Peer-Review Publications

2018

C. M. Heyl, S. B. Schoun, G. Porat, H. Green, and J. Ye
A nozzle for high-density supersonic gas jets at elevated temperatures
Rev. Sci. Instrum., 89 :113114 (November 2018)
Abstract:
We present the development of a gas nozzle providing high-density gas at elevated temperaturesinside a vacuum environment. Fused silica is used as the nozzle material to allow the placement ofthe nozzle tip in close proximity to an intense, high-power laser beam, while minimizing the risk ofsputtering nozzle tip material into the vacuum chamber. Elevating the gas temperature increases thegas-jet forward velocity, allowing us to replenish the gas volume in the laser-gas interaction regionbetween consecutive laser shots. The nozzle accommodates a 50μm opening hole from which asupersonic gas jet emerges. Heater wires are used to bring the nozzle temperature up to 730 °C, whilea cooling unit ensures that the nozzle mount and the glued nozzle-to-mount connection is kept at atemperature below 50 °C. The presented nozzle design is used for high-order harmonic generationin hot gases using gas backing pressures of up to 124 bars.
K. T. Behm, J. M. Cole, A. S. Joglekar, E. Gerstmayr, J. C. Wood, C. D. Baird, T. G. Blackburn, M. Duff, C. Harvey, A. Ilderton, S. Kuschel, S. P. D. Mangles, M. Marklund, P. McKenna, C. D. Murphy, Z. Najmudin, K. Poder, C. P. Ridgers, G. Sarri, G. M. Samarin, D. Symes, J. Warwick, M. Zepf, K. Krushelnick, and A. G. R. Thomas
A spectrometer for ultrashort gamma-ray pulses with photon energies greater than 10 MeV
Rev. Sci. Instrum., 89 :113303 (November 2018)
Abstract:
We present a design for a pixelated scintillator based gamma-ray spectrometer for non-linear inverse Compton scattering experiments. By colliding a laser wakefield accelerated electron beam with a tightly focused, intense laser pulse, gamma-ray photons up to 100 MeV energies and with few femtosecond duration may be produced. To measure the energy spectrum and angular distribution, a 33 × 47 array of cesium-iodide crystals was oriented such that the 47 crystal length axis was parallel to the gamma-ray beam and the 33 crystal length axis was oriented in the vertical direction. Using an iterative deconvolution method similar to the YOGI code, modeling of the scintillator response using GEANT4 and fitting to a quantum Monte Carlo calculated photon spectrum, we are able to extract the gamma ray spectra generated by the inverse Compton interaction.
A. Surzhykov, V. A. Yerokhin, S. Fritzsche, and A. V. Volotka
Diagnostics of polarization purity of x rays by means of Rayleigh scattering
Phys. Rev. A, 98 :053403 (November 2018)
Abstract:
Synchrotron radiation is commonly known to be completely linearly polarized when observed in the orbital plane of the synchrotron motion. Under actual experimental conditions, however, the degree of polarization of the synchrotron radiation may be lower than the ideal 100%. We demonstrate that even tiny impurities of polarization of the incident radiation can drastically affect the polarization of the elastically scattered light. We propose to use this effect as a precision tool for the diagnostics of the polarization purity of the synchrotron radiation. Two variants of the diagnostics method are proposed. The first one is based on the polarization measurements of the scattered radiation and relies on theoretical calculations of the transition amplitudes. The second one involves simultaneous measurements of the polarization and the cross sections of the scattered radiation and is independent of theoretical amplitudes.
D. Jahn, D. Schumacher, C. Brabetz, J. Ding, S. Weih, F. Kroll, F. Brack, U. Schramm, A. Blazevic, and M. Roth
First application studies at the laser-driven LIGHT beamline: Improving proton beam homogeneity and imaging of a solid target
Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A, 909 :173 (November 2018)
Abstract:
In the last two decades, the generation of intense ion beams based on laser-driven sources has become an extensively investigated field. The LIGHT collaboration combines a laser-driven intense ion source with conventional accelerator technology based on the expertise of laser, plasma and accelerator physicists. Our collaboration has installed a laser-driven multi-MeV ion beamline at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung delivering intense proton bunches in the subnanosecond regime. We investigate possible applications for this beamline, especially in this report we focus on the imaging capabilities. We report on our proton beam homogenization and on first imaging results of a solid target.
