Peer-Review Publications


M. Müller, M. Kienel, A. Klenke, T. Gottschall, E. Shestaev, M. Plötner, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann
1 kW 1 mJ eight-channel ultrafast fiber laser
Opt. Lett., 41 :3439 (August 2016)
An ultrafast fiber chirped-pulse amplifier comprising eight coherently combined amplifier channels is presented. The laser delivers 1 kW average power at 1 mJ pulse energy and 260 fs pulse duration. Excellent beam quality and low-noise performance are confirmed. The laser has proven suitable for demanding scientific applications. Further power scaling is possible right away using even more amplifier channels.
M. Najafi, I. Dillmann, F. Bosch, T. Faestermann, B. Gao, R. Gernhäuser, C. Kozhuharov, S. Litvinov, Y. Litvinov, L. Maier, F. Nolden, U. Popp, M. Sanjari, U. Spillmann, M. Steck, T. Stöhlker, and H. Weick
CsI–Silicon Particle detector for Heavy ions Orbiting in Storage rings (CsISiPHOS)
Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A, 836 :1 (August 2016)
Abstract A heavy-ion detector was developed for decay studies in the Experimental Storage Ring (ESR) at the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research in Darmstadt, Germany. This detector serves as a prototype for the in-pocket particle detectors for future experiments with the Collector Ring (CR) at FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research). The detector includes a stack of six silicon pad sensors, a double-sided silicon strip detector (DSSD), and a CsI(Tl) scintillation detector. It was used successfully in a recent experiment for the detection of the β+-decay of highly charged 142Pm60+ ions. Based on the Δ E / E technique for particle identification and an energy resolution of 0.9% for Δ E and 0.5% for E (Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM)), the detector is well-suited to distinguish neighbouring isobars in the region of interest.
J. Krey, A. Herrmann, J. Hein, J. Körner, M.C. Kaluza, and C. Russel
Effect of B2O3 and fluoride additions on the Yb3+ luminescence of an alumosilicate glass in the system Li2O/MgO/Al2O3/SiO2
Opt. Mater. Express, 6 :2662 (August 2016)
A series of glasses in the system Li2O/MgO/La2O3/Al2O3/B2O3/ Yb2O3/SiO2 was prepared and doped with 6·1020 Yb3+ ions per cm3 which corresponds to about 1.3 mol% Yb2O3 in the glass composition. In this series, Al2O3 was partially replaced by B2O3 up to a concentration of 15 mol%. Furthermore, Li2O and MgO were partially substituted for LiF and MgF2. All melts were bubbled with argon gas to ensure low OH- concentrations. B2O3 and fluoride additions strongly decrease the glass transition temperatures and viscosities of the melts enabling lower melting temperatures, lower Pt solubility and better homogenization of the melt. Furthermore, both additions slightly decrease the density and refractive indices of the glasses. The relatively low coefficients of thermal expansion remain largely unaffected. Increasing B2O3 concentrations do not negatively affect the luminescence lifetimes of Yb3+ despite their relatively high phonon energy. However, the fluoride addition and the OH- concentration strongly influence the luminescence lifetimes.
J. Borchardt, H. Gies, and R. Sondenheimer
Global flow of the Higgs potential in a Yukawa model
Eur. Phys. J. C, 76 :472 (August 2016)
We study the renormalization flow of the Higgs potential as a function of both field amplitude and energy scale. This overcomes limitations of conventional techniques that rely, e.g., on an identification of field amplitude and RG scale, or on local field expansions. Using a Higgs–Yukawa model with discrete chiral symmetry as an example, our global flows in field space clarify the origin of possible metastabilities, the fate of the pseudo-stable phase, and provide new information as regards the renormalization of the tunnel barrier. Our results confirm the relaxation of the lower bound for the Higgs mass in the presence of more general microscopic interactions (higher-dimensional operators) to a high quantitative accuracy.
