Peer-Review Publications

2018

D. Jahn, M. Träger, M. Kis, C. Brabetz, D. Schumacher, A. Blazevic, M. Ciobanu, M. Pomorski, U. Bonnes, S. Busold, F. Kroll, F.-E. Brack, U. Schramm, and M. Roth
Chemical-vapor deposited ultra-fast diamond detectors for temporal measurements of ion bunches
Rev. Sci. Instrum., 89 :093304 (September 2018)
Abstract:
This article reports on the development of thin diamond detectors and their characterization for their application in temporal profile measurements of subnanosecond ion bunches. Two types of diamonds were used: a 20 μm thin polycrystalline chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond and a membrane with a thickness of (5 ± 1) μm etched out of a single crystal (sc) CVD diamond. The combination of a small detector electrode and an impedance matched signal outlet leads to excellent time response properties with a signal pulse resolution (FWHM) of τ = (113 ± 11) ps. Such a fast diamond detector is a perfect device for the time of flight measurements of MeV ions with bunch durations in the subnanosecond regime. The scCVD diamond membrane detector was successfully implemented within the framework of the laser ion generation handling and transport project, in which ion beams are accelerated via a laser-driven source and shaped with conventional accelerator technology. The detector was used to measure subnanosecond proton bunches with an intensity of 108 protons per bunch.
A. Klenke, M. Müller, H. Stark, M. Kienel, C. Jauregui, A. Tünnermann, and J. Limpert
Coherent Beam Combination of Ultrafast Fiber Lasers
IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., 24 :1 (September 2018)
Abstract:
The performance of fiber laser systems has drastically increased over recent decades which has opened up new industrial and scientific applications for this technology. However, currently a number of physical effects prevents further power scaling. Coherent combination of beams from multiple emitters has been established as a power scaling technique beyond these limitations. It is possible to increase the average power and, for pulsed laser systems, also parameters such as the pulse energy and the peak power. To realize such laser systems, various aspects have to be taken into account which include beam combination elements, stabilization systems and the output parameters of the individual amplifiers. After an introduction to the topic, various ways of implementing coherent beam combination for ultrashort pulses are explored. Besides the spatial combination of beams, the combination of pulses in time will also be discussed. Recent experimental results will be presented, including multi-dimensional (i.e. spatial and temporal) combination. Finally, an outlook on possible further developments is given, focused on scaling the number of combinable beams and pulses.
Z. Samsonova, S. Höfer, R. Hollinger, T. Kämpfer, I. Uschmann, R. Röder, L. Trefflich, O. Rosmej, E. Förster, C. Ronning, D. Kartashov, and C. Spielmann
Hard X-ray generation from ZnO nanowire targets in a non-relativistic regime of laser-solid interactions
Appl. Sci., 8 :1728 (September 2018)
Abstract:
We present a detailed investigation of X-ray emission from both flat and nanowire zinc oxide targets irradiated by 60 fs 5E16 W/cm^2 intensity laser pulses at a 0.8 µm wavelength. It is shown that the fluence of the emitted hard X-ray radiation in the spectral range 150–800 keV is enhanced by at least one order of magnitude for nanowire targets compared to the emission from a flat surface, whereas the characteristic Kα line emission (8.64 keV) is insensitive to the target morphology. Furthermore, we provide evidence for a dramatic increase of the fast electron flux from the front side of the nanostructured targets. We suggest that targets with nanowire morphology may advance the development of compact ultrafast X-ray sources with an enhanced flux of hard X-ray emission that could find wide applications in high energy density (HED) physics.