V. A. Agababaev, D. A. Glazov, A. V. Volotka, D. V. Zinenko, V. M. Shabaev, and G. Plunien
Ground-state g factor of middle-Z boronlike ions
J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., 1138 :012003 (November 2018)
Abstract:
Theoretical calculations of the interelectronic-interaction and QED corrections to the g factor of the ground state of boronlike ions are presented. The first-order interelectronic-interaction and the self-energy corrections are evaluated within the rigorous QED approach in the effective screening potential. The second-order interelectronic interaction is considered within the Breit approximation. The nuclear recoil effect is also taken into account. The results for the ground-state g factor of boronlike ions in the range Z = 10-20 are presented and compared to the previous calculations.
R. Battesti, J. Beard, S. Böser, N. Bruyant, D. Budker, S. A. Crooker, E. J. Daw, V. V. Flambaum, T. Inada, I. G. Irastorza, F. Karbstein, D. L. Kim, M. G. Kozlov, Z. Melhem, A. Phipps, P. Pugnat, G. Rikken, C. Rizzo, M. Schott, Y. K. Semertzidis, H. H. t. Kate, and G. Zavattini
High magnetic fields for fundamental physics
Phys. Rep., 765-766 :1 (November 2018)
Abstract:
Various fundamental-physics experiments such as measurement of the magnetic birefringence of the vacuum, searches for ultralight dark-matter particles (e.g., axions), and precision spectroscopy of complex systems (including exotic atoms containing antimatter constituents) are enabled by high-field magnets. We give an overview of current and future experiments and discuss the state-of-the-art DC- and pulsed-magnet technologies and prospects for future developments.
C. Gaida, T. Heuermann, M. Gebhardt, E. Shestaev, T. P. Butler, D. Gerz, N. Lilienfein, P. Sulzer, M. Fischer, R. Holzwarth, A. Leitenstorfer, I. Pupeza, and J. Limpert
High-power frequency comb at 2  μm wavelength emitted by a Tm-doped fiber laser system
Opt. Lett., 43 :5178 (November 2018)
Abstract:
We report on the generation of a high-power frequency comb in the 2 μm wavelength regime featuring high amplitude and phase stability with unprecedented laser parameters, combining 60 W of average power with <30  fs pulse duration. The key components of the system are a mode-locked Er:fiber laser, a coherence-preserving nonlinear broadening stage, and a high-power Tm-doped fiber chirped-pulse amplifier with subsequent nonlinear self-compression of the pulses. Phase locking of the system resulted in a phase noise of less than 320 mrad measured within the 10 Hz–30 MHz band and 30 mrad in the band from 10 Hz to 1 MHz.
S. Kraft-Bermuth, D. Hengstler, P. Egelhof, C. Enss, A. Fleischmann, M. Keller, and T. Stöhlker
Microcalorimeters for X-Ray Spectroscopy of Highly Charged Ions at Storage Rings
Atoms, 6 :59 (November 2018)
Abstract:
X-ray spectroscopy of highly charged heavy ions is an important tool for the investigation of many topics in atomic physics. Such highly charged ions, in particular hydrogen-like uranium, are investigated at heavy ion storage rings, where high charge states can be produced in large quantities, stored for long times and cooled to low momentum spread of the ion beam. One prominent example is the determination of the 1s Lamb Shift in hydrogen-like heavy ions, which has been investigated at the Experimental Storage Ring (ESR) at the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research. Due to the large electron binding energies, the energies of the corresponding photon transitions are located in the X-ray regime. To determine the transition energies with high accuracy, highly resolving X-ray spectrometers are needed. One concept of such spectrometers is the concept of microcalorimeters, which, in contrast to semiconductor detectors, uses the detection of heat rather than charge to detect energy. Such detectors have been developed and successfully applied in experiments at the ESR. For experiments at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR), the Stored Particles and Atoms Collaboration (SPARC) pursues the development of new microcalorimeter concepts and larger detector arrays. Next to fundamental investigations on quantum electrodynamics such as the 1s Lamb Shift or electron–electron interactions in two- and three-electron systems, X-ray spectroscopy may be extended towards nuclear physics investigations like the determination of nuclear charge radii.
