Peer-Review Publications


U. T. Sanli, T. Messer, M. Weigand, L. Lötgering, G. Schütz, M. Wegener, C. Kern, and K. Keskinbora
High-Resolution Kinoform X-Ray Optics Printed via 405 nm 3D Laser Lithography
Adv. Mater. Technol., 7 :2101695 (February 2022)
C. Mahnke, Y. Hua, Y. Ma, S. Salman, T. Lamb, S. Schulz, C. Heyl, H. Cankaya, and I. Hartl
Long-term stable, synchronizable, low-noise picosecond Ho:fiber NALM oscillator for Ho:YLF amplifier seeding
Opt. Lett., 47 :822 (February 2022)
We demonstrate a 41.6 MHz, 1.3 ps, 140 pJ Ho:fiber oscillator using a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror (NALM) as saturable absorber. The oscillator is constructed entirely with polarization-maintaining (PM) fibers, is tunable with a center wavelength between 2035 nm and 2075 nm, and can be synchronized to an external RF reference. For our application of Ho:YLF amplifier seeding for dielectric electron acceleration, the laser is tuned to 2050 nm and synchronized to a stable RF reference with 45 fs rms timing jitter in the integration interval [10 Hz, 1 MHz]. We show long term synchronized operation and characterize the relative intensity noise (RIN) and timing jitter of the oscillator for two different Tm-fiber pump lasers.
A.-L. Viotti, M. Seidel, E. Escoto, S. Rajhans, W. Leemans, I. Hartl, and C. Heyl
Multi-pass cells for post-compression of ultrashort laser pulses
Optica, 9 :197 (February 2022)
Ultrafast lasers reaching extremely high powers within short fractions of time enable a plethora of applications. They grant advanced material processing capabilities, are effective drivers for secondary photon and particle sources, and reveal extreme light-matter interactions. They also supply platforms for compact accelerator technologies, with great application prospects for tumor therapy or medical diagnostics. Many of these scientific cases benefit from sources with higher average and peak powers. Following mode-locked dye and titanium-doped sapphire lasers, broadband optical parametric amplifiers have emerged as high peak- and average power ultrashort pulse lasers. A much more power-efficient alternative is provided by direct post-compression of high-power diode-pumped ytterbium lasers-a route that advanced to another level with the invention of a novel spectral broadening approach, the multi-pass cell technique. The method has enabled benchmark results yielding sub-50-fs pules at average powers exceeding 1 kW, has facilitated femtosecond post-compression at pulse energies above 100 mJ with large compression ratios, and supports picosecond to few-cycle pulses with compact setups. The striking progress of the technique in the past five years puts light sources with tens to hundreds of TW peak and multiple kW of average power in sight-an entirely new parameter regime for ultrafast lasers. In this review, we introduce the underlying concepts and give brief guidelines for multi-pass cell design and implementation. We then present an overview of the achieved performances with both bulk and gas-filled multipass cells. Moreover, we discuss prospective advances enabled by this method, in particular including opportunities for applications demanding ultrahigh peak-power, high repetition rate lasers such as plasma accelerators and laser-driven extreme ultraviolet sources.
S. Fuchs, J. Abel, J. Nathanael, J. Reinhard, F. Wiesner, M. Wuensche, S. Skruszewicz, C. Roedel, D. Born, H. Schmidt, and G. Paulus
Photon counting of extreme ultraviolet high harmonics using a superconducting nanowire single-photon detector
Appl. Phys. B, 128 :26 (February 2022)
Laser-driven light sources in the extreme ultraviolet range (EUV) enable nanoscopic imaging with unique label-free elemental contrast. However, to fully exploit the unique properties of these new sources, novel detection schemes need to be developed. Here, we show in a proof-of-concept experiment that superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPD) can be utilized to enable photon counting of a laser-driven EUV source based on high harmonic generation (HHG). These detectors are dark-count free and accommodate very high count rates-a perfect match for high repetition rate HHG sources. In addition to the advantages of SNSPDs for classical imaging applications with laser-driven EUV sources, the ability to count single photons paves the way for very promising applications in quantum optics and quantum imaging with high energetic radiation like, e.g., quantum ghost imaging with nanoscale resolution.