R. Lachheb, A. Herrmann, A. Assadi, J. Reiter, J. Körner, J. Hein, C. Russel, R. Maâlej, and K. Damak
Judd–Ofelt analysis and experimental spectroscopic study of erbium doped phosphate glasses
J. Lumin., 201 :245 (September 2018)
Abstract:
A series of phosphate glasses including two compositions that are similar to commercial laser glasses and 3 new compositions doped with 2 × 10^20 Er3+/cm3 were prepared by using the classical melt quenching technique. The new glass compositions show much better glass forming properties than the commercially available glasses, lower molecular weights and lower optical basicities which are expected to be advantageous for their luminescence and laser properties. From the UV–vis–NIR absorption spectra, detailed Judd–Ofelt analyses were conducted and the radiative properties of the luminescent levels of Er3+ in these host materials were calculated. In fact all three compositions show longer calculated luminescence lifetimes than the compositions that are based on commercially available laser glasses. The absorption and the emission cross sections, the luminescence lifetimes and the quantum efficiency at 1530 nm were investigated. LiZnLaAPF glass can be suggested as a good host to generate efficient lasing action at 1530 nm. The variation of the Judd–Ofelt intensity parameters Ω2, Ω4 and Ω6 is discussed with respect to the glass compositions and their properties. For this, the calculated Ω2, Ω4 and Ω6 values are compared to the results of numerous publications on Er3+ doped phosphate glasses. From this data a correlation with the symmetry at the local rare earth site (Ω2) and with the theoretical optical basicity (Ω6) of the glass composition can be assumed.
K. Krushelnick, A. E. Dangor, M. Kaluza, S. P. D. Mangles, C. D. Murphy, Z. Najmudin, and A. G. R. Thomas
Observation of anomalous side-scattering in laser wakefield accelerators
Laser Part. Beams, 36 :391 (September 2018)
Abstract:
High-intensity femtosecond laser–plasma interaction experiments were performed to investigate laser–plasma wakefield acceleration in the “bubble” regime. Using a 15 TW laser pulse, the emission of side-scattered radiation was spectrally and spatially resolved and was consequently used to diagnose the evolution of the laser pulse during the acceleration process. Side-scattered emission was observed immediately before wavebreaking at a frequency of ωL + 1.7ωp (where ωL is the laser frequency and ωp is the background plasma frequency). This emission may result from scattering of laser light by large amplitude plasma oscillations generated in the shell of the wakefield “bubble” and which occurs immediately prior to the wavebreaking/injection process. The observed variation of the frequency of scattered light with electron density agrees with theoretical estimates.
J. S. M. Ginges, and A. V. Volotka
Testing atomic wave functions in the nuclear vicinity: The hyperfine structure with empirically deduced nuclear and quantum electrodynamic effects
Phys. Rev. A, 98 :032504 (September 2018)
Abstract:
Calculations of the magnetic hyperfine structure rely on the input of nuclear properties—nuclear magnetic moments and nuclear magnetization distributions—as well as quantum electrodynamic radiative corrections for high-accuracy evaluation in heavy atoms. The uncertainties associated with assumed values of these properties limit the accuracy of hyperfine calculations. For example, for the heavy alkali-metal atoms Cs and Fr, these uncertainties may amount collectively to almost 1% or 2%, respectively. In this paper, we propose a method for removing the dependence of hyperfine structure calculations on assumed values of nuclear magnetic moments and nuclear magnetization distributions by determining these effects empirically from measurements of the hyperfine structure for high states. The method is valid for s, p1/2, and p3/2 states of alkali-metal atoms and alkali-metal-like ions. We have shown that for s states, the dependence on QED effects may also be removed to high accuracy. The ability to probe the electronic wave functions, through hyperfine comparisons, with significantly increased accuracy is important for the analysis of atomic parity violation measurements, and it may enable the accuracy of atomic parity violation calculations to be improved. More broadly, it paves the way for further development of high-precision atomic many-body methods.
S. Upadhyay, S. Hendi, S. Panahiyan, and B. Panah
Thermal fluctuations of charged black holes in gravity’s rainbow
Progr. Theor. Exp. Phys., 2018 :093E01 (September 2018)
Abstract:
Quantum fluctuation effects have an irrefutable role in high-energy physics. Such fluctuation can be often regarded as a correction of the infrared (IR) limit. In this paper, the effects of the first-order correction of entropy, caused by thermal fluctuation, on the thermodynamics of charged black holes in gravity’s rainbow will be discussed. It will be shown that such correction has profound contributions to the high-energy limit of thermodynamical quantities and the stability conditions of black holes, and, interestingly, has no effect on thermodynamical phase transitions. The coupling between gravity’s rainbow and the first-order correction will be addressed. In addition, the measurement of entropy as a function of fluctuation of temperature will be covered, and it will be shown that the de Sitter case enforces an upper limit on the values of temperature and produces cyclic-like diagrams, while for the anti-de Sitter case, a lower limit on the entropy is provided; although for special cases a cyclic-like behavior could be observed, no upper or lower limit exists for the temperature. In addition, a comparison between non-correction and correction-included cases on the thermodynamical properties of solutions will also be discussed and the effects of the first-order correction will be highlighted. It will be shown that the first-order correction provides solutions with larger classes of thermal stability conditions, which may result in the existence of a larger number of thermodynamical structures for the black holes.
