Peer-Review Publications

2015

A. Akber, M. W. Reed, P. M. Walker, Yu. A. Litvinov, G. J. Lane, T. Kibédi, K. Blaum, F. Bosch, C. Brandau, J. J. Carroll, D. M. Cullen, I. J. Cullen, A. Y. Deo, B. Detwiler, C. Dimopoulou, G. D. Dracoulis, F. Farinon, H. Geissel, E. Haettner, M. Heil, R. S. Kempley, R. Knöbel, C. Kozhuharov, J. Kurcewicz, N. Kuzminchuk, S. Litvinov, Z. Liu, R. Mao, C. Nociforo, F. Nolden, W. R. Plass, Zs. Podolyak, A. Prochazka, C. Scheidenberger, D. Shubina, M. Steck, T. Stöhlker, B. Sun, T. P. D. Swan, G. Trees, H. Weick, N. Winckler, M. Winkler, P. J. Woods, and T. Yamaguchi
Increased isomeric lifetime of hydrogen-like ¹⁹²mOs
Phys. Rev. C, 91 :031301 (March 2015)
Abstract:
An excited metastable nuclear state of Os192 in a hydrogen-like charge state has been studied for the first time. It was populated in projectile fragmentation of a Au197 beam on a Be9 target with the UNILAC-SIS accelerators at GSI. Fragmentation products in the region of interest were passed through the fragment separator and injected into the experimental storage ring (ESR). Cooling of the injected beam particles enabled Schottky mass spectrometry to be performed. Analysis shows the lifetime of the state to be considerably longer than that of the neutral ion [t_neut=8.5(14)s]; this change is attributed to hindrance of internal conversion in hydrogen-like Os192. Calculations have been performed to estimate the lifetime, and the result has been compared with that measured experimentally. There is good agreement between the expected [t_H-like=13.0(24)s] and measured lifetimes (t_rest=15.1+1.5-1.3 s) from the internal decay of Os192m. This provides a test for the reliability of the values obtained from internal conversion coefficient calculations in highly ionized systems and is the first measurement of its kind to be performed using the ESR setup.
P. Wustelt, M. Möller, T. Rathje, A. M. Sayler, T. Stöhlker, and G.G. Paulus
Momentum-resolved study of the saturation intensity in multiple ionization
Phys. Rev. A, 91 :031401 (March 2015)
Abstract:
We present a momentum-resolved study of strong field multiple ionization of ionic targets. Using a deconvolution method we are able to reconstruct the electron momenta from the ion momentum distributions after multiple ionization up to four sequential ionization steps. This technique allows an accurate determination of the saturation intensity as well as of the electron release times during the laser pulse. The measured results are discussed in comparison to typically used models of over-the-barrier ionization and tunnel ionization.
D. Seipt, S. G. Rykovanov, A. Surzhykov, and S. Fritzsche
Narrowband inverse Compton scattering x-ray sources at high laser intensities
Phys. Rev. A, 91 :033402 (March 2015)
Abstract:
Narrowband x- and γ-ray sources based on the inverse Compton scattering of laser pulses suffer from a limitation of the allowed laser intensity due to the onset of nonlinear effects that increase their bandwidth. It has been suggested that laser pulses with a suitable frequency modulation could compensate this ponderomotive broadening and reduce the bandwidth of the spectral lines, which would allow one to operate narrowband Compton sources in the high-intensity regime. In this paper we therefore present the theory of nonlinear Compton scattering in a frequency-modulated intense laser pulse. We systematically derive the optimal frequency modulation of the laser pulse from the scattering matrix element of nonlinear Compton scattering, taking into account the electron spin and recoil. We show that, for some particular scattering angle, an optimized frequency modulation completely cancels the ponderomotive broadening for all harmonics of the backscattered light. We also explore how sensitively this compensation depends on the electron-beam energy spread and emittance, as well as the laser focusing.