A. Woldegeorgis, T. Kurihara, M. Almassarani, B. Beleites, R. Grosse, F. Ronneberger, and A. Gopal
Multi-MV/cm longitudinally polarized terahertz pulses from laser–thin foil interaction
Optica, 5 :1474 (November 2018)
Abstract:
Longitudinally polarized terahertz radiation offers access to the elementary excitations and particles that cannot be addressed by transverse waves. While transverse electric fields exceeding 1 MV/cm are widely utilized for nonlinear terahertz spectroscopy, longitudinally polarized terahertz waves at this field strength are yet to be realized. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate that by focusing radially polarized terahertz fields generated from laser–thin metallic foil interaction, longitudinally polarized terahertz with record-breaking field strength above 1.5 MV/cm can be obtained. Furthermore, we also traced the evolution of the geometric phase of the longitudinal component as it propagates through focus. A novel scheme based on noncollinear electro-optic detection has been utilized to unambiguously measure the polarization states. Our result will scale up the nonlinear spectroscopy of solid materials and particle acceleration experiments where on-axis polarization plays a crucial role.
A. Bernhard, V. A. Rodríguez, S. Kuschel, M. Leier, P. Peiffer, A. Sävert, M. Schwab, W. Werner, C. Widmann, A. Will, A.-S. Müller, and M. Kaluza
Progress on experiments towards LWFA-driven transverse gradient undulator-based FELs
Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A, 909 :391 (November 2018)
Abstract:
Free Electron Lasers (FEL) are commonly regarded as the potential key application of laser wakefield accelerators (LWFA). It has been found that electron bunches exiting from state-of-the-art LWFAs exhibit a normalized 6-dimensional beam brightness comparable to those in conventional linear accelerators. Effectively exploiting this beneficial beam property for LWFA-based FELs is challenging due to the extreme initial conditions particularly in terms of beam divergence and energy spread. Several different approaches for capturing, reshaping and matching LWFA beams to suited undulators, such as bunch decompression or transverse-gradient undulator schemes, are currently being explored. In this article the transverse gradient undulator concept will be discussed with a focus on recent experimental achievements.
J. Ding, D. Schumacher, D. Jahn, A. Blazevic, and M. Roth
Simulation studies on generation, handling and transport of laser-accelerated carbon ions
Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A, 909 :168 (November 2018)
Abstract:
To this day the interaction of high-intensity lasers with matter is considered to be a possible candidate for next generation particle accelerators. Within the LIGHT collaboration crucial work for the merging of a high-intensity laser driven ion source with conventional accelerator technology has been done in the past years. The simulation studies we report about are an important step in providing short and intense mid-Z heavy ion beams for future applications.
J. Wang, W. Yu, M. Y. Yu, S. Rykovanov, J. Ju, S. Luan, K. Li, Y. Leng, R. Li, and Z.-M. Sheng
Very-long distance propagation of high-energy laser pulse in air
Phys. Plasmas, 25 :113111 (November 2018)
Abstract:
Long distance propagation of an energetic laser pulse with intensity slightly below that for multi-photon ionization in air is considered analytically, by noting that in the process, it is mainly the peak region of the pulse that interacts with the air molecules. Similar to that of much shorter femtosecond laser pulses of similar intensity, the affected air becomes slightly ionized and self-consistently forms a co-propagating thin and low-density plasma filament along the axis. It is found that a hundred-Joule-level laser pulse with a relatively large spot radius and pulse duration can propagate (also in the form of a self-consistent filament) tens of kilometers through the atmosphere. Such laser propagation properties should have applications in many areas.
C. Gaida, M. Gebhardt, T. Heuermann, F. Stutzki, C. Jauregui, J. Antonio-Lopez, A. Schulzgen, R. Amezcua-Correa, A. Tünnermann, I. Pupeza, and J. Limpert
Watt-scale super-octave mid-infrared intrapulse difference frequency generation
Light Sci. Appl., 7 :94 (November 2018)
Abstract:
The development of high-power, broadband sources of coherent mid-infrared radiation is currently the subject of intense research that is driven by a substantial number of existing and continuously emerging applications in medical diagnostics, spectroscopy, microscopy, and fundamental science. One of the major, long-standing challenges in improving the performance of these applications has been the construction of compact, broadband mid-infrared radiation sources, which unify the properties of high brightness and spatial and temporal coherence. Due to the lack of such radiation sources, several emerging applications can be addressed only with infrared (IR)-beamlines in large-scale synchrotron facilities, which are limited regarding user access and only partially fulfill these properties. Here, we present a table-top, broadband, coherent mid-infrared light source that provides brightness at an unprecedented level that supersedes that of synchrotrons in the wavelength range between 3.7 and 18 µm by several orders of magnitude. This result is enabled by a high-power, few-cycle Tm-doped fiber laser system, which is employed as a pump at 1.9 µm wavelength for intrapulse difference frequency generation (IPDFG). IPDFG intrinsically ensures the formation of carrier-envelope-phase stable pulses, which provide ideal prerequisites for state-of-the-art spectroscopy and microscopy.
