Peer-Review Publications


R. Müller, D. Seipt, R. Beerwerth, M. Ornigotti, A. Szameit, S. Fritzsche, and A. Surzhykov
Photoionization of neutral atoms by X waves carrying orbital angular momentum
Phys. Rev. A, 94 :041402 (October 2016)
In contrast to plane waves, twisted or vortex beams have a complex spatial structure. Both their intensity and energy flow vary within the wave front. Beyond that, polychromatic vortex beams, such as X waves, have a spatially dependent energy distribution. We propose a method to measure this (local) energy spectrum. The method is based on the measurement of the energy distribution of photoelectrons from alkali-metal atoms. On the basis of our fully relativistic calculations, we argue that even ensembles of atoms can be used to probe the local energy spectrum of short twisted pulses.
S. Schippers, R. Beerwerth, L. Abrok, S. Bari, T. Buhr, M. Martins, S. Ricz, J. Viefhaus, S. Fritzsche, and A. Müller
Prominent role of multielectron processes in K-shell double and triple photodetachment of oxygen anions
Phys. Rev. A, 94 :041401 (October 2016)
The photon-ion merged-beam technique was used at a synchrotron light source for measuring the absolute cross sections of the double and triple photodetachment of O− ions. The experimental photon energy range of 524–543 eV comprised the threshold for K-shell ionization. Using resolving powers of up to 13 000, the position, strength, and width of the below-threshold 1s2s22p6 S2 resonance as well as the positions of the 1s2s22p5 P3 and 1s2s22p5 P1 thresholds for K-shell ionization were determined with high precision. In addition, systematically enlarged multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock calculations have been performed for the resonant detachment cross sections. Results from these ab initio computations agree very well with the measurements for the widths and branching fractions for double and triple detachment, if double shakeup (and shakedown) of the valence electrons and the rearrangement of the electron density is taken into account. For the absolute cross sections, however, a previously found discrepancy between measurements and theory is confirmed.
S. Keppler, M. Hornung, P. Zimmermann, H. Liebetrau, M. Hellwing, J. Hein, and M.C. Kaluza
Tunable filters for precise spectral gain control in ultra-short-pulse laser systems
Opt. Lett., 41 :4708 (October 2016)
We present tunable spectral filters (TSFs) as a variable and precisely adjustable method to control the spectral gain of short-pulse laser systems. The TSFs provide a small residual spectral phase and a high damage threshold, and generate no pre- or post-pulses. The method is demonstrated for two different laser materials and can be applied as an intracavity compensation in regenerative amplifiers as well as a method for pre-compensation in high-energy multipass amplifiers. With this method, a full width at half-maximum bandwidth of 23.9 nm could be demonstrated in a diode-pumped, 50 J Yb:CaF2 amplifier.
I. P. Ivanov, D. Seipt, A. Surzhykov, and S. Fritzsche
Double-slit experiment in momentum space
Europhys. Lett., 115 :41001 (September 2016)
Young's classic double-slit experiment demonstrates the reality of interference when waves and particles travel simultaneously along two different spatial paths. Here, we propose a double-slit experiment in momentum space, realized in the free-space elastic scattering of vortex electrons. We show that this process proceeds along two paths in momentum space, which are well localized and well separated from each other. For such vortex beams, the (plane-wave) amplitudes along the two paths acquire adjustable phase shifts and produce interference fringes in the final angular distribution. We argue that this experiment can be realized with the present-day technology. We show that it gives experimental access to the Coulomb phase, a quantity which plays an important role in all charged particle scattering but which usual scattering experiments are insensitive to.
V. A. Yerokhin, S. Y. Buhmann, S. Fritzsche, and A. Surzhykov
Electric dipole polarizabilities of Rydberg states of alkali-metal atoms
Phys. Rev. A, 94 :032503 (September 2016)
Calculations of the static electric-dipole scalar and tensor polarizabilities are presented for two alkali-metal atoms, Rb and Cs, for the nS, nP½,3/2, and nD3/2,5/2 states with large principal quantum numbers up to n=50. The calculations are performed within an effective one-electron approximation, based on the Dirac-Fock Hamiltonian with a semiempirical core-polarization potential. The obtained results are compared with those from a simpler semiempirical approach and with available experimental data.
