Peer-Review Publications

2018

V. Kharin, D. Seipt, and S. Rykovanov
Higher-Dimensional Caustics in Nonlinear Compton Scattering
Phys. Rev. Lett., 120 :044802 (January 2018)
Abstract:
A description of the spectral and angular distributions of Compton scattered light in collisions of intense laser pulses with high-energy electrons is unwieldy and usually requires numerical simulations. However, due to the large number of parameters affecting the spectra such numerical investigations can become computationally expensive. Using methods of catastrophe theory we predict higher-dimensional caustics in the spectra of the Compton scattered light, which are associated with bright narrow-band spectral lines, and in the simplest case can be controlled by the value of the linear chirp of the pulse. These findings require no full-scale calculations and have direct consequences for the photon yield enhancement of future nonlinear Compton scattering x-ray or gamma-ray sources.
P. Hilz, T. M. Ostermayr, A. Huebl, V. Bagnoud, B. Borm, M. Bussmann, M. Gallei, J. Gebhard, D. Haffa, J. Hartmann, T. Kluge, F. H. Lindner, P. Neumayr, C. G. Schaefer, U. Schramm, P. G. Thirolf, T. .F. Rösch, F. Wagner, B. Zielbauer, and J. Schreiber
Isolated proton bunch acceleration by a petawatt laser pulse
Nat. Commun., 9 :423 (January 2018)
Abstract:
Often, the interpretation of experiments concerning the manipulation of the energy distribution of laser-accelerated ion bunches is complicated by the multitude of competing dynamic processes simultaneously contributing to recorded ion signals. Here we demonstrate experimentally the acceleration of a clean proton bunch. This was achieved with a microscopic and three-dimensionally confined near critical density plasma, which evolves from a 1 µm diameter plastic sphere, which is levitated and positioned with micrometer precision in the focus of a Petawatt laser pulse. The emitted proton bunch is reproducibly observed with central energies between 20 and 40 MeV and narrow energy spread (down to 25%) showing almost no low-energetic background. Together with three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations we track the complete acceleration process, evidencing the transition from organized acceleration to Coulomb repulsion. This reveals limitations of current high power lasers and viable paths to optimize laser-driven ion sources.
R. Obaid, C. Buth, G. L. Dakovski, R. Beerwerth, M. Holmes, J. Aldrich, M.-F. Lin, M. Minitti, T. Osipov, W. Schlotter, L. S. Cederbaum, S. Fritzsche, and N. Berrah
LCLS in-photon out: fluorescence measurement of neon using soft x-rays
J. Phys. B, 51 :034003 (January 2018)
Abstract:
We measured the fluorescence photon yield of neon upon soft x-ray ionization (∼1200 eV) from the x-ray free-electron laser at Linac Coherent Light Source, and demonstrated the usage of a grazing incidence spectrometer with a variable line spacing grating to perform x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy on a gas phase system. Our measurements also allowed us to estimate the focal size of the beam from the theoretical description developed, in terms of the rate equation approximation accounting for photoionization shake off of neutral neon and double auger decay of single core holes.
S. G. Rykovanov, J. W. Wang, V. Yu. Kharin, B. Lei, C. B. Schroeder, C. G. R. Geddes, E. Esarey, and W. P. Leemans
Plasma Channel Undulator for Narrow-Bandwidth X-Ray Generation
X-Ray Lasers 2016 ( 2018)
DOI
H. Gies, and R. Sondenheimer
Renormalization group flow of the Higgs potential
Philos. Trans. Royal Soc. A, 376 :1 (January 2018)
Abstract:
We summarize results for local and global properties of the effective potential for the Higgs boson obtained from the functional renormalization group, which allows one to describe the effective potential as a function of both scalar field amplitude and renormalization group scale. This sheds light onto the limitations of standard estimates which rely on the identification of the two scales and helps in clarifying the origin of a possible property of meta-stability of the Higgs potential. We demonstrate that the inclusion of higher-dimensional operators induced by an underlying theory at a high scale (GUT or Planck scale) can relax the conventional lower bound on the Higgs mass derived from the criterion of absolute stability. This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue "Higgs cosmology".
