Peer-Review Publications


D. Banaś, M. Pajek, A. Gumberidze, A. Surzhykov, and T. Stöhlker
K-shell differential radiative recombination rates for bare uranium ions interacting with low-energy electrons
Phys. Scripta, 2013 :014045 (September 2013)
We report on the calculations of the K-shell differential radiative recombination (RR) rate coefficients for very low, in the range of meV, relative electron–ion energies. The rate coefficients were derived for bare uranium ions colliding with free electrons both within the nonrelativistic dipole approximation and using fully relativistic calculations. We show that even for such low relative ion–electron energies, the differential rate coefficient reveals strong relativistic effects. We demonstrate that the measurements of the relative electron energy dependence of the RR rates represent a very sensitive tool for precise studies of the RR process and, in particular, for probing the fine details of the relativistic effects in the RR of ions with electrons. The results are discussed in the context of the first x-ray state-selective RR experiment performed for very low relative electron–ion energies.
R. Reuschl, T. Gassner, U. Spillmann, A. Bräuning-Demian, A. Ananyeva, H. Beyer, K.-H. Blumenhagen, W. Chen, S. Hagmann, M. Hegewald, P. Indelicato, M. Schwemlein, S. Toleikis, M. Trassinelli, S. Trotsenko, D. Winters, N. Winters, and T. Stöhlker
Lifetime measurement of the 2 3^P_0 state in He-like uranium
Phys. Scripta, 2013 :014024 (September 2013)
In recent years for the fundamental theory of quantum electrodynamics, considerable progress in the evaluation of higher order corrections has been achieved—not only for hydrogen—but also for helium-like systems—up to very heavy nuclei. We were aiming at a more precise determination of the lifetime of the metastable 2 3^P_0 state in He-like uranium which has a calculated value of 57.3 ps [1, 2]. From the lifetime it is possible to derive the energy of the state. In October 2011 we were able to perform a first test experiment at GSI, Darmstadt to study the feasibility of a new experimental detection technique. This advanced set-up consists of two state-of-the-art energy-, time- and position-sensitive germanium detectors [3] in combination with collimators in a Soller-slit like assembly. A beam of U^(91+) -ions at an energy of 290 MeV u^(−1) is passed through a thin nickel foil in the interaction chamber. From the decrease in intensity as a function of the target distance one may extract a decay curve from which the lifetime can be derived. The advantages of this new set-up, in comparison to former experiments [4, 5] will be discussed and the results of a preliminary data analysis will be presented.
S. Pikuz, A. Faenov, J. Colgan, R. Dance, J. Abdallah, E. Wagenaars, N. Booth, O. Culfa, R. Evans, R. Gray, T. Kämpfer, K. Lancaster, P. McKenna, A. Rossall, I. Skobelev, K. Schulze, I. Uschmann, A. Zhidkov, and N. Woolsey
Measurement and simulations of hollow atom X-ray spectra of solid-density relativistic plasma created by high-contrast PW optical laser pulses
HEDP, 9 :560 (September 2013)
Abstract K-shell spectra of solid Al excited by petawatt picosecond laser pulses have been investigated at the Vulcan PW facility. Laser pulses of ultrahigh contrast with an energy of 160 J on the target allow studies of interactions between the laser field and solid state matter at 10^20 W/cm^2. Intense X-ray emission of KK hollow atoms (atoms without n = 1 electrons) from thin aluminum foils is observed from optical laser plasma for the first time. Specifically for 1.5 μm thin foil targets the hollow atom yield dominates the resonance line emission. It is suggested that the hollow atoms are predominantly excited by the impact of X-ray photons generated by radiation friction to fast electron currents in solid-density plasma due to Thomson scattering and bremsstrahlung in the transverse plasma fields. Numerical simulations of Al hollow atom spectra using the ATOMIC code confirm that the impact of keV photons dominates the atom ionization. Our estimates demonstrate that solid-density plasma generated by relativistic optical laser pulses provide the source of a polychromatic keV range X-ray field of 10^18 W/cm^2 intensity, and allows the study of excited matter in the radiation-dominated regime. High-resolution X-ray spectroscopy of hollow atom radiation is found to be a powerful tool to study the properties of high-energy density plasma created by intense X-ray radiation.