J. Fan, J. Hofbrucker, A. V. Volotka, and S. Fritzsche
Relativistic calculations of two-color two-photon K-shell ionization
Eur. Phys. J. D, 76 :18 (February 2022)
We investigate the two-color two-photon K-shell ionization of neutral atoms based on the relativistic second-order perturbation theory and independent particle approximation. Analytical expressions for the relativistic and nonrelativistic total cross sections are derived in terms of radial transition amplitudes and Stokes parameters. Particular attention is paid especially to how the two-photon ionization total cross section depends on the energy sharing and polarization of the two incident photons. We construct the nonrelativistic expressions of cross section ratios for different polarization combinations of the two incident photons. The numerical results of total cross section and cross section ratios show that the energy sharing of the two incident photons plays an essential role in two-photon K-shell ionization. Particularly, if the energies of the two incident photons are identical, the total cross section and cross section ratios will reach the minimum or maximum value. Moreover, due to the strong screening effects, we find strong deviations of the cross section ratios near the two-photon ionization threshold of the Ne atom.
P.-M. Hillenbrand, S. Hagmann, Y. S. Kozhedub, E. P. Benis, C. Brandau, R. J. Chen, D. Dmytriiev, O. Forstner, J. Glorius, R. E. Grisenti, A. Gumberidze, M. Lestinsky, Yu. A. Litvinov, E. B. Menz, T. Morgenroth, S. Nanos, N. Petridis, P. Pfäfflein, H. Rothard, M. S. Sanjari, R. S. Sidhu, U. Spillmann, S. Trotsenko, I. I. Tupitsyn, L. Varga, and T. Stöhlker
Single and double K-shell vacancy production in slow Xe⁵⁴⁺,⁵³⁺-Xe collisions
Phys. Rev. A, 105 :022810 (February 2022)
We present an experimental and theoretical study of symmetric Xe54++Xe collisions at 50, 30, and 15 MeV/u, corresponding to strong perturbations with vK/vp=1.20, 1.55, and 2.20, respectively (vK is the classical K-shell orbital velocity and vp is the projectile velocity), as well as Xe53++Xe collisions at 15 MeV/u. For each of these systems, x-ray spectra are measured under a forward angle of 35∘ with respect to the projectile beam. Target satellite and hypersatellite radiation Kαs2,1 and Kαhs2,1, respectively, are analyzed and used to derive cross-section ratios for double-to-single target K-shell vacancy production. We compare our experimental results to relativistic time-dependent two-center calculations.
A. Klenke, A. Steinkopff, C. Aleshire, C. Jauregui, S. Kuhn, J. Nold, C. Hupel, S. Hein, S. Schulze, N. Haarlammert, T. Schreiber, A. Tünnermann, and J. Limpert
500 W rod-type 4 × 4 multicore ultrafast fiber laser
Opt. Lett., 47 :345 (January 2022)
We present a coherently combined femtosecond fiber chirped-pulse-amplification system based on a rod-type, ytterbium-doped, multicore fiber with 4 × 4 cores. A high average power of up to 500 W (after combination and compression) could be achieved at 10 MHz repetition rate with excellent beam quality. Additionally, łess 500 fs pulses with up to 600 µJ of pulse energy were also realized with this setup. This architecture is intrinsically power scalable by increasing the number of cores in the fiber.