C. Goy, M. Potenza, S. Dedera, M. Tomut, E. Guillerm, A. Kalinin, K.-O. Voss, A. Schottelius, N. Petridis, A. Prosvetov, G. Tejeda, J. Fernandez, C. Trautmann, F. Caupin, U. Glasmacher, and R. Grisenti
Shrinking of Rapidly Evaporating Water Microdroplets Reveals their Extreme Supercooling
Phys. Rev. Lett., 120 :015501 (January 2018)
Abstract:
The fast evaporative cooling of micrometer-sized water droplets in a vacuum offers the appealing possibility to investigate supercooled water—below the melting point but still a liquid—at temperatures far beyond the state of the art. However, it is challenging to obtain a reliable value of the droplet temperature under such extreme experimental conditions. Here, the observation of morphology-dependent resonances in the Raman scattering from a train of perfectly uniform water droplets allows us to measure the variation in droplet size resulting from evaporative mass losses with an absolute precision of better than 0.2%. This finding proves crucial to an unambiguous determination of the droplet temperature. In particular, we find that a fraction of water droplets with an initial diameter of 6379±12  nm remain liquid down to 230.6±0.6  K. Our results question temperature estimates reported recently for larger supercooled water droplets and provide valuable information on the hydrogen-bond network in liquid water in the hard-to-access deeply supercooled regime.
J. Limpert
Toward multi-kW femtosecond fiber lasers based on mutlicore fibers
2018 IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series (SUM) ( 2018)
DOI

2017

H. Gies, T. Hellwig, A. Wipf, and O. Zanusso
A functional perspective on emergent supersymmetry
J. High Energ. Phys., 2017 :132 (December 2017)
Abstract:
We investigate the emergence of N = 1 supersymmetry in the long-range behavior of three-dimensional parity-symmetric Yukawa systems. We discuss a renormalization approach that manifestly preserves supersymmetry whenever such symmetry is realized, and use it to prove that supersymmetry-breaking operators are irrelevant, thus proving that such operators are suppressed in the infrared. All our findings are illustrated with the aid of the ϵ-expansion and a functional variant of perturbation theory, but we provide numerical estimates of critical exponents that are based on the non-perturbative functional renormalization group.
C. Leithold, J. Reislöhner, H. Gies, and A. N. Pfeiffer
Characterization of two ultrashort laser pulses using interferometric imaging of self-diffraction
Opt. Lett., 42 :5246 (December 2017)
Abstract:
Noncollinear pulse characterization methods can be applied to over-octave spanning waveforms, but geometrical effects in the nonlinear medium such as beam smearing and critical sensitivity to beam alignment hinder their accurate application. Here, a method is introduced for the temporal and spatial characterization of two pulses by interferometric, spectrally resolved imaging of self-diffraction. Geometrical effects are resolved by the method and, therefore, do not limit the accuracy. Two methods for quantitative pulse retrieval are presented. One method is analytical and very fast; the other method is iterative and more robust if applied to noisy data.
J. S. M. Ginges, A. V. Volotka, and S. Fritzsche
Ground-state hyperfine splitting for Rb, Cs, Fr, Ba⁺, and Ra⁺
Phys. Rev. A, 96 :062502 (December 2017)
Abstract:
We have systematically investigated the ground-state hyperfine structure for alkali-metal atoms 87Rb, 33Cs, and 211Fr and alkali-metal-like ions 135Ba^+ and 225Ra^+, which are of particular interest for parity violation studies. The quantum electrodynamic one-loop radiative corrections have been rigorously evaluated within an extended Furry picture employing core-Hartree and Kohn-Sham atomic potentials. Moreover, the effect of the nuclear magnetization distribution on the hyperfine structure intervals has been studied in detail and its uncertainty has been estimated. Finally, the theoretical description of the hyperfine structure has been completed with full many-body calculations performed in the all-orders correlation potential method.
