse contrast. First cross-correlation measurements with the FEL at the plane-grating monochromator photon beamline are demonstrated, exhibiting the suitability of the laser for user experiments at FLASH.


S. Fritzsche
Dielectronic recombination strengths and plasma rate coefficients of multiply charged ions
Astron. Astrophys., 656 :A163 (December 2021)
A. Weber, B. Böning, B. Minneker, and S. Fritzsche
Generation of elliptically polarized high-order harmonic radiation with bi-elliptical two-color laser beams
Phys. Rev. A, 104 :063118 (December 2021)
Z. W. Wu, Z. Q. Tian, J. Jiang, C. Z. Dong, and S. Fritzsche
Hyperfine-induced effects on the K α_1 angular distribution following electron-impact excitation of heliumlike spin- 1/2 Tl⁷⁹⁺ ions
Phys. Rev. A, 104 :062814 (December 2021)
W. Middents, G. Weber, U. Spillmann, T. Krings, M. Vockert, A. Volotka, A. Surzhykov, and T. Stöhlker
Possible Polarization Measurements in Elastic Scattering at the Gamma Factory Utilizing a 2D Sensitive Strip Detector as Dedicated Compton Polarimeter
Ann. Phys. (Berlin), 2100285 :2100285 (December 2021)
E. Appi, C. C. Papadopoulou, J. L. Mapa, C. Jusko, P. Mosel, A. Schoenberg, J. Stock, T. Feigl, S. Ališauskas, T. Lang, C. M. Heyl, B. Manschwetus, M. Brachmanski, M. Braune, H. Lindenblatt, F. Trost, S. Meister, P. Schoch, A. Trabattoni, F. Calegari, R. Treusch, R. Moshammer, I. Hartl, U. Morgner, and M. Kovacev
Synchronized beamline at FLASH2 based on high-order harmonic generation for two-color dynamics studies
Rev. Sci. Instrum., 92 :123004 (December 2021)
J. Hornung, Y. Zobus, S. Roeder, A. Kleinschmidt, D. Bertini, M. Zepf, and V. Bagnoud
Time-resolved study of holeboring in realistic experimental conditions
Nat. Commun., 12 :6999 (December 2021)
B. Kettle, D. Hollatz, E. Gerstmayr, G. M. Samarin, A. Alejo, S. Astbury, C. Baird, S. Bohlen, M. Campbell, C. Colgan, D. Dannheim, C. Gregory, H. Harsh, P. Hatfield, J. Hinojosa, Y. Katzir, J. Morton, C. D. Murphy, A. Nurnberg, J. Osterhoff, G. Pérez-Callejo, K. Poder, P. P. Rajeev, C. Roedel, F. Roeder, F. C. Salgado, G. Sarri, A. Seidel, S. Spannagel, C. Spindloe, S. Steinke, M. J. V. Streeter, A. G. R. Thomas, C. Underwood, R. Watt, M. Zepf, S. J. Rose, and S. P. D. Mangles
A laser–plasma platform for photon–photon physics: the two photon Breit–Wheeler process
New J. Phys., 23 :115006 (November 2021)
A. Perry-Sassmannshausen, T. Buhr, M. Martins, S. Reinwardt, F. Trinter, A. Müller, S. Fritzsche, and S. Schippers
Multiple photodetachment of silicon anions via K -shell excitation and ionization
Phys. Rev. A, 104 :053107 (November 2021)
S. Skruszewicz, A. Przystawik, D. Schwickert, M. Sumfleth, M. Namboodiri, V. Hilbert, R. Klas, P. Gierschke, V. Schuster, A. Vorobiov, C. Haunhorst, D. Kip, J. Limpert, J. Rothhardt, and T. Laarmann
Table-top interferometry on extreme time and wavelength scales
Opt. Express, 29 :40333 (November 2021)
High-resolution Fourier-transform spectroscopy using table-top sources in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) spectral range is still in its infancy. In this contribution a significant advance is presented based on a Michelson-type all-reflective split-and-delay autocorrelator operating in a quasi amplitude splitting mode. The autocorrelator works under a grazing incidence angle in a broad spectral range (10 nm - 1 µ m) providing collinear propagation of both pulse replicas and thus a constant phase difference across the beam profile. The compact instrument allows for XUV pulse autocorrelation measurements in the time domain with a single-digit attosecond precision resulting in a resolution of E/Δ E=2000. Its performance for spectroscopic applications is demonstrated by characterizing a very sharp electronic transition at 26.6 eV in Ar gas induced by the 11th harmonic of a frequency-doubled Yb-fiber laser leading to the characteristic 3s3p⁶4p¹P¹ Fano-resonance of Ar atoms. We benchmark our time-domain interferometry results with a high-resolution XUV grating spectrometer and find an excellent agreement. The common-path interferometer opens up new opportunities for short-wavelength femtosecond and attosecond pulse metrology and dynamic studies on extreme time scales in various research fields.