J. Rothhardt, S. Hädrich, Y. Shamir, M. Tschnernajew, R. Klas, A. Hoffmann, G. K. Tadesse, A. Klenke, T. Gottschall, T. Eidam, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, R. Boll, C. Bomme, H. Dachraoui, B. Erk, M. D. Fraia, D. A. Horke, T. Kierspel, T. Mullins, A. Przystawik, E. Savelyev, J. Wiese, T. Laarmann, J. Küpper, and D. Rolles
High-repetition-rate and high-photon-flux 70 eV high-harmonic source for coincidence ion imaging of gas-phase molecules
Opt. Express, 24 :18133 (August 2016)
Unraveling and controlling chemical dynamics requires techniques to image structural changes of molecules with femtosecond temporal and picometer spatial resolution. Ultrashort-pulse x-ray free-electron lasers have significantly advanced the field by enabling advanced pump-probe schemes. There is an increasing interest in using table-top photon sources enabled by high-harmonic generation of ultrashort-pulse lasers for such studies. We present a novel high-harmonic source driven by a 100 kHz fiber laser system, which delivers 10^11 photons/s in a single 1.3 eV bandwidth harmonic at 68.6 eV. The combination of record-high photon flux and high repetition rate paves the way for time-resolved studies of the dissociation dynamics of inner-shell ionized molecules in a coincidence detection scheme. First coincidence measurements on CH3I are shown and it is outlined how the anticipated advancement of fiber laser technology and improved sample delivery will, in the next step, allow pump-probe studies of ultrafast molecular dynamics with table-top XUV-photon sources. These table-top sources can provide significantly higher repetition rates than the currently operating free-electron lasers and they offer very high temporal resolution due to the intrinsically small timing jitter between pump and probe pulses.
X. Chen, M. Sanjari, P. Hülsmann, Y. Litvinov, F. Nolden, J. Piotrowski, M. Steck, T. Stöhlker, and P. Walker
Intensity-sensitive and position-resolving cavity for heavy-ion storage rings
Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A, 826 :39 (August 2016)
Abstract A heavy-ion storage ring can be adapted for use as an isochronous mass spectrometer if the ion velocity matches the transition energy of the ring. Due to the variety of stored ion species, the isochronous condition cannot be fulfilled for all the ions. In order to eliminate the measurement uncertainty stemming from the velocity spread, an intensity-sensitive and position-resolving cavity is proposed. In this paper we first briefly discuss the correction method for the anisochronism effect in the measurement with the cavity. Then we introduce a novel design, which is operated in the monopole mode and offset from the central beam orbit to one side. The geometrical parameters were optimized by analytic and numerical means in accordance with the beam dynamics of the future collector ring at FAIR. Afterwards, the electromagnetic properties of scaled prototypes were measured on a test bench. The results were in good agreement with the predictions.
S. Hädrich, J. Rothhardt, M. Krebs, S. Demmler, A. Klenke, A. Tünnermann, and J. Limpert
Single-pass high harmonic generation at high repetition rate and photon flux
J. Phys. B, 49 :172002 (August 2016)
Sources of short wavelength radiation with femtosecond to attosecond pulse durations, such as synchrotrons or free electron lasers, have already made possible numerous, and will facilitate more, seminal studies aimed at understanding atomic and molecular processes on fundamental length and time scales. Table-top sources of coherent extreme ultraviolet to soft x-ray radiation enabled by high harmonic generation (HHG) of ultrashort pulse lasers have also gained significant attention in the last few years due to their enormous potential for addressing a plethora of applications, therefore constituting a complementary source to large-scale facilities (synchrotrons and free electron lasers). Ti:sapphire based laser systems have been the workhorses for HHG for decades, but are limited in repetition rate and average power. On the other hand, it has been widely recognized that fostering applications in fields such as photoelectron spectroscopy and microscopy, coincidence detection, coherent diffractive imaging and frequency metrology requires a high repetition rate and high photon flux HHG sources. In this article we will review recent developments in realizing the demanding requirement of producing a high photon flux and repetition rate at the same time. Particular emphasis will be put on suitable ultrashort pulse and high average power lasers, which directly drive harmonic generation without the need for external enhancement cavities. To this end we describe two complementary schemes that have been successfully employed for high power fiber lasers, i.e. optical parametric chirped pulse amplifiers and nonlinear pulse compression. Moreover, the issue of phase-matching in tight focusing geometries will be discussed and connected to recent experiments. We will highlight the latest results in fiber laser driven high harmonic generation that currently produce the highest photon flux of all existing sources. In addition, we demonstrate the first promising applications and discuss the future direction and challenges of this new type of HHG source.