T. Heuermann, C. Gaida, M. Gebhardt, and J. Limpert
Thulium-doped nonlinear fiber amplifier delivering 50  fs pulses at 20  W of average power
Opt. Lett., 43 :4441 (September 2018)
Abstract:
In this Letter, we present an optimized nonlinear amplification scheme in the 2 µm wavelength region. This laser source delivers 50 fs pulses at an 80 MHz repetition rate with exceptional temporal pulse quality and 20 W of average output power. According to predictions from numerical simulations, it is experimentally confirmed that dispersion management is crucial to prevent the growth of side pulses and an increase of the energy content in a temporal pedestal surrounding the self-compressed pulse. Based on these results, we discuss guidelines to ensure high temporal pulse quality from nonlinear femtosecond fiber amplifiers in the anomalous dispersion regime.
F. Karbstein
Vacuum birefringence in the head-on collision of x-ray free-electron laser and optical high-intensity laser pulses
Phys. Rev. D, 98 :056010 (September 2018)
Abstract:
The focus of this article is on providing compact analytical expressions for the differential number of polarization-flipped signal photons constituting the signal of vacuum birefringence in the head-on collision of x-ray free electron (XFEL) and optical high-intensity laser pulses. Our results allow for unprecedented insights into the scaling of the effect with the waists and pulse durations of both laser beams, the Rayleigh range of the high-intensity beam, as well as transverse and longitudinal offsets. They account for the decay of the differential number of signal photons in the far field as a function of the azimuthal angle measured relative to the beam axis of the probe beam in the forward direction, typically neglected by conventional approximations. Moreover, they even allow us to extract an analytical expression for the angular divergence of the perpendicularly polarized signal photons. We expect our formulas to be very useful for the planning and optimization of experimental scenarios aiming at the detection of vacuum birefringence in XFEL/high-intensity laser setups, such as the one put forward at the Helmholtz International Beamline for Extreme Fields at the European XFEL.
B. Böning, W. Paufler, and S. Fritzsche
Above-threshold ionization by few-cycle Bessel pulses carrying orbital angular momentum
Phys. Rev. A, 98 :023407 (August 2018)
Abstract:
We investigate theoretically the above-threshold ionization (ATI) of localized atomic targets by intense few-cycle Bessel pulses that carry orbital angular momentum (OAM), known also as twisted light. More specifically, we use the strong-field approximation (SFA) to compute the photoelectron energy spectra. While for plane-wave laser pulses the outgoing photoelectron is typically described by Volkov states within the SFA, no equivalent is known for an electron in a twisted laser field. Here, we therefore introduce a local dipole approximation for the (continuum) state of the photoelectron that is justified for few-cycle pulses. Based on this approximation, we demonstrate that the photoelectrons can also be emitted into the propagation direction of the pulse. When measured in propagation direction, moreover, we show that the magnitude of the ATI peaks depend on the opening angle and the (projection of) total angular momentum of the Bessel pulse.
D. Hoff, F. J. Furch, T. Witting, K. Rühle, D. Adolph, A. M. Sayler, M. J. J. Vrakking, G.G. Paulus, and C. P. Schulz
Continuous every-single-shot carrier-envelope phase measurement and control at 100 kHz
Opt. Lett., 43 :3850 (August 2018)
Abstract:
With the emergence of high-repetition-rate few-cycle laser pulse amplifiers aimed at investigating ultrafast dynamics in atomic, molecular, and solid-state science, the need for ever faster carrier-envelope phase (CEP) detection and control has arisen. Here we demonstrate a high-speed, continuous, every-single-shot measurement and fast feedback scheme based on a stereo above-threshold ionization time-of-flight spectrometer capable of detecting the CEP and pulse duration at a repetition rate of up to 400 kHz. This scheme is applied to a 100 kHz optical parametric chirped pulse amplification few-cycle laser system, demonstrating improved CEP stabilization and allowing for CEP tagging.
