Peer-Review Publications

2020

N. Stallkamp, S. Ringleb, B. Arndt, M. Kiffer, S. Kumar, G. Paulus, W. Quint, T. Stöhlker, and M. Vogel
HILITE-A well-defined ion target for laser experiments
J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., 1412 :092009 ( 2020)
Abstract:
We present a Penning-trap-based setup for the study of light-matter interactions in the high-power and/or high-intensity laser regime, such as multi-photon ionization and field ionization. The setup applies ioncloud formation techniques to highly charged ions to the end of specific target preparation, as well as nondestructive detection techniques to identify and quantify the interaction educts and products.
A. Gumberidze, C. Kozhuharov, R. Zhang, S. Trotsenko, Y. Kozhedub, R. Du, H. Bois, F. Beyer, K.-H. Blumenhagen, C. Brandau, A. Bräuning-Demian, W. Chen, O. Forstner, B. Gao, T. Gassner, R. Grisenti, S. Hagmann, P.-M. Hillenbrand, P. Indelicato, A. Kumar, M. Lestinsky, Y. Litvinov, N. Petridis, D. Schury, U. Spillmann, C. Trageser, M. Trassinelli, X. Tu, and T. Stöhlker
Impact parameter sensitive study of inner-shell atomic processes in Xe54+, Xe52+ → Xe collisions
J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., 1412 :142015 ( 2020)
Abstract:
In this work, we present a pilot experiment in the experimental storage ring (ESR) at GSI devoted to impact parameter sensitive studies of inner shell atomic processes for bare and He-like xenon ions (Xe54+, Xe52+) colliding with neutral xenon gas atoms. The projectile and target x-rays have been measured at different observation angles for all impact parameters as well as for the impact parameter range of ∼35 - 70 fm.
J. Rothhardt, M. Bilal, R. Beerwerth, A. Volotka, V. Hilbert, T. Stöhlker, S. Fritzsche, and J. Limpert
Lifetime measurements of ultrashort-lived excited states in Be-like ions
X-Ray Spec., 49 :165 (January 2020)
Abstract:
We propose to measure the lifetime of short-lived excited states in highly charged ions by pump-probe experiments. Utilizing two synchronized and delayed Femtosecond pulses allows accessing these lifetimes with Femtosecond precision. Such measurements could provide sensitive tests of state-of-the art atomic structure calculations beyond the capabilities of established methods.
J. Hofbrucker, A. V. Volotka, and S. Fritzsche
Nonlinear Cooper minimum as a precise tool for understanding multiphoton photoionization
J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., 1412 :152017 ( 2020)
Abstract:
A new approach to accurately assess multiphoton ionization is suggested. Vanishing of the dominant ionization channel in nonresonant (direct) multiphoton ionization is predicted for a specific incident photon energy. The exact energy position of such nonlinear Cooper minimum can be accurately measured and requires calculations of the complete electronic spectrum. Measurements of various observables at these photon energies are desirable for further evaluation of theoretical calculations at hitherto unreachable accuracy.
S. Panahiyan
Nonlinearly charged dyonic black holes
Nucl. Phys. B, 950 :114831 (January 2020)
Abstract:
In this paper, we investigate the thermodynamics of dyonic black holes in the presence of Born-Infeld electromagnetic field. We show that electric-magnetic duality reported for dyonic solutions with Maxwell field is omitted in case of Born-Infeld generalization. We also confirm that generalization to nonlinear field provides the possibility of canceling the effects of cosmological constant. This is done for nonlinearity parameter with 10−33 eV2 order of magnitude which is high nonlinearity regime. In addition, we show that for small electric/magnetic charge and high nonlinearity regime, black holes would develop critical behavior and several phases. In contrast, for highly charged case and Maxwell limits (small nonlinearity), black holes have one thermal stable phase. We also find that the pressure of the cold black holes is bounded by some constraints on its volume while hot black holes' pressure has physical behavior for any volume. In addition, we report on possibility of existences of triple point and reentrant of phase transition in thermodynamics of these black holes. Finally, we show that if electric and magnetic charges are identical, the behavior of our solutions would be Maxwell like (independent of nonlinear parameter and field). In other words, nonlinearity of electromagnetic field becomes evident only when these black holes are charged magnetically and electrically different.