P. Crump, C. Frevert, F. Bugge, S. Knigge, G. Erbert, G. Trankle, A. Pietrzak, R. Hüslewede, M. Zorn, J. Sebastian, J. Lotz, W. Fassbender, J. Neukum, J. Körner, J. Hein, and T. Topfer
Progress in high-energy-class diode laser pump sources
Proc. SPIE, 9348 :93480U (March 2015)
Abstract:
A new generation of diode-pumped high-energy-class solid-state laser facilities is in development that generate multijoule pulse energies at around 10 Hz. Currently deployed quasi-continuous-wave (QCW) diode lasers deliver average inpulse pump powers of around 300 W per bar. Increased power-per-bar helps to reduce the system size, complexity and cost per Joule and the increased pump brilliance also enables more efficient operation of the solid state laser itself. It has been shown in recent studies, that optimized QCW diode laser bars centered at 940…980 nm can operate with an average in-pulse power of >1000 W per bar, triple that of commercial sources. When operated at pulsed condition of 1 ms, 10 Hz, this corresponds to >1 J/bar. We review here the status of these high-energy-class pump sources, showing how the highest powers are enabled by using long resonators (4…6 mm) for improved cooling and robustly passivated output facets for high reliability. Results are presented for prototype passively-cooled single bar assemblies and monolithic stacked QCW arrays. We confirm that 1 J/bar is sustained for fast-axis collimated stacks with a bar pitch of 1.7 mm, with narrow lateral far field angle (<12° with 95% power) and spectral width (<12 nm with 95% power). Such stacks are anticipated to enable Joule/bar pump densities to be used near-term in commercial high power diode laser systems. Finally, we briefly summarize the latest status of research into bars with higher efficiencies, including studies into operation at sub-zero temperatures (-70°C), which also enables higher powers and narrower far field and spectra.
C. Jauregui, H.-J. Otto, N. Modsching, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann
Recent progress in the understanding of mode instabilities
Proc. SPIE, 9344 :93440J (March 2015)
Abstract:
In this work the latest progress in the understanding of mode instabilities is reviewed. Particular emphasis is put on the recently established influence of photodarkening on the mode instability threshold and its behavior. It is shown, for example, that even degradations of the output power in the order of a few percent can lead to very significant reductions of the mode instability threshold. Moreover, our analysis shows that photodarkening also alters the expected behavior of the mode instability threshold with respect to the signal wavelength and the seed power. Thus photodarkening is revealed as one of the main effects shaping the behavior of the mode instability threshold observed in experiments.
C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann
Self-efficiency improvement and cooling in thulium-doped fibers
Proc. SPIE, 9344 :93441Q (March 2015)
Abstract:
A way to increase the efficiency of Thulium-doped fiber systems and simultaneously prevent the generation of heat by pumping the excited state around 1460 nm has been recently proposed by the authors. In this contribution we show that a Thulium-doped fiber amplifier can lase around 1460nm while simultaneously amplifying signals around 2 μm. Such an operation results in considerably higher amplification efficiencies and in lower operating temperatures without the need for an external pump around 1460 nm.
B. Manschwetus, N. Lin, J. Rothhardt, R. Guichard, T. Auguste, A. Camper, P. Breger, J. Caillat, M. Géléoc, T. Ruchon, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, and P. Salières
Self-Probing Spectroscopy of the SF 6 Molecule: A Study of the Spectral Amplitude and Phase of the High Harmonic Emission
J. Phys. Chem. A, 119 :6111 (March 2015)
Abstract:
We present characterizations of the attosecond pulse train produced in the high harmonic generation (HHG) from SF6 molecules irradiated by a strong pulsed laser field at 800 nm. At harmonic order 17, we observe a minimum in the amplitude of the emitted spectrum and a corresponding distortion in the phase. Our experimental results are compared to two models: a multicenter interference model focused on the effect of the structure of the SF6 molecule in HHG and a model focused on the interferences between multiple ionization channels in HHG. We find that the experimental results agree very well with the multiple ionization channels model, illustrating that HHG in molecules can be very complex and that it provides insights of the intramolecular electron dynamics during the interaction process.