S. Panahiyan, and S. Fritzsche
Controlling quantum random walk with a step-dependent coin
New J. Phys., 20 :083028 (August 2018)
Abstract:
We report on the possibility of controlling quantum random walks (QWs) with a step-dependent coin (SDC). The coin is characterized by a (single) rotation angle. Considering different rotation angles, one can find diverse probability distributions for this walk including: complete localization, Gaussian and asymmetric likes. In addition, we explore the entropy of walk in two contexts; for probability density distributions over position space and walker's internal degrees of freedom space (coin space). We show that entropy of position space can decrease for a SDC with the step-number, quite in contrast to a walk with step-independent coin (SIC). For entropy of coin space, a damped oscillation is found for walk with SIC while for a SDC case, the behavior of entropy depends on rotation angle. In general, we demonstrate that quantum walks with simple initiatives may exhibit a quite complex and varying behavior if SDCs are applied. This provides the possibility of controlling QW with a SDC.
T. Saule, M. Högner, N. Lilienfein, O. de Vries, M. Plötner, V. Yakovlev, N. Karpowicz, J. Limpert, and I. Pupeza
Cumulative plasma effects in cavity-enhanced high-order harmonic generation in gases
APL Phot., 3 :101301 (August 2018)
Abstract:
Modern ultrafast laser architectures enable high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in gases at (multi-) MHz repetition rates, where each atom interacts with multiple pulses before leaving the HHG volume. This raises the question of cumulative plasma effects on the nonlinear conversion. Utilizing a femtosecond enhancement cavity with HHG in argon and on-axis geometric extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) output coupling, we experimentally compare the single-pulse case with a double-pulse HHG regime in which each gas atom is hit by two pulses while traversing the interaction volume. By varying the pulse repetition rate (18.4 and 36.8 MHz) in an 18.4-MHz roundtrip-frequency cavity with a finesse of 187, and leaving all other pulse parameters identical (35-fs, 0.6-μJ input pulses), we observe a dramatic decrease in the overall conversion efficiency (output-coupled power divided by the input power) in the double-pulse regime. The plateau harmonics (25–50 eV) exhibit very similar flux despite the twofold difference in repetition rate and average power. We attribute this to a spatially inhomogeneous plasma distribution that reduces the HHG volume, decreasing the generated XUV flux and/or affecting the spatial XUV beam profile, which reduces the efficiency of output coupling through the pierced mirror. These findings demonstrate the importance of cumulative plasma effects for power scaling of high-repetition-rate HHG in general and for applications in XUV frequency comb spectroscopy and in attosecond metrology in particular.
M. C. Downer, R. Zgadzaj, A. Debus, U. Schramm, and M.C. Kaluza
Diagnostics for plasma-based electron accelerators
Rev. Mod. Phys., 90 :035002 (August 2018)
Abstract:
Plasma-based accelerators that impart energy gain as high as several GeV to electrons or positrons within a few centimeters have engendered a new class of diagnostic techniques very different from those used in connection with conventional radio-frequency (rf) accelerators. The need for new diagnostics stems from the micrometer scale and transient, dynamic structure of plasma accelerators, which contrasts with the meter scale and static structure of conventional accelerators. Because of this micrometer source size, plasma-accelerated electron bunches can emerge with smaller normalized transverse emittance (εn<0.1  mm mrad) and shorter duration (τb∼1  fs) than bunches from rf linacs. Single-shot diagnostics are reviewed that determine such small εn and τb noninvasively and with high resolution from wide-bandwidth spectral measurement of electromagnetic radiation the electrons emit: εn from x rays emitted as electrons interact with transverse internal fields of the plasma accelerator or with external optical fields or undulators; τb from THz to optical coherent transition radiation emitted upon traversing interfaces. The duration of ∼1  fs bunches can also be measured by sampling individual cycles of a copropagating optical pulse or by measuring the associated magnetic field using a transverse probe pulse. Because of their luminal velocity and micrometer size, the evolving structure of plasma accelerators, the key determinant of accelerator performance, is exceptionally challenging to visualize in the laboratory. Here a new generation of laboratory diagnostics is reviewed that yield snapshots, or even movies, of laser- and particle-beam-generated plasma accelerator structures based on their phase modulation or deflection of femtosecond electromagnetic or electron probe pulses. Spatiotemporal resolution limits of these imaging techniques are discussed, along with insight into plasma-based acceleration physics that has emerged from analyzing the images and comparing them to simulated plasma structures.