L. Lötgering, S. Witte, and J. Rothhardt
Advances in laboratory-scale ptychography using high harmonic sources [Invited]
Opt. Express, 30 :4133 (January 2022)
Extreme ultraviolet microscopy and wavefront sensing are key elements for nextgeneration ultrafast applications, such as chemically-resolved imaging, focal spot diagnostics in pump-and-probe experiments, and actinic metrology for the state-of-the-art lithography node at 13.5 nm wavelength. Ptychography offers a robust solution to the aforementioned challenges. Originally adapted by the electron and synchrotron communities, advances in the stability and brightness of high-harmonic tabletop sources have enabled the transfer of ptychography to the laboratory. This review covers the state of the art in tabletop ptychography with high harmonic generation sources. We consider hardware options such as illumination optics and detector concepts as well as algorithmic aspects in the analysis of multispectral ptychography data. Finally, we review technological application cases such as multispectral wavefront sensing, attosecond pulse characterization, and depth-resolved imaging.
L. Stoyanov, G. Maleshkov, I. Stefanov, G. Paulus, and A. Dreischuh
Focal beam structuring by triple mixing of optical vortex lattices
Optical and Quantum Electronics, 54 :34 (January 2022)
On-demand generation and reshaping of arrays of focused laser beams is highly desired in many areas of science and technology. In this work, we present a versatile approach for laser beam structuring in the focal plane of a lens by triple mixing of square and/or hexagonal optical vortex lattices (OVLs). In the artificial far field the input Gaussian beam is reshaped into ordered arrays of bright beams with flat phase profiles. This is remarkable, since the bright focal peaks are surrounded by hundreds of OVs with their dark cores and two-dimensional phase dislocations. Numerical simulations and experimental evidences for this are shown, including a broad discussion of some of the possible scenarios for such mixing: triple mixing of square-shaped OVLs, triple mixing of hexagonal OVLs, as well as the two combined cases of mixing square-hexagonal-hexagonal and square-square-hexagonal OVLs. The particular ordering of the input phase distributions of the OV lattices on the used spatial light modulators is found to affect the orientation of the structures ruled by the hexagonal OVL. Reliable control parameters for the creation of the desired focal beam structures are the respective lattice node spacings. The presented approach is flexible, easily realizable by using a single spatial light modulator, and thus accessible in many laboratories.
C. Heyl, M. Seidel, E. Escoto, A. Schoenberg, S. Carlstroem, G. Arisholm, T. Lang, and I. Hartl
High-energy bow tie multi-pass cells for nonlinear spectral broadening applications
J. Phys. Photonics, 4 :014002 (January 2022)
Multi-pass cells (MPCs) have emerged as very attractive tools for spectral broadening and post-compression applications. We discuss pulse energy limitations of standard MPCs considering basic geometrical scaling principles and introduce a novel energy scaling method using a MPC arranged in a bow tie geometry. Employing nonlinear pulse propagation simulations, we numerically demonstrate the compression of 125 mJ, 1 ps pulses to 50 fs using a compact 2 m long setup and outline routes to extend our approach into the Joule-regime.
S. Keppler, N. Elkina, G. A. Becker, J. Hein, M. Hornung, M. Mäusezahl, C. Rödel, I. Tamer, M. Zepf, and M.C. Kaluza
Intensity scaling limitations of laser-driven proton acceleration in the TNSA-regime
Phys. Rev. Research, 4 :013065 (January 2022)
We report on experimental results on laser-driven proton acceleration using high-intensity laser pulses. We present power law scalings of the maximum proton energy with laser pulse energy and show that the scaling exponent 4 strongly depends on the scale length of the preplasma, which is affected by the temporal intensity contrast. At lower laser intensities, a shortening of the scale length leads to a transition from a square root toward a linear scaling. Above a certain threshold, however, a significant deviation from this scaling is observed. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations show that, in this case, the electric field accelerating the ions is generated earlier and has a higher amplitude. However, since the acceleration process starts earlier as well, the fastest protons outrun the region of highest field strength, ultimately rendering the acceleration less effective. Our investigations thus point to a principle limitation of the proton energy in the target normal sheath acceleration regime, which would explain why a significant increase of the maximum proton energy above the limit of 100 MeV has not yet been achieved.