C. Gaida, F. Stutzki, M. Gebhardt, F. Jansen, A. Wienke, U. D. Zeitner, F. Fuchs, C. Jauregui, D. Wandt, D. Kracht, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann
Sub-700 fs pulses at 152 W average power from a Tm-doped fiber CPA system
Proc. SPIE, 9344 :93441K (March 2015)
Abstract:
Thulium-based fiber lasers potentially provide for the demand of high average-power ultrafast laser systems operating at an emission wavelength around 2 μm. In this work we use a Tm-doped photonic-crystal fiber (PCF) with a mode field diameter of 36 μm enabling high peak powers without the onset of detrimental nonlinear effects. For the first time a Tm-doped PCF amplifier allows for a pump-power limited average output power of 241 W with a slope efficiency above 50%, good beam quality and linear polarization. A record compressed average power of 152 W and a pulse peak power of more than 4 MW at sub-700 fs pulse duration are enabled by dielectric gratings with diffraction efficiencies higher than 98% leading to a total compression efficiency of more than 70%. A further increase of pulse peak power towards the GW-level is planned by employing Tm-doped large-pitch fibers with mode field diameters well above 50 μm. The coherent combination of ultrafast pulses might eventually lead to kW-level average power and multi-GW peak power.
G. Weber, M. Herdrich, R. DuBois, P.-M. Hillenbrand, H. Beyer, L. Bozyk, T. Gassner, R. Grisenti, S. Hagmann, Y. Litvinov, F. Nolden, N. Petridis, M. Sanjari, D. Winters, and T. Stöhlker
Total projectile electron loss cross sections of U²⁸⁺ ions in collisions with gaseous targets ranging from hydrogen to krypton
Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams, 18 :034403 (March 2015)
Abstract:
Beam lifetimes of stored U^(28+) ions with kinetic energies of 30 and 50  MeV/u, respectively, were measured in the experimental storage ring of the GSI accelerator facility. By using the internal gas target station of the experimental storage ring, it was possible to obtain total projectile electron loss cross sections for collisions with several gaseous targets ranging from hydrogen to krypton from the beam lifetime data. The resulting experimental cross sections are compared to predictions by two theoretical approaches, namely the CTMC method and a combination of the DEPOSIT code and the RICODE program.
H.-J. Otto, N. Modsching, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann
Wavelength dependence of maximal diffraction-limited output power of fiber lasers
Proc. SPIE, 9344 :93441Y (March 2015)
Abstract:
The threshold-like onset of mode instabilities is currently the main limitation for the scaling of the average output power of fiber-laser systems with diffraction limited beam quality. In this contribution wavelength shifting of the seed signal has been experimentally investigated in order to mitigate mode instabilities. Against the expectations, it is experimentally shown that the highest mode instabilities threshold is reached around 1030 nm and not for the smallest wavelength separation between pump and signal wavelength. This finding implies that the quantum defect is not the sole significant source for thermal heating in the fiber.
T. Hahn, J. Bierbach, C. Rödel, D. Hemmers, M. Yeung, B. Dromey, S. Fuchs, A. Galestian, S. Kuschel, M. Zepf, G. Paulus, and G. Pretzler
Broadband XUV polarimetry of high harmonics from plasma surfaces using multiple Fresnel reflections
Appl. Phys. B, 118 :241 (February 2015)
Abstract:
High-harmonic generation (HHG) by nonlinear interaction of intense laser pulses with gases or plasma surfaces is the most prominent way of creating highly coherent extreme ultraviolet (EUV/XUV) pulses. In the last years, several scientific applications have been found which require the measurement of the polarization of the harmonic radiation. We present a broadband XUV polarimeter based on multiple Fresnel reflections providing an extinction rate of 5–25 for 17–45 nm which is particularly suited for surface harmonics. The device has first been tested at a gas harmonic source providing linearly polarized XUV radiation. In a further experiment using HHG from plasma surfaces, the XUV polarimeter allowed a polarization measurement of high harmonic radiation from plasma surfaces for the first time which reveals a linear polarization state as predicted for our generation parameters. The generation and control of intense polarized XUV pulses - together with the availability of broadband polarizers in the XUV - open the way for a series of new experiments. For instance, dichroism in the XUV, elliptically polarized harmonics from aligned molecules, or the selection rules of relativistic surface harmonics can be studied with the broadband XUV polarimeter.