M. Schnell, A. Sävert, I. Uschmann, M. Reuter, M. Nicolai, T. Kämpfer, B. Landgraf, O. Jäckel, O. Jansen, A. Pukhov, M.C. Kaluza, and C. Spielmann
Optical control of hard X-ray polarization by electron injection in a laser wakefield accelerator
Nat. Commun., 4 :2421 (September 2013)
Laser-plasma particle accelerators could provide more compact sources of high-energy radiation than conventional accelerators. Moreover, because they deliver radiation in femtosecond pulses, they could improve the time resolution of X-ray absorption techniques. Here we show that we can measure and control the polarization of ultra-short, broad-band keV photon pulses emitted from a laser-plasma-based betatron source. The electron trajectories and hence the polarization of the emitted X-rays are experimentally controlled by the pulse-front tilt of the driving laser pulses. Particle-in-cell simulations show that an asymmetric plasma wave can be driven by a tilted pulse front and a non-symmetric intensity distribution of the focal spot. Both lead to a notable off-axis electron injection followed by collective electron–betatron oscillations. We expect that our method for an all-optical steering is not only useful for plasma-based X-ray sources but also has significance for future laser-based particle accelerators.
A. Surzhykov, A. V. Maiorova, V. M. Shabaev, T. Stöhlker, and S. Fritzsche
Parity violation in beryllium-like heavy ions
Phys. Scripta, 2013 :014027 (September 2013)
A novel scheme is proposed for studying the parity-violating (PV) effects in beryllium-like heavy ions. It is based on the application of circularly polarized ultraviolet light for inducing a single-photon transition between the metastable 1s^(2)2s2p^(3)P_0 and the short-lived 1s^(2)2s2p^(3)P_1 states. We argue that the cross section of such a photoabsorption process is sensitive to the mixing between the allowed magnetic dipole (M1) and the PV electric dipole (E1) excitation channels. Based on relativistic calculations, we find that the PV-mixing may influence the cross section at the level of 10^(−5) % for beryllium-like uranium, U^(88+).
B. Aurand, B. Elkin, L.-O. Heim, B. Lommel, B. Kindler, M. Tomut, C. Rödel, S. Kuschel, O. Jäckel, J. Barz, and T. Kühl
Preparation and characterization of nanometer-thin freestanding polymer foils for laser-ion acceleration
J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys., 51 :1355 (September 2013)
We report on the production and characterization of polymer-based ultra-thin (sub 10 nm) foils suited for experiments on laser-ion acceleration in the regime of radiation pressure acceleration. Beside the remarkable mechanical stability compared with commonly used diamond-like-carbon foils, a very homogeneous layer thickness and a small surface roughness have been achieved. We describe the technical issues of the production process as well as detailed studies of the mechanical stability and surface roughness tests. The capability of producing uniform targets of large area is essential for advanced laser-ion acceleration projects which are dealing with high repetition rate and extended measurement series, but might also be useful for other applications which require ultra-thin and freestanding substrates of high quality.