F. Karbstein
Large N external-field quantum electrodynamics
J. High Energ. Phys., 01 :057 (January 2022)
We advocate the study of external-field quantum electrodynamics with N charged particle flavors. Our main focus is on the Heisenberg-Euler effective action for this theory in the large N limit which receives contributions from all loop orders. The contributions beyond one loop stem from one-particle reducible diagrams. We show that specifically in constant electromagnetic fields the latter are generated by the one-loop Heisenberg-Euler effective Lagrangian. Hence, in this case the large N Heisenberg-Euler effective action can be determined explicitly at any desired loop order. We demonstrate that further analytical insights are possible for electric-and magnetic-like field configurations characterized by the vanishing of one of the secular invariants of the electromagnetic field and work out the all-orders strong field limit of the theory.
E. Eftekhari-Zadeh, M. S. Blümcke, Z. Samsonova, R. Loetzsch, I. Uschmann, M. Zapf, C. Ronning, O. N. Rosmej, D. Kartashov, and C. Spielmann
Laser energy absorption and x-ray generation in nanowire arrays irradiated by relativistically intense ultra-high contrast femtosecond laser pulses
Phys. Plasmas, 29 :013301 (January 2022)
We report here on the results of comparative experimental measurements of laser energy absorption in a bulk and different morphology nanowire arrays interacting with relativistically intense, ultra-high temporal contrast femtosecond laser pulses. We compare polished, flat bulk samples with vertically and randomly oriented nanowires made of ZnO semiconductor material. The optical absorption of the 45° incident laser pulses of ∼40 fs duration with a central wavelength of 400 nm at intensities above 1019Wcm2 was determined using an integrating Ulbricht sphere. We demonstrate an almost twofold enhancement of absorption in both nanowire morphologies with an average of (79.6±1.9)% in comparison to the flat bulk sample of (45.8±1.9)%. The observed substantially enhanced absorption in nanowire arrays is also confirmed by high-resolution x-ray emission spectroscopy. The spectral analysis of the K-shell x-ray emission lines revealed that the He-like resonance line emission from highly ionized Zn (Zn28+) is only present in the case of nanowire arrays, whereas, for the flat bulk samples, only neutral and low charge states were observed. Our numerical simulations, based on radiative-collisional kinetic code FLYCHK, well reproduce the measured He-like emission spectrum and suggest that high charge state observed in nanowire arrays is due to substantially higher plasma temperature. Our results, which were measured for the first time with femtosecond laser pulses, can be used to benchmark theoretical models and numerical codes for the relativistic interaction of ultrashort laser pulses with nanowires.
M. Kobayashi, K. Hayakawa, Y. Yoshida, and R. Röhlsberger
Mössbauer spectroscopic camera for operando measurement of pattern formation processes
Hyperfine Interact., 243 :9 (January 2022)
P. Palmeri, J. Deprince, M. A. Bautista, S. Fritzsche, J. A. García, T. R. Kallman, C. Mendoza, and P. Quinet
Plasma environment effects on K lines of astrophysical interest
Astron. Astrophys., 657 :11 (January 2022)
Aims. We calculate the plasma environment effects on the ionization potentials (IPs) and K-thresholds used in the modeling of K lines for all the ions belonging to the isonuclear sequences of abundant elements apart from oxygen and iron, namely: carbon, silicon, calcium, chromium, and nickel. These calculations are used to extend the data points for the fits of the universal formulae, first proposed in our fourth paper of this series, to predict the IP and K-threshold lowerings in any elemental ion. Methods. We used the fully relativistic multi-configuration Dirac-Rock method and approximated the plasma electron-nucleus and electron-electron screenings with a time-averaged Debye-Huckel potential. Results. We report the modified ionization potentials and K-threshold energies for plasmas characterized by electron temperatures and densities in the ranges of 10(5)-10(2) K and 10(18)-10(22) cm(-3). In addition, the improved universal fitting formulae are obtained. Conclusions. We conclude that since explicit calculations of the atomic structures for each ion of each element under different plasma conditions is impractical, the use of these universal formulae for predicting the IP and K-threshold lowerings in plasma modeling codes is still recommended. However, their comparatively moderate to low accuracies may affect the predicted opacities with regard to certain cases under extreme plasma conditions that are characterized by a plasma screening parameter of mu > 0.2 a.u., especially for the K-thresholds.