V. P. Kosheleva, V. A. Zaytsev, A. Surzhykov, V. M. Shabaev, and T. Stöhlker
Elastic scattering of twisted electrons by an atomic target: Going beyond the Born approximation
Phys. Rev. A, 98 :022706 (August 2018)
Abstract:
The elastic scattering of twisted electrons by neutral atoms is studied within the fully relativistic framework. The electron-atom interaction is taken into account in all orders, thus allowing us to explore high-order effects beyond the first Born approximation. To illustrate these effects, detailed calculations of the total and differential cross sections as well as the degree of polarization of scattered electrons are performed. Together with the analysis of the effects beyond the first Born approximation, we discuss the influence of the kinematic parameters of the incident twisted electrons on the angular and polarization properties of the scattered electrons.
J. Y. Mao, O. Rosmej, Y. Ma, M. H. Li, B. Aurand, F. Gaertner, W. M. Wang, J. Urbancic, A. Schoenlein, B. Zielbauer, U. Eisenbarth, V. Bagnoud, F. Wagner, F. Horst, M. Syha, S. Mathias, Y. T. Li, M. Aeschlimann, L. M. Chen, and T. Kuehl
Energy enhancement of the target surface electron by using a 200 TW sub-picosecond laser
Opt. Lett., 43 :3909 (August 2018)
Abstract:
One order of magnitude energy enhancement of the target surface electron beams with central energy at 11.5 MeV is achieved by using a 200 TW, 500 fs laser at an incident angle of 72° with a prepulse intensity ratio of 5×10−6. The experimental results demonstrate the scalability of the acceleration process to high electron energy with a longer (sub-picosecond) laser pulse duration and a higher laser energy (120 J). The total charge of the beam is 400±20  pC(E>2.7  MeV). Such a high orientation and mono-energetic electron jet would be a good method to solve the problem of the large beam divergence in fast ignition schemes and to increase the laser energy deposition on the target core.
O. N. Rosmej, Z. Samsonova, S. Höfer, D. Kartashov, C. Arda, D. Khaghani, A. Schoenlein, S. Zähter, A. Hoffmann, R. Loetzsch, A. Saevert, I. Uschmann, M. E. Povarnitsyn, N. E. Andreev, L. P. Pugachev, M.C. Kaluza, and C. Spielmann
Generation of keV hot near-solid density plasma states at high contrast laser-matter interaction
Phys. Plasmas, 25 :083103 (August 2018)
Abstract:
We present experimental evidence of ultra-high energy density plasma states with the keV bulk electron temperatures and near-solid electron densities generated during the interaction of high contrast, relativistically intense laser pulses with planar metallic foils. Experiments were carried out with the Ti:Sapphire laser system where a picosecond pre-pulse was strongly reduced by the conversion of the fundamental laser frequency into 2ω. A complex diagnostics setup was used for evaluation of the electron energy distribution in a wide energy range. The bulk electron temperature and density have been measured using x-ray spectroscopy tools; the temperature of supra-thermal electrons traversing the target was determined from measured bremsstrahlung spectra; run-away electrons were detected using magnet spectrometers. Analysis of the bremsstrahlung spectra and results on measurements of the run-away electrons showed a suppression of the hot electron production in the case of the high laser contrast. Characteristic x-ray radiation has been used for evaluation of the bulk electron temperature and density. The measured Ti line radiation was simulated both in steady-state and transient approaches using the code FLYCHK that accounts for the atomic multi-level population kinetics. The best agreement between the measured and the synthetic spectrum of Ti was achieved at 1.8 keV electron temperature and 2 10^23 cm^−3 electron density. By application of Ti-foils covered with nm-thin Fe-layers, we have demonstrated that the thickness of the created keV hot dense plasma does not exceed 150 nm. Results of the pilot hydro-dynamic simulations that are based on a wide-range two-temperature Equation of States, wide-range description of all transport and optical properties, ionization, electron, and radiative heating, plasma expansion, and Maxwell equations (with a wide-range permittivity) for description of the laser absorption are in excellent agreement with experimental results. According to these simulations, the generation of keV-hot bulk electrons is caused by the collisional mechanism of the laser pulse absorption in plasmas with a near solid step-like electron density profile. The laser energy, first deposited into the nm-thin skin-layer, is then transported into 150 nm depth by the electron heat conductivity. This scenario is opposite to the volumetric character of the energy deposition produced by supra-thermal electrons.