M. Ruijter, V. Y. Kharin, and S. G. Rykovanov
Analytical solutions for nonlinear Thomson scattering including radiation reaction
J. Phys. B, 51 :225701 (October 2018)
Abstract:
Analytical solutions for the emitted nonlinear Thomson scattering spectrum with radiation reaction (RR) included are provided for a single electron colliding with a high intensity laser pulse. Further expressions are derived for the peak intensity for a given harmonic order and the downshift of the frequency when RR is included. Controlling the spectrum with shaping of the laser pulse frequency (chirp) has been investigated. It is shown that chirping of the laser pulse gives a distinct fingerprint of the effect of RR in the spectrum.
B. Panah, S. Hendi, S. Panahiyan, and M. Hassaine
BTZ dilatonic black holes coupled to Maxwell and Born-Infeld electrodynamics
Phys. Rev. D, 98 :084006 (October 2018)
Abstract:
Motivated by the string theory corrections in the low-energy limit of both gauge and gravity sides, we consider three-dimensional black holes in the presence of dilatonic gravity and the Born-Infeld nonlinear electromagnetic field. We find that geometric behavior of the solutions is similar to the behavior of the hyperscaling violation metric, asymptotically. We also investigate thermodynamics of the solutions and show that the generalization to dilatonic gravity introduces novel properties into thermodynamics of the black holes which were absent in the Einstein gravity. Furthermore, we explore the possibility of tuning out part of the dilatonic effects using the Born-Infeld generalization.
S. Kuschel, M. B. Schwab, M. Yeung, D. Hollatz, A. Seidel, W. Ziegler, A. Sävert, M.C. Kaluza, and M. Zepf
Controlling the Self-Injection Threshold in Laser Wakefield Accelerators
Phys. Rev. Lett., 121 :154801 (October 2018)
Abstract:
Controlling the parameters of a laser plasma accelerated electron beam is a topic of intense research with a particular focus placed on controlling the injection phase of electrons into the accelerating structure from the background plasma. An essential prerequisite for high-quality beams is dark-current free acceleration (i.e., no electrons accelerated beyond those deliberately injected). We show that small-scale density ripples in the background plasma are sufficient to cause the uncontrolled (self-)injection of electrons. Such ripples can be as short as ∼50  μm and can therefore not be resolved by standard interferometry. Background free injection with substantially improved beam characteristics (divergence and pointing) is demonstrated in a gas cell designed for a controlled gas flow. The results are supported by an analytical theory as well as 3D particle in cell simulations.
C. Schneider, G. Torgrimsson, and R. Schützhold
Discrete worldline instantons
Phys. Rev. D, 98 :085009 (October 2018)
Abstract:
The semiclassical approximation of the worldline path integral is a powerful tool to study nonperturbative electron-positron pair creation in spacetime-dependent background fields. Finding solutions of the classical equations of motion, i.e., worldline instantons, is possible analytically only in special cases, and a numerical treatment is nontrivial as well. We introduce a completely general numerical approach based on an approximate evaluation of the discretized path integral that easily and robustly gives the full semiclassical pair production rate in nontrivial multidimensional fields, and apply it to some example cases.
A. V. Maiorova, S. Fritzsche, R. A. Müller, and A. Surzhykov
Elastic scattering of twisted electrons by diatomic molecules
Phys. Rev. A, 98 :042701 (October 2018)
Abstract:
The elastic scattering of twisted electrons by diatomic molecules is studied within the framework of the nonrelativistic first Born approximation. In this process, the coherent interaction of incident electrons with two molecular centers may cause interference patterns in the angular distributions of outgoing particles. We investigate how this Young-type interference is influenced by the complex internal structure of twisted beams. In particular, we show that the corkscrewlike phase front and the inhomogeneous intensity profile of the incident beam can strongly modify the angular distribution of electrons, scattered off a single well-localized molecule. For the collision with a macroscopic target, composed of randomly distributed but aligned molecules, the angular-differential cross section may reveal valuable information about the transverse and longitudinal momenta of twisted states. To illustrate the difference between the scattering of twisted and plane-wave beams for both single-molecule and macroscopic-target scenarios, detailed calculations have been performed for a H2 target.