H. Kang, S. Chen, W. Chu, J. Yao, J. Chen, X. Jun Liu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu
Nonsequential double ionization of alkaline-earth metal atoms by intense mid-infrared femtosecond pulses
Opt. Express, 28 :19325 ( 2020)
Abstract:
A systematic study of nonsequential double ionization (NSDI) of alkaline-earth metal atoms with mid-infrared femtosecond pulses is reported. We find that the measured NSDI yield shows a strong target dependence and it is more suppressed for alkaline-earth metal with higher ionization potential. The observation is attributed to the differences in the recollision induced excitation and ionization cross sections of alkaline-earth metals. This work indicates that NSDI of alkaline-earth metals can be generally understood within recollision picture and sheds light on ultrafast control of electron correlation and dynamics of ionic excited states during NSDI of atoms with complex structures.
Y. Litvinov, T. Stöhlker, X. Ma, Y. Zhang, and T. Yamaguchi
Nuclear physics research at heavy ion accelerators: Precision studies with stored and cooled exotic nuclei
J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., 1401 :012001 ( 2020)
Abstract:
This contribution is based on the plenary presentation at the 14th International Conference on Heavy Ion Accelerator Technology (HIAT-2018) in Lanzhou, China. Heavy-ion storage rings offer unparalleled opportunities for precision experiments in the realm of nuclear structure, atomic physics and astrophysics. A brief somewhat biased review of the presently ongoing research programs is given as well as the future projects are outlined. The limited space does not allow for detailed description of individual experiments, which shall - to some extent - be compensated by extended bibliography.
E. Menz, C. Hahn, P. Pfäfflein, G. Weber, and T. Stöhlker
Performance of a scintillator-based ion detector for CRYRING@ESR
J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., 1412 :232006 ( 2020)
Abstract:
A detector based on the scintillator material YAP:Ce and capable of counting single ions is presented. The detector consists of a YAP:Ce crystal and a light guide operating in ultra high vacuum and a conventional photomultiplier outside the vacuum. The crystal demonstrated the necessary radiation hardness against heavy ion irradiation. The detector has been commissioned at CRYRING@ESR and its detection capabilities have been confirmed with beam from the local source.
T. Buhr, S. O. Stock, A. Perry-Sassmannshausen, S. Reinwardt, M. Martins, S. Ricz, A. Mueller, S. Fritzsche, and S. Schippers
Photoionization of low-charged silicon ions
J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., 1412 :152024 ( 2020)
Abstract:
Single and multiple photoionization of Si1+, Si2+, and Si3+ ions have been investigated near the silicon K-edge using the PIPE setup at beamline P04 of the synchrotron light source PETRA III operated by DESY in Hamburg, Germany. Pronounced resonance structures are observed for all ions which are associated with excitation or ionization of a K-shell electron. The experimental cross sections are compared with results from theoretical calculations.
J. Deprince, M. Bautista, S. Fritzsche, J. García, T. Kallman, C. Mendoza, P. Palmeri, and P. Quinet
Plasma-environment effects on K lines of astrophysical interest: III. IPs, K thresholds, radiative rates, and Auger widths in Fe IX - Fe XVI
Astron. Astrophys., 635 :A70 ( 2020)
Abstract:
Aims. In the context of black-hole accretion disks, we aim to compute the plasma-environment effects on the atomic parameters used to model the decay of K-vacancy states in moderately charged iron ions, namely Fe IX - Fe XVI. Methods. We used the fully relativistic multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock method approximating the plasma electron-nucleus and electron-electron screenings with a time-averaged Debye-Hückel potential. Results. We report modified ionization potentials, K-threshold energies, wavelengths, radiative emission rates, and Auger widths for plasmas characterized by electron temperatures and densities in the ranges 105-107 K and 1018-1022 cm-3. Conclusions. This study confirms that the high-resolution X-ray spectrometers onboard the future XRISM and Athena space missions will be capable of detecting the lowering of the K edges of these ions due to the extreme plasma conditions occurring in accretion disks around compact objects.
R. Hollinger, D. Gupta, M. Zapf, M. Karst, R. Röder, I. Uschmann, U. Reislöhner, D. Kartashov, C. Ronning, and C. Spielmann
Polarization dependent multiphoton absorption in ZnO thin films
J. Phys. D, 53 :055102 ( 2020)
Abstract:
We present a simple non-destructive approach for studying the polarization dependence of nonlinear absorption processes in semiconductors. The method is based on measuring the yield of the near UV photoluminescence as a function of polarization and intensity of femtosecond laser pulses. In particular, we investigated the polarization dependence of three photon laser absorption in intrinsic and Al-doped ZnO thin films. Both specimen show stronger emission for linearly polarized excitation compared to circular polarization. The ratios for the three-photon absorption coefficients are about 1.8 and independent of the doping. It is shown that Al-doped films have lower threshold for stimulated emission in comparison to the intrinsic films.