K.-H. Blumenhagen, A. Gumberidze, R. Märtin, N. Schell, U. Spillmann, G. Weber, and T. Stöhlker
Characterization of a double-sided Si(Li) strip Compton polarimeter
J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., 583 :012043 (February 2015)
Abstract:
The response of a double-sided segmented Si(Li) detector system has been investigated. The detector has been irradiated with a collimated, highly linearly polarized beam of 53.2 keV photons from the synchrotron radiation source PETRA III at DESY. The detector was mounted on a platform that could be moved with μm precision thus allowing for a defined beam position on the detector surface. In this paper, the effects of the isolation gaps (gap width = 50 μm) between adjacent segments (strips) were studied, in particular with respect to the effect of charge sharing. The fraction of such charge sharing events increases from about 5% (beam hits center of a strip) to over 50% when the beam is focused just on a gap. The fraction of reconstructed Compton scattering events, which is interesting for Compton polarimetry, amounts to about 3% with the beam impinging at a strip center and 2.8% on average. It can therefore be concluded that events related to charge sharing do not critically degrade the performance of the detector as a Compton polarimter.
G. Weber, K.-H. Blumenhagen, H. Bräuning, H. Ding, S. Fritzsche, S. Hess, R. Märtin, U. Spillmann, A. Surzhykov, S. Trotsenko, D. F. A. Winters, V. A. Yerokhin, and T. Stöhlker
Compton polarimetry using double-sided segmented x-ray detectors
J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., 583 :012041 (February 2015)
Abstract:
Hard x-ray polarimetry of radiation emitted in collisions of heavy ions, electrons or photons with matter provides detailed information on the collision dynamics as well as of the atomic structure in the presence of extreme field strengths. Moreover, it also opens a route for polarization diagnosis of spin-polarized ion and electron beams which, for example, might be useful in future parity non-conservation studies. Owing to recent progress in the development of highly segmented solid-state detectors, a novel type of polarimeter for the hard x-ray regime has become available. Applied as Compton polarimeters, two-dimensional position-sensitive x-ray detectors now allow for precise and efficient measurements of x-ray linear polarization properties. In this report recent polarimetry studies using such detector systems are reviewed.
S. Kuhn, M. Tiegel, A. Herrmann, J. Körner, R. Seifert, F. Yue, D. Klöpfel, J. Hein, M.C. Kaluza, and C. Russel
Effect of hydroxyl concentration on Yb3+ luminescence properties in a peraluminous lithium-alumino-silicate glass
Opt. Mater. Express, 5 :430 (February 2015)
Abstract:
Ytterbium doped lithium-alumino-silicate glasses suitable for diode-pumped laser applications were investigated concerning the hydroxyl quenching of the Yb^(3+) fluorescence. Glasses of the nominal composition 18 mol% Li2O, 22 mol% Al2O3 and 60 mol% SiO2 with variable OH concentrations NOH (between 0.04 and 6.01 ∙ 1019 cm−3) and Yb3+ concentrations NYb (between 0.1 and 9 ∙ 1020 cm−3) were produced and a direct correlation between spontaneous emission decay rate and the product NYb ∙ NOH was observed. The radiative spontaneous emission rate in the glass host is around 1,000 s−1 (radiative lifetime 1.0 ms) and the microparameter for Yb-Yb energy migration, CYb-Yb, was found to be 1.358∙10^−38 cm^6 s−1. It was calculated that on average 17% of the OH groups in the glass contribute to the quenching of the Yb3+ fluorescence. By analysis of the UV edge of the glass it was concluded that melting under inert conditions leads to reduction of iron impurities to Fe2+, which can act as quenching sites for the Yb3+ ions and therefore may additionally reduce the energy storage capability of the laser material.