C. Brandau, C. Kozhuharov, A. Müller, D. Bernhardt, D. Banaś, F. Bosch, F. J. Currell, C. Dimopoulou, A. Gumberidze, S. Hagmann, P.-M. Hillenbrand, M. Heil, M. Lestinsky, Y. A. Litvinov, R. Märtin, F. Nolden, R. Reuschl, S. Sanjari, S. Schippers, D. Schneider, D. Shubina, H. Simon, U. Spillmann, Z. Stachura, M. Steck, T. Stöhlker, G. Weber, M. Wiedeking, N. Winckler, and D. F. A. Winters
Probing nuclear properties by resonant atomic collisions between electrons and ions
Phys. Scripta, 2013 :014050 (September 2013)
The utilization of the resonant atomic electron–ion collision process of dielectronic recombination (DR) as a tool to probe nuclear properties via isotope shifts and hyperfine effects is discussed. Based on DR, this resonance reaction spectroscopy at electron coolers of heavy-ion storage rings denotes a versatile approach to access nuclear parameters such as charge radius, spin, magnetic moment or lifetimes of long-lived excited nuclear states (isomers). The high sensitivity of DR allows for experiments with artificially synthesized rare isotopes and isomers. Recent experimental progress in the preparation of such exotic species at the ESR storage ring in Darmstadt is presented. The DR technique is exemplified for the case of (234)^Pa^(88+) (Z = 91).
A. V. Maiorova, A. Surzhykov, S. Tashenov, V. M. Shabaev, and T. Stöhlker
Production and diagnostics of spin-polarized heavy ions in the sequential two-electron radiative recombination
Phys. Scripta, 2013 :014046 (September 2013)
The sequential radiative recombination of initially bare ions, which are collided with two spatially separated electron targets, is studied. It is demonstrated that the magnetic sublevel population of H-like ions, which are formed due to electron capture from the first target, depends on the first radiative recombination (RR) photon emission direction. Such a relative population, which can be parameterized in terms of the polarization parameters, affects then the angular and polarization properties of the second photon emitted in the collision with the second target. The coincidence γ – γ RR measurements may allow us to study, therefore, the process in which (i) H-like ions of some particular polarization are ‘selected out’ of the beam by detecting first recombination photons and (ii) this polarization is ‘measured’ in the second electron capture process. In order to describe the output of the (future) γ – γ correlation measurements, we derive the general expression for angular- and polarization-correlation function. Detailed calculations for the dependence of this function on the experimental setup and collision energy are performed for the RR of bare uranium ions.
I. A. Maltsev, G. B. Deyneka, I. I. Tupitsyn, V. M. Shabaev, Y. S. Kozhedub, G. Plunien, and T. Stöhlker
Relativistic calculations of charge transfer probabilities in U⁹²⁺–U⁹¹⁺(1s) collisions using the basis set of cubic Hermite splines
Phys. Scripta, 2013 :014056 (September 2013)
A new approach for solving the time-dependent two-center Dirac equation is presented. The method is based on using the finite basis set of cubic Hermite splines on a two-dimensional lattice. The Dirac equation is treated in the rotating reference frame. The collision of U⁹²⁺ (as a projectile) and U⁹¹⁺ (as a target) is considered at energy E_(lab) = 6 MeV u^(−1) . The charge transfer probabilities are calculated for different values of the impact parameter. The results obtained are compared with previous calculations (Tupitsyn et al 2010 Phys. Rev. A 82 042701), where a method based on atomic-like Dirac–Sturm orbitals was employed. This work can provide a new tool for the investigation of quantum electrodynamics effects in heavy-ion collisions near the supercritical regime.
Y. S. Kozhedub, I. I. Tupitsyn, V. M. Shabaev, S. Hagmann, G. Plunien, and T. Stöhlker
Relativistic calculations of inner-shell atomic processes in low-energy ion–atom collisions
Phys. Scripta, 2013 :014053 (September 2013)
Relativistic calculations of inner-shell atomic processes in low-energy Ne–F^(8+)(1s) and Xe–Xe^(53+)(1s) collisions are performed. The method of calculation exploits the active-electron approximation and is based on the coupled-channel approach with atomic-like Dirac–Sturm–Fock orbitals, localized at the ions (atoms). The screening density-functional theory is applied for description of the interaction with passive electrons. The role of relativistic effects is analyzed.