M. Wiesel, G. Birkl, M. S. Ebrahimi, A. Martin, W. Quint, N. Stallkamp, and M. Vogel
Optically transparent solid electrodes for precision Penning traps
Rev. Sci. Instrum., 88 :123101 (December 2017)
Abstract:
We have conceived, built, and operated a cryogenic Penning trap with an electrically conducting yet optically transparent solid electrode. The trap, dedicated to spectroscopy and imaging of confined particles under large solid angles, is of “half-open” design with one open endcap and one closed endcap that mainly consists of a glass window coated with a highly transparent conductive layer. This arrangement allows for the trapping of externally or internally produced particles and yields flexible access for optical excitation and efficient light collection from the trapping region. At the same time, it is electrically closed and ensures long-term ion confinement under well-defined conditions. With its superior surface quality and its high as well as homogeneous optical transmission, the window electrode is an excellent replacement for partially transmissive electrodes that use holes, slits, metallic meshes, and the like.
F. Karbstein, and E. A. Mosman
Photon polarization tensor in pulsed Hermite- and Laguerre-Gaussian beams
Phys. Rev. D, 96 :116004 (December 2017)
Abstract:
In this article, we provide analytical expressions for the photon polarization tensor in pulsed Hermite- and Laguerre-Gaussian laser beams. Our results are based on a locally constant field approximation of the one-loop Heisenberg-Euler effective Lagrangian for quantum electrodynamics. Hence, by construction they are limited to slowly varying electromagnetic fields, varying on spatial and temporal scales significantly larger than the Compton wavelength/time of the electron. The latter criterion is fulfilled by all laser beams currently available in the laboratory. Our findings will, e.g., be relevant for the study of vacuum birefringence experienced by probe photons brought into collision with a high-intensity laser pulse which can be represented as a superposition of either Hermite- or Laguerre-Gaussian modes.
J. W. Wang, C. B. Schroeder, R. Li, M. Zepf, and S. G. Rykovanov
Plasma channel undulator excited by high-order laser modes
Sci. Rep., 7 :16884 (December 2017)
Abstract:
The possibility of utilizing plasma undulators and plasma accelerators to produce compact ultraviolet and X-ray sources, has attracted considerable interest for a few decades. This interest has been driven by the great potential to decrease the threshold for accessing such sources, which are mainly provided by a few dedicated large-scale synchrotron or free-electron laser (FEL) facilities. However, the broad radiation bandwidth of such plasma devices limits the source brightness and makes it difficult for the FEL instability to develop. Here, using multi-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, we demonstrate that a plasma undulator generated by the beating of a mixture of high-order laser modes propagating inside a plasma channel, leads to a few percent radiation bandwidth. The strength of the undulator can reach unity, the period can be less than a millimeter, and the number of undulator periods can be significantly increased by a phase locking technique based on the longitudinal tapering. Polarization control of such an undulator can be achieved by appropriately choosing the phase of the modes. According to our results, in the fully beam loaded regime, the electron current in the plasma undulator can reach 0.3âEUR%0kA level, making such an undulator a potential candidate towards a table-top FEL.
R. Sollapur, D. Kartashov, M. Zürch, A. Hoffmann, T. Grigorova, G. Sauer, A. Hartung, A. Schwuchow, J. Bierlich, J. Kobelke, M. Chemnitz, M. A. Schmidt, and C. Spielmann
Resonance-enhanced multi-octave supercontinuum generation in antiresonant hollow-core fibers
Light Sci. Appl., 6 :e17124 (December 2017)
Abstract:
Ultrafast supercontinuum generation in gas-filled waveguides is an enabling technology for many intriguing applications ranging from attosecond metrology towards biophotonics, with the amount of spectral broadening crucially depending on the pulse dispersion of the propagating mode. In this study, we show that structural resonances in a gas-filled antiresonant hollow core optical fiber provide an additional degree of freedom in dispersion engineering, which enables the generation of more than three octaves of broadband light that ranges from deep UV wavelengths to near infrared. Our observation relies on the introduction of a geometric-induced resonance in the spectral vicinity of the ultrafast pump laser, outperforming gas dispersion and yielding a unique dispersion profile independent of core size, which is highly relevant for scaling input powers. Using a krypton-filled fiber, we observe spectral broadening from 200 nm to 1.7 μm at an output energy of ∼ 23 μJ within a single optical mode across the entire spectral bandwidth. Simulations show that the frequency generation results from an accelerated fission process of soliton-like waveforms in a non-adiabatic dispersion regime associated with the emission of multiple phase-matched Cherenkov radiations on both sides of the resonance. This effect, along with the dispersion tuning and scaling capabilities of the fiber geometry, enables coherent ultra-broadband and high-energy sources, which range from the UV to the mid‐infrared spectral range.