M. Kienel, M. Müller, A. Klenke, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann
12 mJ kW-class ultrafast fiber laser system using multidimensional coherent pulse addition
Opt. Lett., 41 :3343 (July 2016)
An ultrafast fiber-chirped-pulse amplification system using a combination of spatial and temporal coherent pulse com- bination is presented. By distributing the amplification among eight amplifier channels and four pulse replicas, up to 12 mJ pulse energy with 700 W average power and 262 fs pulse duration have been obtained with a system efficiency of 78% and excellent beam quality. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest energy achieved by an ultrafast fiber-based laser system to date.
B. Bergmann, T. Michel, A. Surzhykov, and S. Fritzsche
Angular correlation function of the hypersatellite-satellite x-ray cascade following K-shell electron capture of ⁵⁵Fe
Phys. Rev. C, 94 :014611 (July 2016)
The first measurement of the hypersatellite-satellite two-photon angular correlation function following the electron capture decay of Fe55 was carried out. In particular, two hybrid active pixel detectors were employed to measure the anisotropy parameter β_eff2(exp)=0.097±0.053, which closely agreed with the theoretical value β_eff2(theor)=0.09735, calculated in the electric-dipole approximation. In addition, we also determined the double K-shell vacancy creation probability in this specific electron capture decay with improved accuracy. We found PKK=(1.388±0.037)×10−4, with a systematic error ΔPKK,syst=0.042×10−4.
B. Landgraf, B. Aurand, G. Lehmann, T. Gangolf, M. Schnell, T. Kühl, and C. Spielmann
Broadband stimulated Raman backscattering
New J. Phys., 18 :073048 (July 2016)
Broadband amplification employing stimulated Raman backscattering is demonstrated. Using seed pulses with a bandwidth of about 200 nm, we study the amplification in a wide spectral range in a single laser shot. With chirped pump pulses and a Ne gas jet, we observed under optimized conditions, amplification in range of about 80 nm, which is sufficient to support the amplification of sub-20 fs pulses. This broad amplification range is also in excellent agreement with PIC simulations. The conversion efficiency is at certain wavelengths as high as 1.2% and was measured to be better than 6 × 10^−3 on average.
S. Kuschel, D. Hollatz, T. Heinemann, O. Karger, M. B. Schwab, D. Ullmann, A. Knetsch, A. Seidel, C. Rödel, M. Yeung, M. Leier, A. Blinne, H. Ding, T. Kurz, D. J. Corvan, A. Sävert, S. Karsch, M.C. Kaluza, B. Hidding, and M. Zepf
Demonstration of passive plasma lensing of a laser wakefield accelerated electron bunch
Phys. Rev. Accel. Beams, 19 :071301 (July 2016)
We report on the first demonstration of passive all-optical plasma lensing using a two-stage setup. An intense femtosecond laser accelerates electrons in a laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) to 100 MeV over millimeter length scales. By adding a second gas target behind the initial LWFA stage we introduce a robust and independently tunable plasma lens. We observe a density dependent reduction of the LWFA electron beam divergence from an initial value of 2.3 mrad, down to 1.4 mrad (rms), when the plasma lens is in operation. Such a plasma lens provides a simple and compact approach for divergence reduction well matched to the mm-scale length of the LWFA accelerator. The focusing forces are provided solely by the plasma and driven by the bunch itself only, making this a highly useful and conceptually new approach to electron beam focusing. Possible applications of this lens are not limited to laser plasma accelerators. Since no active driver is needed the passive plasma lens is also suited for high repetition rate focusing of electron bunches. Its understanding is also required for modeling the evolution of the driving particle bunch in particle driven wake field acceleration.