T. Stöhlker, Y. A. Litvinov, V. Bagnoud, U. Bechstedt, C. Dimopoulou, A. Dolinskii, C. Geppert, S. Hagmann, T. Katayama, T. Kühl, R. Maier, W. Nörtershäuser, D. Prasuhn, R. Schuch, M. Steck, and H. Stockhorst
SPARC experiments at the high-energy storage ring
Phys. Scripta, 2013 :014085 (September 2013)
The physics program of the SPARC collaboration at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) focuses on the study of collision phenomena in strong and even extreme electromagnetic fields and on the fundamental interactions between electrons and heavy nuclei up to bare uranium. Here we give a short overview on the challenging physics opportunities of the high-energy storage ring at FAIR for future experiments with heavy-ion beams at relativistic energies with particular emphasis on the basic beam properties to be expected.
R. Märtin, G. Weber, R. Barday, Y. Fritzsche, J. Enders, U. Spillmann, and T. Stöhlker
Target-thickness effects in electron–atom bremsstrahlung
Phys. Scripta, 2013 :014070 (September 2013)
We report on a study of target-thickness effects on the degree of the linear polarization as well as on the emission probability of bremsstrahlung arising in the collision of 100 keV electrons with thin gold targets. For this purpose an experiment at the electron source SPIN at the TU Darmstadt as well as Monte Carlo simulations have been performed. The results indicate that for high- Z targets the degree of linear polarization is significantly altered by straggling of the electrons inside the target.
M. Zürch, C. Kern, and C. Spielmann
XUV coherent diffraction imaging in reflection geometry with low numerical aperture
Opt. Express, 21 :21131 (September 2013)
We present an experimental realization of coherent diffraction imaging in reflection geometry illuminating the sample with a laser driven high harmonic generation (HHG) based XUV source. After recording the diffraction pattern in reflection geometry, the data must be corrected before the image can be reconstructed with a hybrid-input-output (HIO) algorithm. In this paper we present a detailed investigation of sources of spoiling the reconstructed image due to the nonlinear momentum transfer, errors in estimating the angle of incidence on the sample, and distortions by placing the image off center in the computation grid. Finally we provide guidelines for the necessary parameters to realize a satisfactory reconstruction within a spatial resolution in the range of one micron for an imaging scheme with a numerical aperture NA < 0.03.
A. Hayrapetyan, O. Matula, A. Surzhykov, and S. Fritzsche
Bessel beams of two-level atoms driven by a linearly polarized laser field
Eur. Phys. J. D, 67 :167 (August 2013)
We study Bessel beams of two-level atoms that are driven by a linearly polarized laser field. Starting from the Schrödinger equation, we determine the states of two-level atoms in a plane-wave field respecting propagation directions both of the atom and the field. For such laser-driven two-level atoms, we construct Bessel beams beyond the typical paraxial approximation. We show that the probability density of these atomic beams obtains a non-trivial, Bessel-squared-type behavior and can be tuned under the special choice of the atom and laser parameters, such as the nuclear charge, atom velocity, laser frequency, and propagation geometry of the atom and laser beams. Moreover, we spatially and temporally characterize the beam of hydrogen and selected (neutral) alkali-metal atoms that carry non-zero orbital angular momentum (OAM). The proposed spatiotemporal Bessel states (i) are able to describe, in principle, twisted states of any two-level system which is driven by the radiation field and (ii) have potential applications in atomic and nuclear processes as well as in quantum communication.