S. Hädrich, M. Kienel, M. Müller, A. Klenke, J. Rothhardt, R. Klas, T. Gottschall, T. Eidam, A. Drozdy, P. Jójárt, Z. Várallyay, E. Cormier, K. Osvay, A. Tünnermann, and J. Limpert
Energetic sub-2-cycle laser with 216 W average power
Opt. Lett., 41 :4332 (September 2016)
Few-cycle lasers are essential for many research areas such as attosecond physics that promise to address fundamental questions in science and technology. Therefore, further advancements are connected to significant progress in the underlying laser technology. Here, two-stage nonlinear compression of a 660 W femtosecond fiber laser system is utilized to achieve unprecedented average power levels of energetic ultrashort or even few-cycle laser pulses. In a first compression step, 408 W, 320 μJ, 30 fs pulses are achieved, which can be further compressed to 216 W, 170 μJ, 6.3 fs pulses in a second compression stage. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest average power few-cycle laser system presented so far. It is expected to significantly advance the fields of high harmonic generation and attosecond science.
T. Tanikawa, A. Hage, M. Kuhlmann, J. Gonschior, S. Grunewald, E. Plönjes, S. Düsterer, G. Brenner, S. Dziarzhytski, M. Braune, M. Brachmanski, Z. Yin, F. Siewert, T. Dzelzainis, B. Dromey, M. Prandolini, F. Tavella, M. Zepf, and B. Faatz
First observation of SASE radiation using the compact wide-spectral-range XUV spectrometer at FLASH2
Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A, 830 :170 (September 2016)
The Free-electron LASer in Hamburg (FLASH) has been extended with a new undulator line FLASH2 in 2014. A compact grazing-incident wide-spectral-range spectrometer based on spherical-variable-line-spacing (SVLS) gratings in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) region was constructed to optimize and characterize the free-electron laser (FEL) performance at FLASH2. The spectrometer is equipped with three different concave SVLS gratings covering a spectral range from 1 to 62 nm to analyze the spectral characteristics of the XUV radiation. Wavelength calibration and evaluation of the spectral resolution were performed at the plane grating monochromator beamline PG2 at FLASH1 before the installation at FLASH2, and compared with analytical simulations. The first light using self-amplified spontaneous emission from FLASH2 was observed by the spectrometer during a simultaneous operation of both undulator lines — FLASH1 and FLASH2. In addition, the spectral resolution of the spectrometer was evaluated by comparing the measured spectrum from FLASH2 with FEL simulations.
H. Bernhardt, B. Marx-Glowna, K. Schulze, B. Grabiger, J. Haber, C. Detlefs, R. Lötzsch, T. Kämpfer, R. Röhlsberger, E. Förster, T. Stöhlker, I. Uschmann, and G.G. Paulus
High purity x-ray polarimetry with single-crystal diamonds
Appl. Phys. Lett., 109 :121106 (September 2016)
We report on the use of synthetic single-crystal diamonds for high purity x-ray polarimetry to improve the polarization purity of present-day x-ray polarimeters. The polarimeter setup consists of a polarizer and an analyzer, each based on two parallel diamond crystals used at a Bragg angle close to 45°. The experiment was performed using one (400) Bragg reflection on each diamond crystal and synchrotron undulator radiation at an x-ray energy of 9838.75 eV. A polarization purity of 8.9 × 10−10 was measured at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, which is the best value reported for two-reflection polarizer/analyzer setups. This result is encouraging and is a first step to improve the resolution of x-ray polarimeters further by using diamond crystal polarizers and analyzers with four or six consecutive reflections.
I. S. Wahyutama, G. K. Tadesse, A. Tünnermann, J. Limpert, and J. Rothhardt
Influence of detector noise in holographic imaging with limited photon flux
Opt. Express, 24 :22013 (September 2016)
Lensless coherent diffractive imaging usually requires iterative phase-retrieval for recovering the missing phase information. Holographic techniques, such as Fourier-transform holography (FTH) or holography with extended references (HERALDO), directly provide this phase information and thus allow for a direct non-iterative reconstruction of the sample. In this paper, we analyze the effect of detector noise on the reconstruction for FTH and HERALDO with linear and rectangular references. We find that HERALDO is more sensitive to this type of noise than FTH, especially if rectangular references are employed. This excessive noise, caused by the necessary differentiation step(s) during reconstruction in case of HERALDO, additionally depends on the numerical implementation. When considering both shot-noise and detector noise, we find that FTH provides a better signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) than HERALDO if the available photon flux from the light source is low. In contrast, at high photon flux HERALDO provides better SNR and resolution than FTH. Our findings will help in designing optimum holographic imaging experiments particularly in the photon-flux-limited regime where most ultrafast experiments operate.