A. G. Hayrapetyan, J. B. Götte, K. K. Grigoryan, S. Fritzsche, and R. G. Petrosyan
Electromagnetic wave propagation in spatially homogeneous yet smoothly time-varying dielectric media
J. Quant. Spectros. Radiat. Transfer, 178 :158 (July 2016)
We explore the propagation and transformation of electromagnetic waves through spatially homogeneous yet smoothly time-dependent media within the framework of classical electrodynamics. By modelling the smooth transition, occurring during a finite period t, as a phenomenologically realistic and sigmoidal change of the dielectric permittivity, an analytically exact solution to Maxwell’s equations is derived for the electric displacement in terms of hypergeometric functions. Using this solution, we show the possibility of amplification and attenuation of waves and associate this with the decrease and increase of the time-dependent permittivity. We demonstrate, moreover, that such an energy exchange between waves and non-stationary media leads to the transformation (or conversion) of frequencies. Our results may pave the way towards controllable light–matter interaction in time-varying structures.
H. Liebetrau, M. Hornung, S. Keppler, M. Hellwing, A. Kessler, F. Schorcht, J. Hein, and M.C. Kaluza
High contrast, 86  fs, 35  mJ pulses from a diode-pumped Yb:glass double-chirped-pulse amplification laser system
Opt. Lett., 41 :3006 (July 2016)
We demonstrate the generation of 86 fs, 35 mJ, high-contrast laser pulses at 1030 nm with a repetition rate of 1 Hz from a diode-pumped double chirped-pulse amplification setup. The pulses exhibit a spectral bandwidth exceeding 27 nm full width at half-maximum. This could be achieved by using a laser architecture comprising two stages of chirped pulse amplification with a cross-polarized wave generation filter in between, by applying spectral shaping and by increasing the spectral hard-clip of the second stretcher. These are, to the best of our knowledge, the shortest pulses at the mJ level with ultra-high contrast generated with a diode-pumped front end at 1030 nm.
A. S. Novo, M.C. Kaluza, R. A. Fonseca, and L. O. Silva
Optimizing laser-driven proton acceleration from overdense targets
Sci. Rep., 6 :29402 (July 2016)
We demonstrate how to tune the main ion acceleration mechanism in laser-plasma interactions to collisionless shock acceleration, thus achieving control over the final ion beam properties (e. g. maximum energy, divergence, number of accelerated ions). We investigate this technique with three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations and illustrate a possible experimental realisation. The setup consists of an isolated solid density target, which is preheated by a first laser pulse to initiate target expansion, and a second one to trigger acceleration. The timing between the two laser pulses allows to access all ion acceleration regimes, ranging from target normal sheath acceleration, to hole boring and collisionless shock acceleration. We further demonstrate that the most energetic ions are produced by collisionless shock acceleration, if the target density is near-critical, ne ≈ 0.5 ncr. A scaling of the laser power shows that 100 MeV protons may be achieved in the PW range.
F. Karbstein, and C. Sundqvist
Probing vacuum birefringence using x-ray free electron and optical high-intensity lasers
Phys. Rev. D, 94 :013004 (July 2016)
Vacuum birefringence is one of the most striking predictions of strong field quantum electrodynamics: Probe photons traversing a strong field region can indirectly sense the applied “pump” electromagnetic field via quantum fluctuations of virtual charged particles which couple to both pump and probe fields. This coupling is sensitive to the field alignment and can effectively result in two different indices of refraction for the probe photon polarization modes giving rise to a birefringence phenomenon. In this article, we perform a dedicated theoretical analysis of the proposed discovery experiment of vacuum birefringence at an x-ray free electron laser/optical high-intensity laser facility. Describing both pump and probe laser pulses realistically in terms of their macroscopic electromagnetic fields, we go beyond previous analyses by accounting for various effects not considered before in this context. Our study facilitates stringent quantitative predictions and optimizations of the signal in an actual experiment.
N. Dimitrov, L. Stoyanov, I. Stefanov, A. Dreischuh, P. Hansinger, and G. Paulus
Pulse front tilt measurement of femtosecond laser pulses
Opt. Commun., 371 :51 (July 2016)
In this work we report experimental investigations of an intentionally introduced pulse front tilt on femtosecond laser pulses by using an inverted field correlator/interferometer. A reliable criterion for the precision in aligning (in principle) dispersionless systems for manipulating ultrashort pulses is developed, specifically including cases when the pulse front tilt is a result of a desired spatio-temporal coupling. The results obtained using two low-dispersion diffraction gratings are in good qualitative agreement with the data from a previously developed analytical model and from an independent interferometric measurement.