Y. Zhang, P. Kellner, D. Adolph, D. Zille, P. Wustelt, D. Würzler, S. Skruszewicz, M. Möller, A. M. Sayler, and G.G. Paulus
Single-shot, real-time carrier-envelope phase measurement and tagging based on stereographic above-threshold ionization at short-wave infrared wavelengths
Opt. Lett., 42 :5150 (December 2017)
Abstract:
A high-precision, single-shot, and real-time carrier-envelope phase (CEP) measurement at 1.8 μm laser wavelength based on stereographic photoelectron spectroscopy is presented. A precision of the CEP measurement of 120 mrad for each and every individual laser shot for a 1 kHz pulse train with randomly varying CEP is demonstrated. Simultaneous to the CEP measurement, the pulse lengths are characterized by evaluating the spatial asymmetry of the measured above-threshold ionization (ATI) spectra of xenon and referenced to a standard pulse-duration measurement based on frequency-resolved optical gating. The validity of the CEP measurement is confirmed by implementing phase tagging for a CEP-dependent measurement of ATI in xenon with high energy resolution.
R. Hollinger, Z. Samsonova, D. Gupta, C. Spielmann, R. Röder, L. Trefflich, C. Ronning, and D. Kartashov
Enhanced absorption and cavity effects of three-photon pumped ZnO nanowires
Appl. Phys. Lett., 111 :213106 (November 2017)
Abstract:
Semiconductor nanowire (NW) lasers attract a lot of attention as potential elements of nanophotonic circuits and lab-on-a chip devices. Here, we report on the experimental investigation of stimulated near ultraviolet (NUV) emission, pumped by three-photon absorption from near infrared femtosecond laser pulses, from ZnO NW arrays of different morphologies and compare it to the bulk. The spectrally and temporally resolved measurements of the NUV emission show both strong enhancements in the absorption and emission properties of the nanowire arrays compared to bulk samples. Thus, we determine a many times higher three-photon absorption in the nanostructure morphology compared to the bulk material. Furthermore, the threshold pumping intensity for stimulated emission in a vertically oriented nanowire array is twice lower and the emission onset time is shorter than in randomly oriented arrays, revealing strong influence of the macroscopic nanowire arrangement.
A. J. Miller, K. Minamisono, D. M. Rossi, R. Beerwerth, B. A. Brown, S. Fritzsche, D. Garand, A. Klose, Y. Liu, B. Maass, P. F. Mantica, P. Müller, W. Nörtershäuser, M. R. Pearson, and C. Sumithrarachchi
First determination of ground state electromagnetic moments of ⁵³Fe
Phys. Rev. C, 96 :054314 (November 2017)
Abstract:
The hyperfine coupling constants of neutron deficient 53Fe were deduced from the atomic hyperfine spectrum of the 3d^6 4s^2 ^5D_4 <-> 3d^6 4s 4p ^5F_5 transition, measured using the bunched-beam collinear laser spectroscopy technique. The low-energy 53Fe beam was produced by projectile-fragmentation reactions followed by gas stopping, and used for the first time for laser spectroscopy. Ground state magnetic-dipole and electric-quadrupole moments were determined as μ = -0.65(1)μ_N and Q = +35(15)e^2 fm^2, respectively. The multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock method was used to calculate the electric field gradient to deduce Q from the quadrupole hyperfine coupling constant, since the quadrupole coupling constant has not been determined for any Fe isotopes. Both experimental values agree well with nuclear shell model calculations using the GXPF1A effective interaction performed in a full fp shell model space, which support the soft nature of the 56Ni nucleus.