M. Lestinsky, V. Andrianov, B. Aurand, V. Bagnoud, D. Bernhardt, H. Beyer, S. Bishop, K. Blaum, A. Bleile, At. Borovik, F. Bosch, C. Bostock, C. Brandau, A. Bräuning-Demian, I. Bray, T. Davinson, B. Ebinger, A. Echler, P. Egelhof, A. Ehresmann, M. Engström, C. Enss, N. Ferreira, D. Fischer, A. Fleischmann, E. Förster, S. Fritzsche, R. Geithner, S. Geyer, J. Glorius, K. Göbel, O. Gorda, J. Goullon, P. Grabitz, R. Grisenti, A. Gumberidze, S. Hagmann, M. Heil, A. Heinz, F. Herfurth, R. Hess, P.-M. Hillenbrand, R. Hubele, P. Indelicato, A. Källberg, O. Kester, O. Kiselev, A. Knie, C. Kozhuharov, S. Kraft-Bermuth, T. Kühl, G. Lane, Y. Litvinov, D. Liesen, X. Ma, R. Märtin, R. Moshammer, A. Müller, S. Namba, P. Neumayer, T. Nilsson, W. Nörtershäuser, G.G. Paulus, N. Petridis, M. Reed, R. Reifarth, P. Reiß, J. Rothhardt, R. Sanchez, M. Sanjari, S. Schippers, H. Schmidt, D. Schneider, P. Scholz, R. Schuch, M. Schulz, V. Shabaev, A. Simonsson, J. Sjöholm, Ö. Skeppstedt, K. Sonnabend, U. Spillmann, K. Stiebing, M. Steck, T. Stöhlker, A. Surzhykov, S. Torilov, E. Träbert, M. Trassinelli, S. Trotsenko, X. Tu, I. Uschmann, P. Walker, G. Weber, D. Winters, P. Woods, H. Zhao, and Y. Zhang
Physics book: CRYRING@ESR
Eur. Phys. J. Special Topics, 225 :797 (September 2016)
The exploration of the unique properties of stored and cooled beams of highly-charged ions as provided by heavy-ion storage rings has opened novel and fascinating research opportunities in the realm of atomic and nuclear physics research. Since the late 1980s, pioneering work has been performed at the CRYRING at Stockholm and at the Test Storage Ring (TSR) at Heidelberg. For the heaviest ions in the highest charge-states, a real quantum jump was achieved in the early 1990s by the commissioning of the Experimental Storage Ring (ESR) at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung (GSI) in Darmstadt where challenging experiments on the electron dynamics in the strong field regime as well as nuclear physics studies on exotic nuclei and at the borderline to atomic physics were performed. Meanwhile also at Lanzhou a heavy-ion storage ring has been taken in operation, exploiting the unique research opportunities in particular for medium-heavy ions and exotic nuclei.
A. Surzhykov, D. Seipt, and S. Fritzsche
Probing the energy flow in Bessel light beams using atomic photoionization
Phys. Rev. A, 94 :033420 (September 2016)
The growing interest in twisted light beams also requires a better understanding of their complex internal structure. Particular attention is currently being given to the energy circulation in these beams as usually described by the Poynting vector field. In the present study we propose to use the photoionization of alkali-metal atoms as a probe process to measure (and visualize) the energy flow in twisted light fields. Such measurements are possible since the angular distribution of photoelectrons, emitted from a small atomic target, appears sensitive to and is determined by the local direction of the Poynting vector. To illustrate the feasibility of the proposed method, detailed calculations were performed for the ionization of sodium atoms by nondiffractive Bessel beams.
S. G. Rykovanov, C. G. R. Geddes, C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, and W. P. Leemans
Reply to "Comment on `Controlling the spectral shape of nonlinear Thomson scattering with proper laser chirping"'
Phys. Rev. Accel. Beams, 19 :098002 (September 2016)
We reply to Terzic and Krafft’s forgoing Comment [Phys. Rev. Accel. Beams, Comment on “Controlling the spectral shape of nonlinear Thomson scattering with proper laser chirping” 19 (2016)]. We disagree with the conclusion of the Comment regarding the novelty of solutions and the citations presented in our paper.