T. Rathje, A. M. Sayler, S. Zeng, P. Wustelt, H. Figger, B. D. Esry, and G.G. Paulus
Coherent Control at Its Most Fundamental: Carrier-Envelope-Phase-Dependent Electron Localization in Photodissociation of a H₂+ Molecular Ion Beam Target
Phys. Rev. Lett., 111 :093002 (August 2013)
Measurements and calculations of the absolute carrier-envelope-phase (CEP) effects in the photodissociation of the simplest molecule, H₂+, with a 4.5-fs Ti:sapphire laser pulse at intensities up to (4 ± 2) × 10^14  W/cm^2 are presented. Localization of the electron with respect to the two nuclei (during the dissociation process) is controlled via the CEP of the ultrashort laser pulses. In contrast to previous CEP-dependent experiments with neutral molecules, the dissociation of the molecular ions is not preceded by a photoionization process, which strongly influences the CEP dependence. Kinematically complete data are obtained by time- and position-resolved coincidence detection. The phase dependence is determined by a single-shot phase measurement correlated to the detection of the dissociation fragments. The experimental results show quantitative agreement with ab initio 3D time-dependent Schrödinger equation calculations that include nuclear vibration and rotation.
I. Hofmann
Halo coupling and cleaning by a space charge resonance in high intensity beams
Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams, 16 :084201 (August 2013)
We show that the difference resonance driven by the space charge pseudo-octupole of high intensity beams not only couples the beam core emittances; it can also lead to emittance exchange in the beam halo, which is of relevance for beam loss in high intensity accelerators. With reference to linear accelerators the “main resonance” kz/kx,y=1 (corresponding to the Montague resonance 2Qx−2Qy=0 in circular accelerators) may lead to such a coupling and transfer of halo between planes. Coupling of transverse halo into the longitudinal plane—or vice versa—can occur even if the core (rms) emittances are exactly or nearly equal. This halo argument justifies additional caution in linac design including consideration of avoiding an equipartitioned design. At the same time, however, this mechanism may also qualify as an active dynamical halo cleaning scheme by coupling a halo from the longitudinal plane into the transverse plane, where local scraping is accessible. We present semianalytical emittance coupling rates and show that previously developed linac stability charts for the core can be extended—using the longitudinal to transverse halo emittance ratio—to indicate additional regions where halo coupling could be of importance.
M. Kübel, N. Kling, K. J. Betsch, N. Camus, A. Kaldun, U. Kleineberg, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G.G. Paulus, T. Pfeifer, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, M. F. Kling, and B. Bergues
Nonsequential double ionization of N_2 in a near-single-cycle laser pulse
Phys. Rev. A, 88 :023418 (August 2013)
We present a comparative study of nonsequential double ionization (NSDI) of N_2 and Ar exposed to near-single-cycle laser pulses. The NSDI process is investigated using carrier-envelope-phase-tagged electron-ion coincidence spectroscopy. The measured NSDI spectra of N_2 and Ar exhibit a striking resemblance. In particular, the correlated two-electron momentum distribution arising from NSDI of N_2 also displays a cross-shape very similar to that reported for Ar [Bergues et al., Nat. Commun. 3, 813 (2012)]. We interpret our results in terms of recollision-excitation with subcycle depletion and discuss how this mechanism accounts for the observed similarities and differences in the ionization behavior of the two species.
Y. Litvinov, S. Bishop, K. Blaum, F. Bosch, C. Brandau, L. Chen, I. Dillmann, P. Egelhof, H. Geissel, R. Grisenti, S. Hagmann, M. Heil, A. Heinz, N. Kalantar-Nayestanaki, R. Knöbel, C. Kozhuharov, M. Lestinsky, X. Ma, T. Nilsson, F. Nolden, A. Ozawa, R. Raabe, M. Reed, R. Reifarth, M. Sanjari, D. Schneider, H. Simon, M. Steck, T. Stöhlker, B. Sun, X. Tu, T. Uesaka, P. Walker, M. Wakasugi, H. Weick, N. Winckler, P. Woods, H. Xu, T. Yamaguchi, Y. Yamaguchi, and Y. Zhang
Nuclear physics experiments with ion storage rings
Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. B, 317 :603 (August 2013)
In the last two decades a number of nuclear structure and astrophysics experiments were performed at heavy-ion storage rings employing unique experimental conditions offered by such machines. Furthermore, building on the experience gained at the two facilities presently in operation, several new storage ring projects were launched worldwide. This contribution is intended to provide a brief review of the fast growing field of nuclear structure and astrophysics research at storage rings.