P.-M. Hillenbrand, S. Hagmann, D. H. Jakubassa-Amundsen, J. M. Monti, D. Banaś, K.-H. Blumenhagen, C. Brandau, W. Chen, P. D. Fainstein, E. De Filippo, A. Gumberidze, D. L. Guo, M. Lestinsky, Yu. A. Litvinov, A. Müller, R. D. Rivarola, H. Rothard, S. Schippers, M. S. Schöffler, U. Spillmann, S. Trotsenko, X. L. Zhu, and T. Stöhlker
Electron-capture-to-continuum cusp in U⁸⁸⁺+N₂ collisions
Phys. Rev. A, 91 :022705 (February 2015)
Abstract:
For the collision system U88+ -> N2 at a collision energy of 90 MeV/u, the energy distribution of electrons being nonradiatively captured from the target into the projectile continuum has been measured under an angle of 0∘ with respect to the projectile beam axis. This measurement of the electron-capture-to-continuum cusp with the highest effective projectile charge Z_eff,p=88 at a near-relativistic collision velocity of β≈0.41 is shown to be characterized by a strong asymmetry in the cusp shape. By comparing the data to measurements of the radiative-electron-capture-to-continuum cusp for the same collision system, the opposite asymmetry of the cusp is traced back to the varying underlying mechanisms. The experimental results are compared with the two theoretical calculations available for this process, one of them in the semirelativistic impulse approximation and the other in the nonrelativistic continuum-distorted-wave approach. A corresponding fully relativistic treatment may be motivated by the presented experimental data.
H. Y. Wang, X. Q. Yan, and M. Zepf
High-energy monoenergetic proton beams from two stage acceleration with a slow laser pulse
Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams, 18 :021302 (February 2015)
Abstract:
We present a new regime to generate high-energy quasimonoenergetic proton beams in a "slow-pulse" regime, where the laser group velocity vg<c is reduced by an extended near-critical density plasma. In this regime, for properly matched laser intensity and group velocity, ions initially accelerated by the light sail (LS) mode can be further trapped and reflected by the snowplough potential generated by the laser in the near-critical density plasma. These two acceleration stages are connected by the onset of Rayleigh-Taylor-like (RT) instability. The usual ion energy spectrum broadening by RT instability is controlled and high quality proton beams can be generated. It is shown by multidimensional particle-in-cell simulation that quasimonoenergetic proton beams with energy up to hundreds of MeV can be generated at laser intensities of 10²¹ W/cm².
T. Krings, U. Spillmann, D. Protić, C. Roß, T. Stöhlker, G. Weber, L. Bombelli, R. Alberti, and T. Frizzi
Multi-element readout of structured HPGe-detectors for high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy using CUBE-preamplifiers
J. Instrum., 10 :C02043 (February 2015)
Abstract:
Very recently we have shown that CUBE-preamplifiers developed by XGLab s.r.l. can be used for the readout of single elements of thick structured planar HPGe- and Si(Li)-detectors produced by SEMIKON [1]. In this paper we will present the results of a simultaneous multi-element readout of structured detectors using the same preamplifiers for measuring high-energy x-rays (more than 100 keV) with a comparable energy resolution as for the single-element readout. Several high-purity germanium detectors (HPGe-detectors) with different position sensitive structures on one detector contact have been used for the first tests. In addition to that we have modified an existing 16-pixel HPGe-polarimeter from GSI-Darmstadt with the new readout. The detector elements (7 mm × 7 mm each, arranged in a 4 × 4 matrix) are connected to CUBE-preamplifiers used in pulse-reset mode. The technological progress achieved with this detector system resulting in a significant improved energy resolution will contribute a lot to much more precise polarization measurements of x-rays emitted from atom-ion collisions which are part of the physics program of the SPARC collaboration (Stored Particles Atomic Physics Research Collaboration) at GSI and the future FAIR accelerator facility (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research).