M. S. Ebrahimi, N. Stallkamp, W. Quint, M. Wiesel, M. Vogel, A. Martin, and G. Birkl
Superconducting radio-frequency resonator in magnetic fields up to 6 T
Rev. Sci. Instrum., 87 :075110 (July 2016)
We have measured the characteristics of a superconducting radio-frequency resonator in an external magnetic field. The magnetic field strength has been varied with 10 mT resolution between zero and 6 T. The resonance frequency and the quality factor of the resonator have been found to change significantly as a function of the magnetic field strength. Both parameters show a hysteresis effect which is more pronounced for the resonance frequency. Quantitative knowledge of such behaviour is particularly important when experiments require specific values of resonance frequency and quality factor or when the magnetic field is changed while the resonator is in the superconducting state.
T. Scholtes, S. Pustelny, S. Fritzsche, V. Schultze, R. Stolz, and H.-G. Meyer
Suppression of spin-exchange relaxation in tilted magnetic fields within the geophysical range
Phys. Rev. A, 94 :013403 (July 2016)
We present a detailed experimental and theoretical study on the relaxation of spin coherence due to the spin-exchange mechanism arising in the electronic ground states of alkali-metal vapor atoms. As opposed to the well-explored formation of a stretched state in a longitudinal geometry (magnetic field parallel to the laser propagation direction) we employ adapted hyperfine-selective optical pumping in order to suppress spin-exchange relaxation. By comparing measurements of the intrinsic relaxation rate of the spin coherence in the ground state of cesium atoms with detailed density-matrix simulations we show that the relaxation due to spin-exchange collisions can be reduced substantially even in a tilted magnetic field of geomagnetic strength, the major application case of scalar magnetic surveying. This explains the observed striking improvement in sensitivity and further deepens the understanding of the light-narrowed Mx magnetometer, which was presented recently. Additionally, new avenues for investigating the dynamics in alkali-metal atoms governed by the spin-exchange interaction and interacting with arbitrary external fields open up.
G. Matthäus, S. Demmler, M. Lebugle, F. Küster, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, and R. Ackermann
Ultra-broadband two beam CARS using femtosecond laser pulses
Vib. Spectrosc., 85 :128 (July 2016)
Femtosecond (fs)-CARS is a promising approach for gas spectroscopy under high pressure and temperature conditions, as it allows probing molecular states on a time scale which is significantly shorter than the typical decay time induced by interfering collisions. Usually, fs-CARS is performed in a three beam setup, which requires maintaining spatial and temporal overlap of the pulses at the focal point. This is a challenging task, especially in harsh environments such as in a combustion chamber. In this study, we present an alternative approach, which uses two beams in a collinear configuration. An ultra-broadband, sub 7 fs laser pulse acts as pump and Stokes pulse, and a ∼500 fs pulse is used for probing. We show that this configuration is suitable for measuring the gas temperature and concentration. Furthermore, possible single shot measurements of the gas temperature are evaluated.
M. L. Bissell, T. Carette, K. T. Flanagan, P. Vingerhoets, J. Billowes, K. Blaum, B. Cheal, S. Fritzsche, M. Godefroid, M. Kowalska, J. Krämer, R. Neugart, G. Neyens, W. Nörtershäuser, and D. T. Yordanov
Cu charge radii reveal a weak sub-shell effect at N=40
Phys. Rev. C, 93 :064318 (June 2016)
Collinear laser spectroscopy on Cu58–75 isotopes was performed at the CERN-ISOLDE radioactive ion beam facility. In this paper we report on the isotope shifts obtained from these measurements. State-of-the-art atomic physics calculations have been undertaken in order to determine the changes in mean-square charge radii δ⟨r2⟩A,A′ from the observed isotope shifts. A local minimum is observed in these radii differences at N=40, providing evidence for a weak N=40 sub-shell effect. However, comparison of δ⟨r2⟩A,A′ with a droplet model prediction including static deformation deduced from the spectroscopic quadrupole moments, points to the persistence of correlations at N=40.