H. Gies, R. Sondenheimer, and M. Warschinke
Impact of generalized Yukawa interactions on the lower Higgs-mass bound
Eur. Phys. J. C, 77 :743 (November 2017)
Abstract:
We investigate the impact of operators of higher canonical dimension on the lower Higgs-mass consistency bound by means of generalized Higgs—Yukawa interactions. Analogously to higher-order operators in the bare Higgs potential in an effective field theory approach, the inclusion of higher-order Yukawa interactions, e.g., ϕ^3ψ^¯ψ, leads to a diminishing of the lower Higgs-mass bound and thus to a shift of the scale of new physics towards larger scales by a few orders of magnitude without introducing a metastability in the effective Higgs potential. We observe that similar renormalization group mechanisms near the weak-coupling fixed point are at work in both generalizations of the microscopic action. Thus, a combination of higher-dimensional operators with generalized Higgs as well as Yukawa interactions does not lead to an additive shift of the lower mass bound, but it relaxes the consistency bounds found recently only slightly. On the method side, we clarify the convergence properties of different projection and expansion schemes for the Yukawa potential used in the functional renormalization group literature so far.
C. Granados, P. Creemers, R. Ferrer, L. P. Gaffney, W. Gins, R. de Groote, M. Huyse, Yu. Kudryavtsev, Y. Martínez, S. Raeder, S. Sels, C. Van Beveren, P. Van den Bergh, P. Van Duppen, K. Wrzosek-Lipska, A. Zadvornaya, A. E. Barzakh, B. Bastin, P. Delahaye, L. Hijazi, N. Lecesne, F. Luton, J. Piot, H. Savajols, J.-C. Thomas, E. Traykov, R. Beerwerth, S. Fritzsche, M. Block, X. Fléchard, S. Franchoo, L. Ghys, H. Grawe, R. Heinke, T. Kron, P. Naubereit, K. Wendt, M. Laatiaoui, I. Moore, V. Sonnenschein, M. Loiselet, E. Mogilevskiy, and S. Rothe
In-gas laser ionization and spectroscopy of actinium isotopes near the N=126 closed shell
Phys. Rev. C, 96 :054331 (November 2017)
Abstract:
The in-gas laser ionization and spectroscopy (IGLIS) technique was applied on the 212-215Ac isotopes, produced at the Leuven Isotope Separator On-Line (LISOL) facility by using the in-gas-cell and the in-gas-jet methods. The first application under on-line conditions of the in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy method showed a superior performance in terms of selectivity, spectral resolution, and efficiency in comparison with the in-gas-cell method. Following the analysis of both experiments, the magnetic-dipole moments for the 212-215Ac isotopes, electric-quadrupole moments and nuclear spins for the 214,215Ac isotopes are presented and discussed. A good agreement is obtained with large-scale nuclear shell-model calculations by using a 208Pb core.
Y. Zhang, B. Qiao, X. Xu, H. Chang, H. Lu, C. Zhou, H. Zhang, S. Zhu, M. Zepf, and X. He
Intense attosecond pulses from laser-irradiated near-critical-density plasmas
Opt. Express, 25 :29058 (November 2017)
Abstract:
A novel practical and efficient way of obtaining intense attosecond pulses is proposed, where the near-critical-density (NCD) plasma target satisfying n₀/a₀n꜀ ≈ 1 is used. The unique interaction dynamics in NCD plasmas have been identified theoretically and by particle-in-cell simulations, which show that three distinct dense electron nanobunches are formed each half a laser cycle and two of them can induce intense attosecond pulses in respectively the reflected and the transmitted directions by the so-called “coherent synchrotron emission” (CSE) mechanism [experimentally confirmed in Nat. Phys. 8, 804 (2012)]. Comparing with CSE in solids, here not only the required stringent conditions on laser and target are relaxed, but also the radiation intensities are enhanced by two orders of magnitude. It is shown that relativistically intense attosecond X-ray pulses with intensity 10¹⁹ W/cm² and duration ~50 as can be robustly obtained in both directions by currently available driving lasers at intensities of 10²⁰ W/cm².