S. Höfer, T. Kämpfer, E. Förster, T. Stöhlker, and I. Uschmann
The formation of rarefaction waves in semiconductors after ultrashort excitation probed by grazing incidence ultrafast time-resolved x-ray diffraction
Struct. Dyn., 3 :051101 (September 2016)
We explore the InSb-semiconductor lattice dynamics after excitation of high density electron-hole plasma with an ultrashort and intense laser pulse. By using time resolved x-ray diffraction, a sub-mA ° and sub-ps resolution was achieved. Thus, a strain of 4% was measured in a 3 nm thin surface layer 2 ps after excitation. The lattice strain was observed for the first 5 ps as exponentially decaying, changing rapidly by time and by depth. The observed phenomena can only be understood assuming nonlinear time dependent laser absorption where the absorption depth decreases by a factor of twenty compared to linear absorption.
C. Gaida, M. Gebhardt, F. Stutzki, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann
Thulium-doped fiber chirped-pulse amplification system with 2 GW of peak power
Opt. Lett., 41 :4130 (September 2016)
Thulium-doped fibers with ultra large mode-field areas offer new opportunities for the power scaling of mid-IR ultrashort-pulse laser sources. Here, we present a laser system delivering a pulse-peak power of 2 GW and a nearly transform-limited pulse duration of 200 fs in combination with 28.7 W of average power. This performance level has been achieved by optimizing the pulse shape, reducing the overlap with atmospheric absorption lines, and incorporating a climate chamber to reduce the humidity of the atmospheric environment.
S. G. Rykovanov, J. W. Wang, V. Yu. Kharin, B. Lei, C. B. Schroeder, C. G. R. Geddes, E. Esarey, and W. P. Leemans
Tunable polarization plasma channel undulator for narrow bandwidth photon emission
Phys. Rev. Accel. Beams, 19 :090703 (September 2016)
The theory of a plasma undulator excited by a short intense laser pulse in a parabolic plasma channel is presented. The undulator fields are generated either by the laser pulse incident off-axis and/or under the angle with respect to the channel axis. Linear plasma theory is used to derive the wakefield structure. It is shown that the electrons injected into the plasma wakefields experience betatron motion and undulator oscillations. Optimal electron beam injection conditions are derived for minimizing the amplitude of the betatron motion, producing narrow-bandwidth undulator radiation. Polarization control is readily achieved by varying the laser pulse injection conditions.
M. Müller, M. Kienel, A. Klenke, T. Gottschall, E. Shestaev, M. Plötner, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann
1 kW 1 mJ eight-channel ultrafast fiber laser
Opt. Lett., 41 :3439 (August 2016)
An ultrafast fiber chirped-pulse amplifier comprising eight coherently combined amplifier channels is presented. The laser delivers 1 kW average power at 1 mJ pulse energy and 260 fs pulse duration. Excellent beam quality and low-noise performance are confirmed. The laser has proven suitable for demanding scientific applications. Further power scaling is possible right away using even more amplifier channels.
M. Najafi, I. Dillmann, F. Bosch, T. Faestermann, B. Gao, R. Gernhäuser, C. Kozhuharov, S. Litvinov, Y. Litvinov, L. Maier, F. Nolden, U. Popp, M. Sanjari, U. Spillmann, M. Steck, T. Stöhlker, and H. Weick
CsI–Silicon Particle detector for Heavy ions Orbiting in Storage rings (CsISiPHOS)
Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A, 836 :1 (August 2016)
Abstract A heavy-ion detector was developed for decay studies in the Experimental Storage Ring (ESR) at the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research in Darmstadt, Germany. This detector serves as a prototype for the in-pocket particle detectors for future experiments with the Collector Ring (CR) at FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research). The detector includes a stack of six silicon pad sensors, a double-sided silicon strip detector (DSSD), and a CsI(Tl) scintillation detector. It was used successfully in a recent experiment for the detection of the β+-decay of highly charged 142Pm60+ ions. Based on the Δ E / E technique for particle identification and an energy resolution of 0.9% for Δ E and 0.5% for E (Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM)), the detector is well-suited to distinguish neighbouring isobars in the region of interest.