M. Kienel, M. Müller, A. Klenke, T. Eidam, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann
Multidimensional coherent pulse addition of ultrashort laser pulses
Opt. Lett., 40 :522 (February 2015)
Abstract:
Spatially and temporally separated amplification and subsequent coherent addition of femtosecond pulses is a promising performance-scaling approach for ultrafast laser systems. Herein we demonstrate for the first time the application of this multidimensional scheme in a scalable architecture. Applying actively controlled divided-pulse amplification producing up to four pulse replicas that are amplified in two ytterbium-doped step-index fibers (6 μm core), pulse energies far beyond the damage threshold of the single fiber have been achieved. In this proof-of-principle experiment, high system efficiencies are demonstrated at both high pulse energies (i.e., in case of strong saturation) and high accumulated nonlinear phases.
B. Aurand, S. Kuschel, C. Rödel, O. Jäckel, J. Polz, B. Elkin, H. Zhao, A. Karmakar, P. Gibbon, M. Kaluza, and T. Kühl
Reduction of X-ray generation in high-intensity laser ion acceleration
Appl. Phys. B, 118 :247 (February 2015)
Abstract:
In this paper, we report on measurements of bremsstrahlung in laser ion acceleration experiments from ultra-thin, polymer-based target foils. The influence of laser polarization on the generated γ radiation, the maximum achievable proton energy and the total proton number is investigated. A clear benefit in terms of γ radiation reduction by the use of circular polarized light can be observed. At the same time, the total number of accelerated protons was increased.
A. Ortner, A. Frank, A. Blazevic, and M. Roth
Role of charge transfer in heavy-ion-beam—plasma interactions at intermediate energies
Phys. Rev. E, 91 :023104 (February 2015)
Abstract:
In this paper we investigate the influence of the plasma properties on the charge state distribution of a swift heavy ion beam interacting with a plasma. The main finding is that the charge state in plasma can be lower than in cold matter. The charge state distribution is determined by the ionization and recombination rates which are balancing each other out. Both, ionization and recombination rates, as well as atomic excitation and decay rates, depend on the plasma parameters in different ways. These effects have been theoretically studied by Monte Carlo simulations on the example of an argon ion beam at an energy of 4 MeV/u in a carbon plasma. This study covers a plasma parameter space ranging from ion densities from 10¹⁸ to 10²³ cm⁻³ and electron temperatures from 10 to 200 eV.
C. João, F. Wagner, J. Körner, J. Hein, T. Gottschall, J. Limpert, and V. Bagnoud
A 10-mJ-level compact CPA system based on Yb:KGW for ultrafast optical parametric amplifier pumping
Appl. Phys. B, 118 :401 (January 2015)
Abstract:
A compact diode-pumped Yb:KGW regenerative amplifier producing 10 Hz, 10-mJ-level picosecond pulses at 1,040 nm is demonstrated. The system is used at the new front end of the PHELIX petawatt laser system to pump an ultrafast optical parametric amplifier for temporal contrast enhancement. Before frequency doubling, a pulse length of ∼1 ps is obtained by using a stretcher/compressor system based on a single large-aperture chirped volume Bragg grating.