B. Minneker, B. Böning, A. Weber, and S. Fritzsche
Torus-knot angular momentum in twisted attosecond pulses from high-order harmonic generation
Phys. Rev. A, 104 :053116 (November 2021)
J. Ohland, Y. Zobus, U. Eisenbarth, B. Zielbauer, D. Reemts, and V. Bagnoud
Alignment procedure for off-axis-parabolic telescopes in the context of high-intensity laser beam transport
Opt. Express, 29 :34378 (October 2021)
Off-axis parabolic telescopes are rarely used in high-intensity, high-energy lasers, despite their favorable properties for beam transport such as achromatism, low aberrations and the ability to handle high peak intensities. One of the major reasons for this is the alignment procedure which is commonly viewed as complicated and time consuming. In this article, we revisit off-axis parabolic telescopes in the context of beam transport in high-intensity laser systems and present a corresponding analytical model. Based on that, we propose a suitable setup that enables fast and repeatable alignment for everyday operation.
M. Zimmer, S. Scheuren, T. Ebert, G. Schaumann, B. Schmitz, J. Hornung, V. Bagnoud, C. Rödel, and M. Roth
Analysis of laser-proton acceleration experiments for development of empirical scaling laws
Phys. Rev. E, 104 :045210 (October 2021)
G. Gaigalas, and S. Fritzsche
Angular coefficients for symmetry-adapted configuration states in jj-coupling
Comput. Phys. Commun., 267 :108086 (October 2021)
In atomic structure and collision theory, the efficient spin-angular integration is known to be crucial and often decides, how accurate the properties and behavior of atoms can be predicted numerically. Various methods have been developed in the past to keep the computation (and implementation) of the spin-angular integration feasible for complex shell structures, including open d- and f-shell elements. To support such computations, we here provide a new implementation of the angular coefficients for jjcoupled and symmetry-adapted configuration states that is entirely built upon the quasi-spin formalism. The moduleSpinAngularis based on Julia, a new programming language for scientific computing, and supports a simple access to all (completely) reduced tensors, coefficients of fractional parentage for subshells with j <= 9/2 as well as the re-coupling coefficients from this formalism. Moreover, this module has been worked out for multiple purposes, including 1) the accurate calculation of atomic properties, 2) further studies on spin-angular integration theory, 3) the development of new or existing computer programs as well as 4) the manipulation of reduced matrix elements from this theory. The present implementation will therefore help advance the algebraic evaluation of many-electron (transition) amplitudes and to apply the theory to newly emerging research areas.
C. Jauregui, C. Stihler, S. Kholaif, Y. Tu, and J. Limpert
Control and stabilization of the modal content of fiber amplifiers using traveling waves
Opt. Express, 29 :34452 (October 2021)
In this work we present a novel way to manipulate the effect of transverse mode instability by inducing traveling waves in a high-power fiber system. What sets this technique apart is the fact that it allows controlling the direction of the modal energy flow, for the first time to the best of our knowledge. Thus, using the method proposed in this work it will be possible to transfer energy from the higher-order mode into the fundamental mode of the fiber, which mitigates the effect of transverse mode instability, but also to transfer energy from the fundamental mode into the higher-order mode. Our simulations indicate that this approach will work both below and above the threshold of transverse mode instability. In fact, our model reveals that it can be used to force a nearly pure fundamental mode output in the fiber laser system almost independently of the input coupling conditions. In this context, this technique represents the first attempt to exploit the physics behind the effect of transverse mode instability to increase the performance of fiber laser systems.
D. Wanisch, and S. Fritzsche
Delocalization of quantum information in long-range interacting systems
Phys. Rev. A, 104 :042409 (October 2021)
We investigate the delocalization of quantum information in the nonequilibrium dynamics of the XY spin chain with asymptotically decaying interactions similar to 1/r(alpha). As a figure of merit, we employ the tripartite mutual information (TMI), the sign of which indicates if quantum information is predominantly shared globally. Interestingly, the sign of the TMI distinguishes regimes of the exponent a that are known for different behaviors of information propagation. While an effective causal region bounds the propagation of information, if interactions decay sufficiently fast, this information is mainly delocalized, which leads to the necessity of global measurements. Furthermore, the results indicate that mutual information is monogamous for all possible partitionings in this case, implying that quantum entanglement is the dominant correlation. If interactions decay sufficiently slow, though information can propagate (quasi-)instantaneously, it is mainly accessible by local measurements at early times. Furthermore, it takes some finite time until correlations start to become monogamous, which suggests that entanglement is not the dominant correlation at early times. Our findings give new insights into the dynamics and structure of quantum information in many-body systems with long-range interactions, and might get verified on state-of-the-art experimental platforms.
J. Buldt, H. Stark, M. Mueller, C. Grebing, C. Jauregui, and J. Limpert
Gas-plasma-based generation of broadband terahertz radiation with 640 mW average power
Opt. Lett., 46 :5256 (October 2021)
We present a high-power source of broadband terahertz (THz) radiation covering the whole THz spectral region (0.1-30 THz). The two-color gas plasma generation process is driven by a state-of-the-art ytterbium fiber chirped pulse amplification system based on coherent combination of 16 rod-type amplifiers. Prior to the THz generation, the pulses are spectrally broadened in a multipass cell and compressed to 37 fs with a pulse energy of 1.3 mJ at a repetition rate of 500 kHz. A gas-jet scheme has been employed for the THz generation, increasing the efficiency of the process to 0.1%. The air-biased coherent detection scheme is implemented to characterize the full bandwidth of the generated radiation. A THz average power of 640 mW is generated, which is the highest THz average power achieved to date. This makes this source suitable for a variety of applications, e.g., spectroscopy of strongly absorbing samples or driving nonlinear effects for the studies of material properties.