S. Hendi, B. E. Panah, S. Panahiyan, and M. Momennia
Three dimensional magnetic solutions in massive gravity with (non)linear field
Phys. Lett. B, 775 :251 (November 2017)
Abstract:
The Noble Prize in physics 2016 motivates one to study different aspects of topological properties and topological defects as their related objects. Considering the significant role of the topological defects (especially magnetic strings) in cosmology, here, we will investigate three dimensional horizonless magnetic solutions in the presence of two generalizations: massive gravity and nonlinear electromagnetic field. The effects of these two generalizations on properties of the solutions and their geometrical structure are investigated. The differences between de Sitter and anti de Sitter solutions are highlighted and conditions regarding the existence of phase transition in geometrical structure of the solutions are studied.
D. Hoff, M. Krüger, L. Maisenbacher, G. Paulus, P. Hommelhoff, and A. Sayler
Using the focal phase to control attosecond processes
J. Opt., 19 :124007 (November 2017)
Abstract:
The spatial evolution of the electric field of focused broadband light is crucial for many emerging attosecond technologies. Here the effects of the input beam parameters on the evolution of few-cycle laser pulses in the focus are discussed. Specifically, we detail how the frequency-dependent input beam geometry, chirp and chromatic aberration can affect the spatial dependence of the carrier-envelope phase (CEP), central frequency and pulse duration in the focus. These effects are confirmed by a direct, three-dimensional measurement of the CEP-evolution in the focus of a typical few-cycle pulse laser using electron rescattering at metal nanotips in combination with a CEP-metre. Moreover, we demonstrate a simple measurement technique to estimate the focal CEP evolution by input-beam parameters. These parameters can be used in novel ways in order to control attosecond dynamics and tailor highly nonlinear light–matter interactions.
D. Würzler, N. Eicke, M. Möller, D. Seipt, A. M. Sayler, S. Fritzsche, M. Lein, and G.G. Paulus
Velocity map imaging of scattering dynamics in orthogonal two-color fields
J. Phys. B, 51 :015001 (November 2017)
Abstract:
In strong-field ionization processes, two-color laser fields are frequently used for controlling sub-cycle electron dynamics via the relative phase of the laser fields. Here we apply this technique to velocity map imaging spectroscopy using an unconventional orientation with the polarization of the ionizing laser field perpendicular to the detector surface and the steering field parallel to it. This geometry allows not only to image the phase-dependent photoelectron momentum distribution (PMD) of low-energy electrons that interact only weakly with the ion (direct electrons), but also to investigate the low yield of higher-energy rescattered electrons. Phase-dependent measurements of the PMD of neon and xenon demonstrate control over direct and rescattered electrons. The results are compared with semi-classical calculations in three dimensions including elastic scattering at different orders of return and with solutions of the three-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation.
B. Böning, W. Paufler, and S. Fritzsche
Attosecond streaking with twisted X waves and intense infrared pulses
Phys. Rev. A, 96 :043423 (October 2017)
Abstract:
We investigate the photoionization of atoms by attosecond X waves carrying orbital angular momentum in the presence of a strong, linearly polarized, near infrared (NIR) laser pulse. In the plane-wave case, the streaking of photoelectrons by the NIR pulse has been used to characterize the ionizing pulse. In contrast to plane-wave pulses, X waves have a spatially dependent temporal profile, which modifies the ionization process. Here we explore theoretically the influence of this complex pulse structure on the streaking of photoelectrons for both localized and macroscopically extended targets. On the basis of the strong-field approximation, we find that the streaking spectra of localized targets sensitively depend on the opening angle of the X wave and the position of the atomic target relative to the beam axis. For macroscopically extended targets, we find that the streaking spectra do not depend on the parameters characterizing the twist of the X wave.
A. Malyshev, D. Glazov, A. Volotka, I. Tupitsyn, V. Shabaev, and G. Plunien
Binding energies of the 1s2 2s2 2pj states in boronlike argon
Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. B, 408 :103 (October 2017)
Abstract:
The binding energies of the ground 1s2 2s2 2p1/2 and first excited 1s2 2s2 2p3/2 states in boronlike argon are rigorously evaluated. The calculations are performed by the QED perturbation theory in the framework of the extended Furry picture taking into account all the relevant first- and second-order radiative and correlation corrections. The third- and higher-order interelectronic-interaction effects are considered within the Breit approximation. The relativistic nuclear recoil effect is taken into account. In comparison with the previous calculations of the binding energies in boronlike argon the accuracy of the theoretical predictions has been significantly improved.