J. Kirtzel, S. Madhavan, N. Wielsch, A. Blinne, Y. Hupfer, J. Linde, K. Krause, A. Svatoš, and E. Kothe
Enzymatic Bioweathering and Metal Mobilization From Black Slate by the Basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune
Front. Microbiol., 9 :2545 (October 2018)
Abstract:
Schizophyllum commune is a filamentous basidiomycete causing white-rot in many wood species with the help of a broad range of enzymes including multicopper oxidases such as laccases and laccase-like oxidases. Since these enzymes exhibit a broad substrate range, their ability to oxidatively degrade black slate was investigated. Both haploid monokaryotic, and mated dikaryotic strains were able to grow on black slate rich in organic carbon as sole carbon source. On defined media, only the monokaryon showed growth promotion by addition of slate. At the same time, metals were released from the slate and, after reaching a threshold concentration, inhibited further growth of the fungus. The proteome during decomposition of the black slate showed induction of proteins potentially involved in rock degradation and stress resistance, and the gene for laccase-like oxidase mco2 was up-regulated. Specifically in the dikaryon, the laccase gene lcc1 was induced, while lcc2 as well as mco1, mco3, and mco4 expression levels remained similar. Spectrophotometric analysis revealed that both life forms were able to degrade the rock and produce smaller particles.
T. Sato, M. Asai, A. Borschevsky, R. Beerwerth, Y. Kaneya, H. Makii, A. Mitsukai, Y. Nagame, A. Osa, A. Toyoshima, K. Tsukada, M. Sakama, S. Takeda, K. Ooe, D. Sato, Y. Shigekawa, S.-i. Ichikawa, C. Düllmann, J. Grund, D. Renisch, J. Kratz, M. Schädel, E. Eliav, U. Kaldor, S. Fritzsche, and T. Stora
First Ionization Potentials of Fm, Md, No, and Lr: Verification of Filling-Up of 5f Electrons and Confirmation of the Actinide Series
J. Am. Chem. Soc., 140 :14609 (October 2018)
Abstract:
We report the first ionization potentials (IP1) of the heavy actinides, fermium (Fm, atomic number Z = 100), mendelevium (Md, Z = 101), nobelium (No, Z = 102), and lawrencium (Lr, Z = 103), determined using a method based on a surface ionization process coupled to an online mass separation technique in an atom-at-a-time regime. The measured IP1 values agree well with those predicted by state-of-the-art relativistic calculations performed alongside the present measurements. Similar to the well-established behavior for the lanthanides, the IP1 values of the heavy actinides up to No increase with filling up the 5f orbital, while that of Lr is the lowest among the actinides. These results clearly demonstrate that the 5f orbital is fully filled at No with the [Rn]5f147s2 configuration and that Lr has a weakly bound electron outside the No core. In analogy to the lanthanide series, the present results unequivocally verify that the actinide series ends with Lr.
N. Jayakumar, R. Sollapur, A. Hoffmann, T. Grigorova, A. Hartung, A. Schwuchow, J. Bierlich, J. Kobelke, M. A. Schmidt, and C. Spielmann
Polarization evolution in single-ring antiresonant hollow-core fibers
Appl. Opt., 57 :8529 (October 2018)
Abstract:
Understanding polarization in waveguides is of fundamental importance for any photonic device and is particularly relevant within the scope of fiber optics. Here, we investigate the dependence of the geometry-induced polarization behavior of single-ring antiresonant hollow-core fibers on various parameters from the experimental perspective, showing that structural deviations from an ideal polygonal shape impose birefringence and polarization-dependent loss, confirmed by a toy model. The minimal output ellipticity was found at the wavelength of lowest loss near the center of the transmission band, whereas birefringence substantially increases toward the resonances. The analysis that qualitatively also applies to other kinds of hollow-core fibers showed that maximizing the amount of linearly polarized light at the fiber output demands both operating at the wavelength of lowest loss, as well as carefully choosing the relative orientation of input polarization. This should correspond to the situation in which the difference of the core extent along the two corresponding orthogonal polarization directions is minimal. Due to their practical relevance, we expect our findings to be very important in fields such as nonlinear photonics or metrology.