D. Dmytriiev, M. Sanjari, Y. Litvinov, and T. Stöhlker
Position sensitive resonant Schottky cavities for heavy ion storage rings
Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. B, 463 :320 (January 2020)
Abstract:
Resonant Schottky pick-up cavities are sensitive beam monitors. They are indispensable for the beam diagnostics in storage rings. Apart from their applications in the measurements of beam parameters, they can be used in nondestructive in-ring decay studies of radioactive ion beams. In addition, position sensitive Schottky pick-up cavities enhance precision in the isochronous mass measurement technique. The goal of this work is to construct and test such a position sensitive cavity (e.g. Schottky detector) based on previous theoretical calculations and simulations. These cavities will allow measurement of position using the monopole mode using a non-circular(elliptic) geometry. This information can be further analyzed to increase the performance in isochronous mass spectrometry. A brief description of the detector system from elliptical and cylindrical cavities is described in this work.
F. Karbstein
Probing Vacuum Polarization Effects with High-Intensity Lasers
Particles, 3 :39 (January 2020)
Abstract:
These notes provide a pedagogical introduction to the theoretical study of vacuum polarization effects in strong electromagnetic fields as provided by state-of-the-art high-intensity lasers. Quantum vacuum fluctuations give rise to effective couplings between electromagnetic fields, thereby supplementing Maxwell’s linear theory of classical electrodynamics with nonlinearities. Resorting to a simplified laser pulse model, allowing for explicit analytical insights, we demonstrate how to efficiently analyze all-optical signatures of these effective interactions in high-intensity laser experiments. Moreover, we highlight several key features relevant for the accurate planning and quantitative theoretical analysis of quantum vacuum nonlinearities in the collision of high-intensity laser pulses.
X. Xu, Y. Zhang, H. Zhang, H. Lu, W. Zhou, C. Zhou, B. Dromey, S. Zhu, M. Zepf, X. He, and B. Qiao
Production of 100-TW single attosecond x-ray pulse
Optica, 7 :355 ( 2020)
Abstract:
Attosecond light sources have provided insight into the fastest atomic-scale electronic dynamics. True attosecond-pump–attosecond-probe experiments require a single attosecond pulse at high intensity and large photon energy, a challenge that has yet to be conquered. Here we show 100-TW single attosecond x-ray pulses with unprecedented intensity of 1021 W/cm2 and duration 8.0 as can be produced by intense laser irradiation of a capacitor-nanofoil target composed of two separate nanofoils. In the interaction, a strong electrostatic potential develops between the two foils, which drags electrons out of the second foil and piles them up in vacuum, forming an ultradense relativistic electron nanobunch. This nanobunch reaches both high density and high energy in only half a laser cycle and smears out in others, resulting in coherent synchrotron emission of a single, intense attosecond pulse. Such a pulse enables the capture and control of electron motion at the picometer–attosecond scale.
C. Aleshire, A. Steinkopff, C. Jauregui, A. Klenke, A. Tünnermann, and J. Limpert
Simplified design of optical elements for filled-aperture coherent beam combination
Opt. Express, 28 :21035 ( 2020)
Abstract:
A simplification strategy for segmented mirror splitters (SMS) used as beam combiners is presented. These devices are useful for compact beam division and the combination of linear and 2-D arrays. However, the standard design requires unique thin-film coating sections for each input beam; thus, potential for scaling to high beam-counts is limited due to manufacturing complexity. Taking advantage of the relative insensitivity of the beam combination process to amplitude variations, numerical techniques are used to optimize highly simplified designs with only one, two or three unique coatings. It is demonstrated that with correctly chosen coating reflectivities, the simplified optics are capable of high combination efficiency for several tens of beams. The performance of these optics as beam splitters in multicore fiber amplifier systems is analyzed, and inhomogeneous power distribution of the simplified designs is noted as a potential source of combining loss in such systems. These simplified designs may facilitate further scaling of filled-aperture coherently combined systems in linear array or 2-D array formats.