A. Gopal, S. Herzer, A. Schmidt, P. Singh, A. Reinhard, W. Ziegler, D. Brömmel, A. Karmakar, P. Gibbon, U. Dillner, T. May, H.-G. Meyer, and G.G. Paulus
Observation of Gigawatt-Class THz Pulses from a Compact Laser-Driven Particle Accelerator
Phys. Rev. Lett., 111 :074802 (August 2013)
We report the observation of subpicosecond terahertz (T-ray) pulses with energies ≥ 460  μJ from a laser-driven ion accelerator, thus rendering the peak power of the source higher even than that of state-of-the-art synchrotrons. Experiments were performed with intense laser pulses (up to 5 × 10^19  W/cm^2) to irradiate thin metal foil targets. Ion spectra measured simultaneously showed a square law dependence of the T-ray yield on particle number. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations show the presence of transient currents at the target rear surface which could be responsible for the strong T-ray emission.
C. Jauregui, H.-J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann
Passive mitigation strategies for mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems
Opt. Express, 21 :19375 (August 2013)
Mode instabilities have quickly become the most limiting effect when it comes to scaling the output average power of fiber laser systems. In consequence, there is an urgent need for effective strategies to mitigate it and, thus, to increase the power threshold at which it appears. Passive mitigation strategies can be classified into intrinsic, which are related to the fiber design, and extrinsic, which require a modification of the setup. In order to evaluate the impact of mitigation strategies, a means to calculate its power threshold and predict its behavior is required. In this paper we present a simple semi-analytic formula that is able to predict the changes of the mode instability threshold by analyzing the strength of the thermally-induced waveguide perturbations. Furthermore, we propose two passive mitigation strategies, one intrinsic and one extrinsic, that should lead to a significant increase of the power threshold of mode instabilities.
S. Mondal, R. Ma, K. Motomura, H. Fukuzawa, A. Yamada, K. Nagaya, S. Yase, Y. Mizoguchi, M. Yao, A. Rouzée, A. Hundertmark, M. J. J. Vrakking, P. Johnsson, M. Nagasono, K. Tono, T. Togashi, Y. Senba, H. Ohashi, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, I. P. Sazhina, S. Fritzsche, N. M. Kabachnik, and K. Ueda
Photoelectron angular distributions for the two-photon sequential double ionization of xenon by ultrashort extreme ultraviolet free electron laser pulses
J. Phys. B, 46 :164022 (August 2013)
Xenon atoms are double-ionized by sequential two-photon absorption by ultrashort extreme ultraviolet free-electron laser pulses with a photon energy of 23.0 and 24.3 eV, produced by the SPring-8 Compact SASE Source test accelerator. The angular distributions of photoelectrons generated by two-photon double ionization are obtained using velocity map imaging. The results are reproduced reasonably well by the present theoretical calculations within the multi-configurational Dirac–Fock approach.
H. Gies, F. Karbstein, and N. Seegert
Quantum Reflection as a New Signature of Quantum Vacuum Nonlinearity
New J. Phys., 15 :083002 (August 2013)
We show that photons subject to a spatially inhomogeneous electromagnetic field can experience quantum reflection. Based on this observation, we propose quantum reflection as a novel means to probe the nonlinearity of the quantum vacuum in the presence of strong electromagnetic fields.