A. Ortner, S. Faik, D. Schumacher, M. Basko, A. Blazevic, S. Busold, S. Bedacht, W. Cayzac, A. Frank, D. Kraus, T. Rienecker, G. Schaumann, An. Tauschwitz, F. Wagner, and M. Roth
A novel double hohlraum target to create a moderately coupled plasma for ion stopping experiments
Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. B, 343 :123 (January 2015)
Abstract:
Abstract We present a new double hohlraum target for the creation of a moderately coupled ( 0.1 < Γ < 1 ) carbon plasma for energy loss and charge state measurements of projectile ions interacting with this plasma. A spherical cavity of 600 μ m in diameter is heated with a 150-J laser pulse ( λ L = 527 nm ) within 1.2 ns to produce a quasi-Planckian X-ray source with a radiation temperature of T r ≈ 100 eV . These X-rays are then used to heat volumetrically two thin carbon foils in a secondary cylindrical hohlraum to a dense plasma state. An axi-symmetric plasma column with a free-electron density of up to 8 × 10^21 cm^- 3 , a temperature of T ≈ 10 eV, and an average ionization degree of Z ≈ 3 is generated. This plasma stays in a dense and an almost uniform state for about 5 ns . Ultimately, such targets are supposed to be used in experiments where a heavy ion beam is launched through the sample plasma, and the ion energy losses as well as the charge distributions are to be measured. The present paper is in a certain sense a symbiotic one, where the theoretical analysis and the experimental results are combined to investigate the basic properties and the prospects of this type of plasma targets.
L. Willingale, S. Nagel, A. Thomas, C. Bellei, R. Clarke, A. Dangor, R. Heathcote, M. Kaluza, C. Kamperidis, S. Kneip, K. Krushelnick, N. Lopes, S. P. D. Mangles, W. Nazarov, P. M. Nilson, and Z. Najmudin
Characterization of laser-driven proton beams from near-critical density targets using copper activation
J. Plasma Phys., 81 :365810102 (January 2015)
Abstract:
Copper activation was used to characterize high-energy proton beam acceleration from near-critical density plasma targets. An enhancement was observed when decreasing the target density, which is indicative for an increased laser-accelerated hot electron density at the rear target-vacuum boundary. This is due to channel formation and collimation of the hot electrons inside the target. Particle-in-cell simulations support the experimental observations and show the correlation between channel depth and longitudinal electric field strength is directly correlated with the proton acceleration.
X. Xie, K. Doblhoff-Dier, H. Xu, S. Roither, M. Schöffler, D. Kartashov, S. Erattupuzha, T. Rathje, G.G. Paulus, K. Yamanouchi, A. Baltuska, S. Gräfe, and M. Kitzler
Controlling Fragmentation Reactions of Polyatomic Molecules with Impulsive Laser Alignment
Springer Proceedings in Physics, 162 :138 (January 2015)
Abstract:
We experimentally and theoretically demonstrate channel-selective control over strong-field induced fragmentation of a polyatomic molecule, acetylene, using impulsive laser alignment as the control mechanism.
D. Bernhardt, C. Brandau, Z. Harman, C. Kozhuharov, S. Böhm, F. Bosch, S. Fritzsche, J. Jacobi, S. Kieslich, H. Knopp, F. Nolden, W. Shi, Z. Stachura, M. Steck, T. Stöhlker, S. Schippers, and A. Müller
Electron-ion collision spectroscopy: Lithium-like xenon ions
Phys. Rev. A, 91 :012710 (January 2015)
Abstract:
The resonant process of dielectronic recombination (DR) has been applied as a spectroscopic tool to investigate intra-L-shell excitations 2s−2pj in Li-like 136Xe51+. The experiments were carried out at the electron cooler of the Experimental Storage Ring of the GSI-Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, Germany. The observed center-of-mass energy range (0–505 eV) covers all resonances associated with the 2s+e−→(2p1/2nlj)J and (2p3/2nlj)J DR processes. Energies and strengths of isolated 2p1/2n and 2p3/2n DR-resonance groups were obtained for principal quantum numbers n up to 43 and 36, respectively. The 2s−2p1/2 and 2s−2p3/2 excitation energies were deduced to be 119.816(42) eV and 492.174(52) eV. The excitation energies are compared with previous measurements of other groups and with recent QED calculations. In addition, the experimental spectra and extracted resonance strengths are compared with multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock calculations. Measurements and theory are found to be in good agreement with each other.