P. Wustelt, F. Oppermann, L. Yue, M. Möller, T. Stöhlker, M. Lein, S. Gräfe, G. Paulus, and A. Sayler
Heteronuclear Limit of Strong-Field Ionization: Fragmentation of HeH⁺ by Intense Ultrashort Laser Pulses
Phys. Rev. Lett., 121 :073203 (August 2018)
Abstract:
The laser-induced fragmentation dynamics of this most fundamental polar molecule HeH+ are measured using an ion beam of helium hydride and an isotopologue at various wavelengths and intensities. In contrast to the prevailing interpretation of strong-field fragmentation, in which stretching of the molecule results primarily from laser-induced electronic excitation, experiment and theory for nonionizing dissociation, single ionization, and double ionization both show that the direct vibrational excitation plays the decisive role here. We are able to reconstruct fragmentation pathways and determine the times at which each ionization step occurs as well as the bond length evolution before the electron removal. The dynamics of this extremely asymmetric molecule contrast the well-known symmetric systems leading to a more general picture of strong-field molecular dynamics and facilitating interpolation to systems between the two extreme cases.
R. Müller, A. Maiorova, S. Fritzsche, A. Volotka, R. Beerwerth, P. Glowacki, J. Thielking, D.-M. Meier, M. Okhapkin, E. Peik, and A. Surzhykov
Hyperfine interaction with the ²²⁹Th nucleus and its low-lying isomeric state
Phys. Rev. A, 98 :020503 (August 2018)
Abstract:
The thorium nucleus with a mass number A=229 has attracted much interest because its extremely low-lying first excited isomeric state at about 8 eV opens the possibility for the development of a nuclear clock. Both the energy of this state as well as the nuclear magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moment of the 229mTh isomer are subjects of intense research. The latter can be determined by investigating the hyperfine structure of thorium atoms or ions. Due to its electronic structure and the long lifetime of the nuclear isomeric state, Th2+ is especially suitable for such kinds of studies. In this Rapid Communication, we present a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the hyperfine structure of the 229Th^(2+) ion in the nuclear ground state, where a good agreement between theory and experiment is found. For the nuclear excited state we use our calculations in combination with recent measurements to obtain the nuclear dipole moment of the isomeric state μ_iso=−0.35 μN, which is in contradiction to the theoretically predicted value of μ_iso=−0.076 μN.
T. Grigorova, R. Sollapur, A. Hoffmann, A. Hartung, A. Schwuchow, J. Bierlich, J. Kobelke, M. A. Schmidt, and C. Spielmann
Measurement of the Dispersion of an Antiresonant Hollow Core Fiber
IEEE Photon. J., 10 :1 (August 2018)
Abstract:
Due to unique properties, antiresonant hollow core fibers have found widespread use in various fields of science and application. Particular regarding applications that involve ultrashort pulses, precise knowledge of group velocity dispersion is essential to understand the underlying physics and to optimize device performance. Here we report on the successful measurement of the spectral distribution of the group velocity dispersion of the fundamental mode of an antiresonant hollow core fiber in close proximity to and away from a strong strand resonance. The results show the variations of the hundreds of fs^2/cm near the resonance region, whereas the dispersion is identical to that of a perfect cylindrical waveguide away from the resonance in accordance with a literature. An additional zero dispersion wavelength that is not present in the case of a capillary was experimentally verified. The possibility to tune dispersion via strand resonances opens up a novel pathway towards engineering pulse dispersion, with applications in fields such as nonlinear science and pulse propagation management.
D. Wu, X. T. He, W. Yu, and S. Fritzsche
Particle-in-cell simulations of laser–plasma interactions at solid densities and relativistic intensities: the role of atomic processes
HPLaser, 6 :e50 (August 2018)
Abstract:
Direct numerical simulation of intense laser–solid interactions is still of great challenges, because of the many coupled atomic and plasma processes, such as ionization dynamics, collision among charged particles and collective electromagnetic fields, to name just a few. Here, we develop a new particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation code, which enables us to calculate laser–solid interactions in a more realistic way. This code is able to cover almost ‘all’ the coupled physical processes. As an application of the new code, the generation and transport of energetic electrons in front of and within the solid target when irradiated by intense laser beams are studied. For the considered case, in which laser intensity is 10^20 W/cm2 and pre-plasma scale length in front of the solid is 10 μm, several quantitative conclusions are drawn: (i) the collisional damping (although it is very weak) can significantly affect the energetic electrons generation in front of the target, (ii) the Bremsstrahlung radiation will be enhanced by 2–3 times when the solid is dramatically heated and ionized, (iii) the ‘cut-off’ electron energy is lowered by an amount of 25% when both collision damping and Bremsstrahlung radiations are included, and (iv) the resistive electromagnetic fields due to Ohmic heating play nonignorable roles and must be taken into account in such interactions.