J. Palaudoux, T. Kaneyasu, L. Andric, S. Carniato, G. Gamblin, F. Penent, Y. Hikosaka, E. Shigemasa, K. Ito, S. Fritzsche, E. Kukk, S. Sheinerman, R. F. Fink, P. Lablanquie, and R. Püttner
Selectivity of the Br 3d⁻1 Auger decays in HBr
Phys. Rev. A, 98 :043406 (October 2018)
Abstract:
The Auger decay of the spin-orbit and molecular-field split Br 3d−1 core holes in HBr is investigated, both by a photoelectron–Auger-electron coincidence experiment and by ab initio calculations based on the one-center approximation. The branching ratios for the Auger decay of the five different core-hole states to the 4p(σ,π)−2 dicationic final states are determined. Experimental and theoretical data are in good agreement and conform to results for the 4pπ−2 final states from a previous analysis of the high-resolution conventional Auger-electron spectrum. The branching ratios for the Br 3d−1 Auger decay to the 4p(σ,π)−2 with Σ symmetry follow the propensity rule of L2,3VV Auger decay stating that the oriented core holes decay preferentially by involving a valence electron from an orbital with the same spatial orientation. For the M4,5VV decay in HBr this propensity rule has to be supplemented by the requirement that the Auger-electron channel and the other valence orbital have the same preferential orientation. We also probe the influence of the Auger kinetic energy on the distortion of the photoline caused by the postcollision interaction effect. For small kinetic energies, differences between experimental results and theoretical predictions are identified.
L. Yue, P. Wustelt, A. Sayler, F. Oppermann, M. Lein, G. Paulus, and S. Gräfe
Strong-field polarizability-enhanced dissociative ionization
Phys. Rev. A, 98 :043418 (October 2018)
Abstract:
We investigate dissociative single and double ionization of HeH^+ induced by intense femtosecond laser pulses. By employing a semiclassical model with nuclear trajectories moving on field-dressed surfaces and ionization events treated as stochastical jumps, we identify a strong-field mechanism wherein the molecules dynamically align along the laser polarization axis and stretch towards a critical internuclear distance before dissociative ionization. As the tunnel-ionization rate is larger for larger internuclear distances and for aligned samples, ionization is enhanced. The strong dynamical rotation originates from the anisotropy of the internuclear distance-dependent polarizability tensor, which features a maximum at certain internuclear distances. Good qualitative agreement with our experimental observations is found. Finally, we investigate under which experimental conditions isotope effects of different isotopologues of HeH^+ can be observed.
J. Rothhardt, G. Tadesse, W. Eschen, and J. Limpert
Table-top nanoscale coherent imaging with XUV light
J. Opt., 20 :113001 (October 2018)
Abstract:
Modern laser-based XUV light sources provide very high photon fluxes which have previously only been available at large scale facilities. This allows high-performance XUV nanoscale imaging to be implemented in a table-top manner, and thus qualifies XUV imaging as a novel imaging technique complementing electron and visible-light microscopy. This article presents the current state-of-the-art in table-top XUV light sources and matched coherent imaging schemes. Selected experiments demonstrate the unique capabilities of XUV imaging—namely, nanoscale (sub-20 nm) resolution, single shot imaging, imaging of extended samples and 3D imaging of µm-sized objects. In addition, future prospects will be discussed, including scaling to few-nm resolution, extension to the soft x-ray spectral region, chemically-specific imaging at absorption edges and time-resolved imaging on femtosecond time-scales.
T. Kurz, J. Couperus, J. Krämer, H. Ding, S. Kuschel, A. Köhler, O. Zarini, D. Hollatz, D. Schinkel, R. D’Arcy, J.-P. Schwinkendorf, J. Osterhoff, A. Irman, U. Schramm, and S. Karsch
Calibration and cross-laboratory implementation of scintillating screens for electron bunch charge determination
Rev. Sci. Instrum., 89 :093303 (September 2018)
Abstract:
We revise the calibration of scintillating screens commonly used to detect relativistic electron beams with low average current, e.g., from laser-plasma accelerators, based on new and expanded measurements that include higher charge density and different types of screens than previous work. Electron peak charge densities up to 10 nC/mm2 were provided by focused picosecond-long electron beams delivered by the Electron Linac for beams with high Brilliance and low Emittance (ELBE) at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. At low charge densities, a linear scintillation response was found, followed by the onset of saturation in the range of nC/mm2. The absolute calibration factor (photons/sr/pC) in this linear regime was measured to be almost a factor of 2 lower than that reported by Buck et al. retrospectively implying a higher charge in the charge measurements performed with the former calibration. A good agreement was found with the results provided by Glinec et al.. Furthermore long-term irradiation tests with an integrated dose of approximately 50 nC/mm2 indicate a significant decrease of the scintillation efficiency over time. Finally, in order to enable the transfer of the absolute calibration between laboratories, a new constant reference light source has been developed.