S. Hendi, A. Tavakkoli, S. Panahiyan, B. Panah, and E. Hackmann
Simulation of geodesic trajectory of charged BTZ black holes in massive gravity
Eur. Phys. J. C, 80 :524 ( 2020)
Abstract:
In order to classify and understand structure of the spacetime, investigation of the geodesic motions of massive and massless particles is a key tool. So the geodesic equation is a central equation of gravitating systems and the subject of geodesics in the black hole dictionary attracted much attention. In this paper, we give a full description of geodesic motions in three-dimensional spacetime. We investigate the geodesics near charged BTZ black holes and then generalize our prescriptions to the case of massive gravity. We show that electric charge is a critical parameter for categorizing the geodesic motions of both lightlike and timelike particles. In addition, we classify the type of geodesics based on the particle properties and geometry of spacetime.
M. Gebhardt, T. Heuermann, C. Gaida, Z. Wang, M. Lenski, R. Klas, A. Kirsche, C. Liu, S. Hädrich, C. Jauregui, and . others
Soft x-ray high order harmonic generation from high power ultrafast thulium-doped fiber lasers
Compact EUV & X-ray Light Sources ( 2020)
DOI
M. Lestinsky, Z. Andelkovic, M. Bai, A. Bräuning-Demian, V. Chetvertkova, S. Fedotova, O. Geithner, W. Geithner, O. Gorda, F. Herfurth, A. Kalinin, A. Källberg, S. Litvinov, E. Menz, K. Mohr, R. Sanchez, T. Stöhlker, G. Vorobjev, and U. Weinrich
Status of CRYRING@ESR and preparations for first experiments
J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., 1412 :23007 ( 2020)
Abstract:
CRYRING was moved from Stockholm to Darmstadt, modernized and integrated into the GSI/FAIR beamline topology behind ESR. As CRYRING@ESR, it will receive and store heavy, highly charged ions from all species the present accelerator chain is capable of producing. An extensive research program on low-energy atomic collisions, spectroscopy and nuclear reactions was proposed. The facility is gradually completing commissioning, ion beams from the local injector branch have already been stored and prototype experiments performed. We present the machine status and highlight some planned experiments.
P. Wustelt, M. Kübel, G. Paulus, and A. Sayler
Strong-field laser-induced fragmentation of small molecules from fast to slow
Adv. Atom. Mol. Opt. Phy., 69 :67 ( 2020)
Abstract:
The structure and dynamics of molecules are governed by the electric forces acting between electrons and nuclei. Intense, ultrashort laser pulses offer the possibility to manipulate these forces, on the time scales relevant for the motion of a molecule's constituents. Thus, laser fields can act, not only as a mechanism to trigger molecular dynamics, but also controlling them. The fragmentation patterns that result from the interaction testify to the laser-induced processes occurring in the molecule. In this review, we examine how a laser addresses the different degrees of freedom of a molecule, from electronic excitation to vibrations of nuclei, to rotations of the molecule. We will focus the discussion on the most fundamental systems, particularly H2+, H2, and HeH+. These simple systems allow for accurate theoretical analysis of experimental results, and extrapolation of the conclusions to more complex systems. Since some of the most fundamental molecules, such as HeH+ and H3+ do not exist in the neutral form, we put an emphasis on experiments starting from molecular ions, but do not restrict the discussion to these. Strong-field interactions of small molecules are a test ground, not only for experimental but also for theoretical methods. The joint effort of the two scientific disciplines have delivered deep insights into fundamental concepts of molecular science. The recent developments of novel laser sources with longer wavelength, higher peak power, or repetition rates, as well as more complex targets and detection schemes, promise that the field will remain highly relevant in the decades to come.
J. Körner, M. Krüger, J. Reiter, A. Münzer, J. Hein, and M. Kaluza
Temperature dependent spectroscopic study of Yb3+-doped KG(WO4)2, KY(WO4)2, YAlO3 and YLiF4 for laser applications
Opt. Mater. Express, 10 :2425 ( 2020)
Abstract:
We present a study on temperature dependent spectroscopic data for Yb:KGW, Yb:KYW and Yb:YLF between 80K and 280K and Yb:YAP between 100K and 300 K. Absorption and emission cross sections are determined. The latter ones are obtained by using a combination of the McCumber relation and the Füchtbauer-Ladenburg equation. Fluorescence lifetimes are measured within a setup optimized for the suppression of re-absorption and compared to the radiative lifetimes calculated from the previously determined cross sections to cross check the validity of the measurements. The cross sections are evaluated with regard to the materials' potential for supporting the generation of ultra-short laser pulses, low quantum defect lasing and requirements for suitable diode laser pump sources.