G. M. Samarin, M. Zepf, and G. Sarri
Radiation reaction studies in an all-optical set-up: experimental limitations
\u200eJ. Mod. Opt., 65 :1362 (August 2018)
Abstract:
The recent development of ultra-high intensity laser facilities is finally opening up the possibility of studying high-field quantum electrodynamics in the laboratory. Arguably, one of the central phenomena in this area is that of quantum radiation reaction experienced by an ultra-relativistic electron beam as it propagates through the tight focus of a laser beam. In this paper, we discuss the major experimental challenges that are to be faced in order to extract meaningful and quantitative information from this class of experiments using existing and near-term laser facilities.
I. I. Tupitsyn, N. A. Zubova, V. M. Shabaev, G. Plunien, and T. Stöhlker
Relativistic calculations of x-ray transition energies and isotope shifts in heavy atoms
Phys. Rev. A, 98 :022517 (August 2018)
Abstract:
X-ray transition energies and isotope shifts in heavy atoms are evaluated. The energy levels with vacancies in the inner shells are calculated within the approximation of the average of a nonrelativistic configuration employing the Dirac-Fock-Sturm method. The obtained results are compared with other configuration-interaction theoretical calculations and with experimental data.
R. Klas, A. Kirsche, M. Tschernajew, J. Rothhardt, and J. Limpert
Annular beam driven high harmonic generation for high flux coherent XUV and soft X-ray radiation
Opt. Express, 26 :19318 (July 2018)
Abstract:
Separation of the high average power driving laser beam from the generated XUV to soft-X-ray radiation poses great challenges in collinear HHG setups due to the losses and the limited power handling capabilities of the typically used separating optics. This paper demonstrates the potential of driving HHG with annular beams, which allow for a straightforward and power scalable separation via a simple pinhole, resulting in a measured driving laser suppression of 5⋅10−3. The approach is characterized by an enormous flexibility as it can be applied to a broad range of input parameters and generated photon energies. Phase matching aspects are analyzed in detail and an HHG conversion efficiency that is only 27% lower than using a Gaussian beam under identical conditions is demonstrated, revealing the viability of the annular beam approach for high flux coherent short-wavelength sources and high
K. Poder, M. Tamburini, G. Sarri, A. D. Piazza, S. Kuschel, C. Baird, K. Behm, S. Bohlen, J. Cole, D. Corvan, M. Duff, E. Gerstmayr, C. Keitel, K. Krushelnick, S. Mangles, P. McKenna, C. Murphy, Z. Najmudin, C. Ridgers, G. Samarin, D. Symes, A. Thomas, J. Warwick, and M. Zepf
Experimental Signatures of the Quantum Nature of Radiation Reaction in the Field of an Ultraintense Laser
Phys. Rev. X, 8 :031004 (July 2018)
Abstract:
The description of the dynamics of an electron in an external electromagnetic field of arbitrary intensity is one of the most fundamental outstanding problems in electrodynamics. Remarkably, to date, there is no unanimously accepted theoretical solution for ultrahigh intensities and little or no experimental data. The basic challenge is the inclusion of the self-interaction of the electron with the field emitted by the electron itself—the so-called radiation reaction force. We report here on the experimental evidence of strong radiation reaction, in an all-optical experiment, during the propagation of highly relativistic electrons (maximum energy exceeding 2 GeV) through the field of an ultraintense laser (peak intensity of 4×10²⁰  W/cm²). In their own rest frame, the highest-energy electrons experience an electric field as high as one quarter of the critical field of quantum electrodynamics and are seen to lose up to 30% of their kinetic energy during the propagation through the laser field. The experimental data show signatures of quantum effects in the electron dynamics in the external laser field, potentially showing departures from the constant cross field approximation.