J. Krey, A. Herrmann, J. Hein, J. Körner, M.C. Kaluza, and C. Russel
Effect of B2O3 and fluoride additions on the Yb3+ luminescence of an alumosilicate glass in the system Li2O/MgO/Al2O3/SiO2
Opt. Mater. Express, 6 :2662 (August 2016)
A series of glasses in the system Li2O/MgO/La2O3/Al2O3/B2O3/ Yb2O3/SiO2 was prepared and doped with 6·1020 Yb3+ ions per cm3 which corresponds to about 1.3 mol% Yb2O3 in the glass composition. In this series, Al2O3 was partially replaced by B2O3 up to a concentration of 15 mol%. Furthermore, Li2O and MgO were partially substituted for LiF and MgF2. All melts were bubbled with argon gas to ensure low OH- concentrations. B2O3 and fluoride additions strongly decrease the glass transition temperatures and viscosities of the melts enabling lower melting temperatures, lower Pt solubility and better homogenization of the melt. Furthermore, both additions slightly decrease the density and refractive indices of the glasses. The relatively low coefficients of thermal expansion remain largely unaffected. Increasing B2O3 concentrations do not negatively affect the luminescence lifetimes of Yb3+ despite their relatively high phonon energy. However, the fluoride addition and the OH- concentration strongly influence the luminescence lifetimes.
J. Borchardt, H. Gies, and R. Sondenheimer
Global flow of the Higgs potential in a Yukawa model
Eur. Phys. J. C, 76 :472 (August 2016)
We study the renormalization flow of the Higgs potential as a function of both field amplitude and energy scale. This overcomes limitations of conventional techniques that rely, e.g., on an identification of field amplitude and RG scale, or on local field expansions. Using a Higgs–Yukawa model with discrete chiral symmetry as an example, our global flows in field space clarify the origin of possible metastabilities, the fate of the pseudo-stable phase, and provide new information as regards the renormalization of the tunnel barrier. Our results confirm the relaxation of the lower bound for the Higgs mass in the presence of more general microscopic interactions (higher-dimensional operators) to a high quantitative accuracy.
J. Rothhardt, S. Hädrich, Y. Shamir, M. Tschnernajew, R. Klas, A. Hoffmann, G. K. Tadesse, A. Klenke, T. Gottschall, T. Eidam, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, R. Boll, C. Bomme, H. Dachraoui, B. Erk, M. D. Fraia, D. A. Horke, T. Kierspel, T. Mullins, A. Przystawik, E. Savelyev, J. Wiese, T. Laarmann, J. Küpper, and D. Rolles
High-repetition-rate and high-photon-flux 70 eV high-harmonic source for coincidence ion imaging of gas-phase molecules
Opt. Express, 24 :18133 (August 2016)
Unraveling and controlling chemical dynamics requires techniques to image structural changes of molecules with femtosecond temporal and picometer spatial resolution. Ultrashort-pulse x-ray free-electron lasers have significantly advanced the field by enabling advanced pump-probe schemes. There is an increasing interest in using table-top photon sources enabled by high-harmonic generation of ultrashort-pulse lasers for such studies. We present a novel high-harmonic source driven by a 100 kHz fiber laser system, which delivers 10^11 photons/s in a single 1.3 eV bandwidth harmonic at 68.6 eV. The combination of record-high photon flux and high repetition rate paves the way for time-resolved studies of the dissociation dynamics of inner-shell ionized molecules in a coincidence detection scheme. First coincidence measurements on CH3I are shown and it is outlined how the anticipated advancement of fiber laser technology and improved sample delivery will, in the next step, allow pump-probe studies of ultrafast molecular dynamics with table-top XUV-photon sources. These table-top sources can provide significantly higher repetition rates than the currently operating free-electron lasers and they offer very high temporal resolution due to the intrinsically small timing jitter between pump and probe pulses.
X. Chen, M. Sanjari, P. Hülsmann, Y. Litvinov, F. Nolden, J. Piotrowski, M. Steck, T. Stöhlker, and P. Walker
Intensity-sensitive and position-resolving cavity for heavy-ion storage rings
Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A, 826 :39 (August 2016)
Abstract A heavy-ion storage ring can be adapted for use as an isochronous mass spectrometer if the ion velocity matches the transition energy of the ring. Due to the variety of stored ion species, the isochronous condition cannot be fulfilled for all the ions. In order to eliminate the measurement uncertainty stemming from the velocity spread, an intensity-sensitive and position-resolving cavity is proposed. In this paper we first briefly discuss the correction method for the anisochronism effect in the measurement with the cavity. Then we introduce a novel design, which is operated in the monopole mode and offset from the central beam orbit to one side. The geometrical parameters were optimized by analytic and numerical means in accordance with the beam dynamics of the future collector ring at FAIR. Afterwards, the electromagnetic properties of scaled prototypes were measured on a test bench. The results were in good agreement with the predictions.