W. Płaczek, A. Abramov, S. E. Alden, R. Alemany Fernandez, P. S. Antsiferov, A. Apyan, H. Bartosik, E. G. Bessonov, N. Biancacci, J. Bieron, A. Bogacz, A. Bosco, R. Bruce, D. Budker, K. Cassou, F. Castelli, I. Chaikovska, C. Curatolo, P. Czodrowski, A. Derevianko, K. Dupraz, Y. Dutheil, K. Dzierżęga, V. Fedosseev, N. Fuster Martinez, S. M. Gibson, B. Goddard, A. Gorzawski, S. Hirlander, J. M. Jowett, R. Kersevan, M. Kowalska, M. W. Krasny, F. Kroeger, D. Kuchler, M. Lamont, T. Lefevre, D. Manglunki, B. Marsh, A. Martens, J. Molson, D. Nutarelli, L. J. Nevay, A. Petrenko, V. Petrillo, S. Redaelli, Y. Peinaud, S. Pustelny, S. Rochester, M. Sapinski, M. Schaumann, R. Scrivens, L. Serafini, V. P. Shevelko, T. Stoehlker, A. Surzhykov, I. Tolstikhina, F. Velotti, G. Weber, Y. K. Wu, C. Yin-Vallgren, M. Zanetti, F. Zimmermann, M. S. Zolotorev, and F. Zomer
The Gamma Factory Project at CERN: a New Generation of Research Tools Made of Light
Acta Phys. Polon., 13 :645 ( 2020)
D. Schury, A. Méry, J. Ramillon, L. Adoui, J.-Y. Chesnel, A. Lévy, S. Macé, C. Prigent, J. Rangama, P. Rousseau, S. Steydli, M. Trassinelli, D. Vernhet, A. Gumberidze, T. Stöhlker, A. Bruning-Demian, C. Hahn, U. Spillmann, and E. Lamour
The low energy beamline of the FISIC experiment: Current status of construction and performance
J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., 1412 :162011 ( 2020)
Abstract:
Ion-ion collisions between slow (kev/u) and fast (MeV/u) ions play an important role in for example astrophysical or inertial fusion plasmas as well as in ion-matter interaction. In this regime the energy transfer is maximum, as all primary electronic processes reach their maximum. At the same time up to today no reliable experimental data exists while being difficult to treat accurately by theory. We present the current status and performance of the low energy beam-line of the FISIC experiment which aims at filling in the blanks in this regime.
L. Varga, K. Blaum, T. Davinson, J. Glorius, B. Jurado, C. Langer, C. Lederer-Woods, Y. Litvinov, R. Reifarth, Z. Slavkovská, T. Stöhlker, P. Woods, and Y. Xing
Towards background-free studies of capture reactions in a heavy-ion storage ring
J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., 1412 :232011 ( 2020)
Abstract:
Stored and cooled highly-charged ions offer unprecedented capabilities for precision studies in realm of atomic-, nuclear-structure and astrophysics. In context of the latter, after the successful investigation of the cross section of 96Ru(p,γ) in 2009, in 2016 the first measurement of the 124Xe(p,γ)125Cs reaction was performed at the Experimental Storage Ring (ESR) at GSI.
C. Jauregui, C. Stihler, and J. Limpert
Transverse mode instability
Adv. Opt. Photonics, 12 :429 ( 2020)
Abstract:
This work presents a review on the effect of transverse mode instability in highpower fiber laser systems and the corresponding investigations led worldwide over the past decade. This paper includes a description of the experimental observations and the physical origin of this effect, as well as some of the proposed mitigation strategies.

2019

L. Stoyanov, G. Maleshkov, M. Zhekova, I. Stefanov, G. Paulus, and A. Dreischuh
Controllable beam reshaping by mixing square-shaped and hexagonal optical vortex lattices
Sci. Rep., 9 :2128 (December 2019)
Abstract:
In the present work we show experimentally and by numerical calculations a substantial far-field beam reshaping by mixing square-shaped and hexagonal optical vortex (OV) lattices composed of vortices with alternatively changing topological charges. We show that the small-scale structure of the observed pattern results from the OV lattice with the larger array node spacing, whereas the large-scale structure stems from the OV lattice with the smaller array node spacing. In addition, we demonstrate that it is possible to host an OV, a one-dimensional, or a quasi-two-dimensional singular beam in each of the bright beams of the generated focal patterns. The detailed experimental data at different square-to-hexagonal vortex array node spacings shows that this quantity could be used as a control parameter for generating the desired focused structure. The experimental data are in excellent agreement with the numerical simulations.