M. Schöffler, X. Xie, P. Wustelt, M. Möller, S. Roither, D. Kartashov, A. Sayler, A. Baltuska, G.G. Paulus, and M. Kitzler
Laser-subcycle control of sequential double-ionization dynamics of helium
Phys. Rev. A, 93 :063421 (June 2016)
We present measured momentum distributions on the double ionization of helium with intense, near-circularly-polarized few-cycle laser pulses with a known carrier-envelope offset phase (CEP). The capability of obtaining CEP-resolved momentum distributions enables us to observe signatures of the various combinations of laser-half-cycle two-electron emissions. By comparison to semiclassical trajectory simulations, we succeed in assigning the corresponding structures in the measured distributions to certain two-electron emission dynamics. Based on this possibility, we demonstrate that the sequential double-ionization dynamics can be sensitively controlled with the pulse duration and the laser peak intensity. For the shortest pulse durations and not too high intensities we find that the two electrons are dominantly emitted with a delay of roughly a laser half cycle. For a just slightly increased intensity we find evidence that at least one of the two electrons is surprisingly likely emitted in between the peaks of the laser field oscillations rather than at the field maxima. The simulations reproduce the signatures of these kinds of two-electron emissions overall relatively well.
Z. W. Wu, A. V. Volotka, A. Surzhykov, C. Z. Dong, and S. Fritzsche
Level sequence and splitting identification of closely spaced energy levels by angle-resolved analysis of fluorescence light
Phys. Rev. A, 93 :063413 (June 2016)
The angular distribution and linear polarization of the fluorescence light following the resonant photoexcitation is investigated within the framework of density matrix and second-order perturbation theory. Emphasis has been placed on “signatures” for determining the level sequence and splitting of intermediate (partially) overlapping resonances, if analyzed as a function of photon energy of incident light. Detailed computations within the multiconfiguration Dirac–Fock method have been performed, especially for the 1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s,Ji=1/2+γ1 → (1s^2 2s 2p^6 3s)_1 3p3/2,J=1/2,3/2 → 1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s,Jf=1/2+γ2 photoexcitation and subsequent fluorescence emission of atomic sodium. A remarkably strong dependence of the angular distribution and linear polarization of the γ2 fluorescence emission is found upon the level sequence and splitting of the intermediate (1s^2 2s 2p^6 3s)_1 3p3/2,J=1/2,3/2 overlapping resonances owing to their finite lifetime (linewidth). We therefore suggest that accurate measurements of the angular distribution and linear polarization might help identify the sequence and small splittings of closely spaced energy levels, even if they cannot be spectroscopically resolved.
A. N. Grum-Grzhimailo, E. V. Gryzlova, S. Fritzsche, and N. M. Kabachnik
Photoelectron angular distributions and correlations in sequential double and triple atomic ionization by free electron lasers
\u200eJ. Mod. Opt., 63 :334 (June 2016)
We present a review of theoretical studies of the simplest nonlinear photoprocesses detected in the XUV range with the use of free electron lasers: sequential double and triple ionization of atoms by two and three XUV photons. Photoelectron angular distributions and angular correlations between emitted electrons are considered. A comparison of the calculated results with recent angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy experiments is discussed.