S. Hädrich, J. Rothhardt, M. Krebs, S. Demmler, A. Klenke, A. Tünnermann, and J. Limpert
Single-pass high harmonic generation at high repetition rate and photon flux
J. Phys. B, 49 :172002 (August 2016)
Sources of short wavelength radiation with femtosecond to attosecond pulse durations, such as synchrotrons or free electron lasers, have already made possible numerous, and will facilitate more, seminal studies aimed at understanding atomic and molecular processes on fundamental length and time scales. Table-top sources of coherent extreme ultraviolet to soft x-ray radiation enabled by high harmonic generation (HHG) of ultrashort pulse lasers have also gained significant attention in the last few years due to their enormous potential for addressing a plethora of applications, therefore constituting a complementary source to large-scale facilities (synchrotrons and free electron lasers). Ti:sapphire based laser systems have been the workhorses for HHG for decades, but are limited in repetition rate and average power. On the other hand, it has been widely recognized that fostering applications in fields such as photoelectron spectroscopy and microscopy, coincidence detection, coherent diffractive imaging and frequency metrology requires a high repetition rate and high photon flux HHG sources. In this article we will review recent developments in realizing the demanding requirement of producing a high photon flux and repetition rate at the same time. Particular emphasis will be put on suitable ultrashort pulse and high average power lasers, which directly drive harmonic generation without the need for external enhancement cavities. To this end we describe two complementary schemes that have been successfully employed for high power fiber lasers, i.e. optical parametric chirped pulse amplifiers and nonlinear pulse compression. Moreover, the issue of phase-matching in tight focusing geometries will be discussed and connected to recent experiments. We will highlight the latest results in fiber laser driven high harmonic generation that currently produce the highest photon flux of all existing sources. In addition, we demonstrate the first promising applications and discuss the future direction and challenges of this new type of HHG source.
M. Kienel, M. Müller, A. Klenke, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann
12 mJ kW-class ultrafast fiber laser system using multidimensional coherent pulse addition
Opt. Lett., 41 :3343 (July 2016)
An ultrafast fiber-chirped-pulse amplification system using a combination of spatial and temporal coherent pulse com- bination is presented. By distributing the amplification among eight amplifier channels and four pulse replicas, up to 12 mJ pulse energy with 700 W average power and 262 fs pulse duration have been obtained with a system efficiency of 78% and excellent beam quality. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest energy achieved by an ultrafast fiber-based laser system to date.
B. Bergmann, T. Michel, A. Surzhykov, and S. Fritzsche
Angular correlation function of the hypersatellite-satellite x-ray cascade following K-shell electron capture of ⁵⁵Fe
Phys. Rev. C, 94 :014611 (July 2016)
The first measurement of the hypersatellite-satellite two-photon angular correlation function following the electron capture decay of Fe55 was carried out. In particular, two hybrid active pixel detectors were employed to measure the anisotropy parameter β_eff2(exp)=0.097±0.053, which closely agreed with the theoretical value β_eff2(theor)=0.09735, calculated in the electric-dipole approximation. In addition, we also determined the double K-shell vacancy creation probability in this specific electron capture decay with improved accuracy. We found PKK=(1.388±0.037)×10−4, with a systematic error ΔPKK,syst=0.042×10−4.
B. Landgraf, B. Aurand, G. Lehmann, T. Gangolf, M. Schnell, T. Kühl, and C. Spielmann
Broadband stimulated Raman backscattering
New J. Phys., 18 :073048 (July 2016)
Broadband amplification employing stimulated Raman backscattering is demonstrated. Using seed pulses with a bandwidth of about 200 nm, we study the amplification in a wide spectral range in a single laser shot. With chirped pump pulses and a Ne gas jet, we observed under optimized conditions, amplification in range of about 80 nm, which is sufficient to support the amplification of sub-20 fs pulses. This broad amplification range is also in excellent agreement with PIC simulations. The conversion efficiency is at certain wavelengths as high as 1.2% and was measured to be better than 6 × 10^−3 on average.