D. Shubina, R. B. Cakirli, Yu. A. Litvinov, K. Blaum, C. Brandau, F. Bosch, J. J. Carroll, R. F. Casten, D. M. Cullen, I. J. Cullen, A. Y. Deo, B. Detwiler, C. Dimopoulou, F. Farinon, H. Geissel, E. Haettner, M. Heil, R. S. Kempley, C. Kozhuharov, R. Knöbel, J. Kurcewicz, N. Kuzminchuk, S. A. Litvinov, Z. Liu, R. Mao, C. Nociforo, F. Nolden, Z. Patyk, W. R. Plass, A. Prochazka, M. W. Reed, M. S. Sanjari, C. Scheidenberger, M. Steck, T. Stöhlker, B. Sun, T. P. D. Swan, G. Trees, P. M. Walker, H. Weick, N. Winckler, M. Winkler, P. J. Woods, T. Yamaguchi, and C. Zhou
Schottky mass measurements of heavy neutron-rich nuclides in the element range 70 ≤ Z ≤ 79 at the GSI Experimental Storage Ring
Phys. Rev. C, 88 :024310 (August 2013)
Storage-ring mass spectrometry was applied to neutron-rich 197Au projectile fragments. Masses of 181,183Lu, 185,186Hf, 187,188Ta, 191W, and 192,193Re nuclei were measured for the first time. The uncertainty of previously known masses of 189,190W and 195Os nuclei was improved. Observed irregularities on the smooth two-neutron separation energies for Hf and W isotopes are linked to the collectivity phenomena in the corresponding nuclei.
A. Rouzée, P. Johnsson, L. Rading, A. Hundertmark, W. Siu, Y. Huismans, S. Düsterer, H. Redlin, F. Tavella, N. Stojanovic, A. Al-Shemmary, F. Lépine, D. M. P. Holland, T. Schlatholter, R. Hoekstra, H. Fukuzawa, K. Ueda, and M. J. J. Vrakking
Towards imaging of ultrafast molecular dynamics using FELs
J. Phys. B, 46 :164029 (August 2013)
The dissociation dynamics induced by a 100 fs, 400 nm laser pulse in a rotationally cold Br2 sample was characterized by Coulomb explosion imaging (CEI) using a time-delayed extreme ultra-violet (XUV) FEL pulse, obtained from the Free electron LASer in Hamburg (FLASH). The momentum distribution of atomic fragments resulting from the 400 nm-induced dissociation was measured with a velocity map imaging spectrometer and used to monitor the internuclear distance as the molecule dissociated. By employing the simultaneously recorded in-house timing electro-optical sampling data, the time resolution of the final results could be improved to 300 fs, compared to the inherent 500 fs time-jitter of the FEL pulse. Before dissociation, the Br 2 molecules were transiently ‘fixed in space’ using laser-induced alignment. In addition, similar alignment techniques were used on CO2 molecules to allow the measurement of the photoelectron angular distribution (PAD) directly in the molecular frame (MF). Our results on MFPADs in aligned CO2 molecules, together with our investigation of the dissociation dynamics of the Br2 molecules with CEI, show that information about the evolving molecular structure and electronic geometry can be retrieved from such experiments, therefore paving the way towards the study of complex non-adiabatic dynamics in molecules through XUV time-resolved photoion and photoelectron spectroscopy.
K. Heeg, H.-C. Wille, K. Schlage, T. Guryeva, D. Schumacher, I. Uschmann, K. S. Schulze, B. Marx, T. Kämpfer, G. Paulus, R. Röhlsberger, and J. Evers
Vacuum-Assisted Generation and Control of Atomic Coherences at X-Ray Energies
Phys. Rev. Lett., 111 :073601 (August 2013)
The control of light-matter interaction at the quantum level usually requires coherent laser fields. But already an exchange of virtual photons with the electromagnetic vacuum field alone can lead to quantum coherences, which subsequently suppress spontaneous emission. We demonstrate such spontaneously generated coherences (SGC) in a large ensemble of nuclei operating in the x-ray regime, resonantly coupled to a common cavity environment. The observed SGC originates from two fundamentally different mechanisms related to cooperative emission and magnetically controlled anisotropy of the cavity vacuum. This approach opens new perspectives for quantum control, quantum state engineering and simulation of quantum many-body physics in an essentially decoherence-free setting.