B. Faatz, E. Plönjes, S. Ackermann, A. Agababyan, V. Asgekar, V. Ayvazyan, S. Baark, N. Baboi, V. Balandin, N. v. Bargen, Y. Bican, O. Bilani, J. Bödewadt, M. Böhnert, R. Böspflug, S. Bonfigt, H. Bolz, F. Borges, O. Borkenhagen, M. Brachmanski, M. Braune, A. Brinkmann, O. Brovko, T. Bruns, P. Castro, J. Chen, M. K. Czwalinna, H. Damker, W. Decking, M. Degenhardt, A. Delfs, T. Delfs, H. Deng, M. Dressel, H.-T. Duhme, S. Düsterer, H. Eckoldt, A. Eislage, M. Felber, J. Feldhaus, P. Gessler, M. Gibau, N. Golubeva, T. Golz, J. Gonschior, A. Grebentsov, M. Grecki, C. Grün, S. Grunewald, K. Hacker, L. Hänisch, A. Hage, T. Hans, E. Hass, A. Hauberg, O. Hensler, M. Hesse, K. Heuck, A. Hidvegi, M. Holz, K. Honkavaara, H. Höppner, A. Ignatenko, J. Jäger, U. Jastrow, R. Kammering, S. Karstensen, A. Kaukher, H. Kay, B. Keil, K. Klose, V. Kocharyan, M. Köpke, M. Körfer, W. Kook, B. Krause, O. Krebs, S. Kreis, F. Krivan, J. Kuhlmann, M. Kuhlmann, G. Kube, T. Laarmann, C. Lechner, S. Lederer, A. Leuschner, D. Liebertz, J. Liebing, A. Liedtke, L. Lilje, T. Limberg, D. Lipka, B. Liu, B. Lorbeer, K. Ludwig, H. Mahn, G. Marinkovic, C. Martens, F. Marutzky, M. Maslocv, D. Meissner, N. Mildner, V. Miltchev, S. Molnar, D. Mross, F. Müller, R. Neumann, P. Neumann, D. Nölle, F. Obier, M. Pelzer, H.-B. Peters, K. Petersen, A. Petrosyan, G. Petrosyan, L. Petrosyan, V. Petrosyan, A. Petrov, S. Pfeiffer, A. Piotrowski, Z. Pisarov, T. Plath, P. Pototzki, M. J. Prandolini, J. Prenting, G. Priebe, B. Racky, T. Ramm, K. Rehlich, R. Riedel, M. Roggli, M. Röhling, J. Rönsch-Schulenburg, J. Rossbach, V. Rybnikov, J. Schäfer, J. Schaffran, H. Schlarb, G. Schlesselmann, M. Schlösser, P. Schmid, C. Schmidt, F. Schmidt-Föhre, M. Schmitz, E. Schneidmiller, A. Schöps, M. Scholz, S. Schreiber, K. Schütt, U. Schütz, H. Schulte-Schrepping, M. Schulz, A. Shabunov, P. Smirnov, E. Sombrowski, A. Sorokin, B. Sparr, J. Spengler, M. Staack, M. Stadler, C. Stechmann, B. Steffen, N. Stojanovic, V. Sychev, E. Syresin, T. Tanikawa, F. Tavella, N. Tesch, K. Tiedtke, M. Tischer, R. Treusch, S. Tripathi, P. Vagin, P. Vetrov, S. Vilcins, M. Vogt, Z. Wagner, T. Wamsat, H. Weddig, G. Weichert, H. Weigelt, N. Wentowski, C. Wiebers, T. Wilksen, A. Willner, K. Wittenburg, T. Wohlenberg, J. Wortmann, W. Wurth, M. Yurkov, I. Zagorodnov, and J. Zemella
Simultaneous operation of two soft x-ray free-electron lasers driven by one linear accelerator
New J. Phys., 18 :062002 (June 2016)
Extreme-ultraviolet to x-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) in operation for scientific applications are up to now single-user facilities. While most FELs generate around 100 photon pulses per second, FLASH at DESY can deliver almost two orders of magnitude more pulses in this time span due to its superconducting accelerator technology. This makes the facility a prime candidate to realize the next step in FELs — dividing the electron pulse trains into several FEL lines and delivering photon pulses to several users at the same time. Hence, FLASH has been extended with a second undulator line and self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) is demonstrated in both FELs simultaneously. FLASH can now deliver MHz pulse trains to two user experiments in parallel with individually selected photon beam characteristics. First results of the capabilities of this extension are shown with emphasis on independent variation of wavelength, repetition rate, and photon pulse length.
J. Körner, F. Yue, J. Hein, and M.C. Kaluza
Spatially and temporally resolved temperature measurement in laser media
Opt. Lett., 41 :2525 (June 2016)
A technique to measure the spatially resolved temperature distribution in a laser medium is presented. It is based on the temperature dependence of the absorption cross section close to the zero-phonon line of the active medium. Since other materials in the beam path exhibit a high (and constant) transmission at this wavelength, the method can easily be applied in realistic amplifier setups. The method was successfully tested on three different samples, which were pumped by a pulsed laser diode with up to 150 W average power: side-cooled Yb:YAG and Yb:fluoride-phosphate glass at room temperature and face-cooled Yb:CaF2 at 120 K.