C. Wu, L. Li, M. Yeung, S. Wu, S. Cousens, S. Tietze, B. Dromey, C. Zhou, S. Ruan, and M. Zepf
Proposal for complete characterization of attosecond pulses from relativistic plasmas
Opt. Express, 30 :389 (January 2022)
In this study, we propose two full-optical-setup and single-shot measurable approaches for complete characterization of attosecond pulses from surface high harmonic generation (SHHG): SHHG-SPIDER (spectral phase interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction) and SHHG-SEA-SPIDER (spatially encoded arrangement for SPIDER). 1D- and 2D-EPOCH PIC (particle-in-cell) simulations were performed to generate the attosecond pulses from relativistic plasmas under different conditions. Pulse trains dominated by single isolated peak as well as complex pulse train structures are extensively discussed for both methods, which showed excellent accuracy in the complete reconstruction of the attosecond field with respect to the direct Fourier transformed result. Kirchhoff integral theorem has been used for the near-to-far-field transformation. This far-field propagation method allows us to relate these results to potential experimental implementations of the scheme. The impact of comprehensive experimental parameters for both apparatus, such as spectral shear, spatial shear, cross-angle, time delay, and intensity ratio between the two replicas has been investigated thoroughly. These methods are applicable to complete characterization for SHHG attosecond pulses driven by a few to hundreds of terawatts femtosecond laser systems.
F. C. Salgado, N. Cavanagh, M. Tamburini, D. W. Storey, R. Beyer, P. H. Bucksbaum, Z. Chen, A. Di Piazza, E. Gerstmayr, H. Harsh, E. Isele, A. R. Junghans, C. H. Keitel, S. Kuschel, C. F. Nielsen, D. A. Reis, C. Roedel, G. Sarri, A. Seidel, C. Schneider, I. Uggerhoj, J. Wulff, V. Yakimenko, C. Zepter, S. Meuren, and M. Zepf
Single particle detection system for strong-field QED experiments
New J. Phys., 24 :015002 (January 2022)
Measuring signatures of strong-field quantum electrodynamics (SF-QED) processes in an intense laser field is an experimental challenge: it requires detectors to be highly sensitive to single electrons and positrons in the presence of the typically very strong x-ray and gamma-photon background levels. In this paper, we describe a particle detector capable of diagnosing single leptons from SF-QED interactions and discuss the background level simulations for the upcoming Experiment-320 at FACET-II (SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory). The single particle detection system described here combines pixelated scintillation LYSO screens and a Cherenkov calorimeter. We detail the performance of the system using simulations and a calibration of the Cherenkov detector at the ELBE accelerator. Single 3 GeV leptons are expected to produce approximately 537 detectable photons in a single calorimeter channel. This signal is compared to Monte-Carlo simulations of the experiment. A signal-to-noise ratio of 18 in a single Cherenkov calorimeter detector is expected and a spectral resolution of 2% is achieved using the pixelated LYSO screens.
M. Seidel, F. Pressacco, O. Akcaalan, T. Binhammer, J. Darvill, N. Ekanayake, M. Frede, U. Grosse-Wortmann, M. Heber, C. Heyl, D. Kutnyakhov, C. Li, C. Mohr, J. Mueller, O. Puncken, H. Redlin, N. Schirmel, S. Schulz, A. Swiderski, H. Tavakol, H. Tuennermann, C. Vidoli, L. Wenthaus, N. Wind, L. Winkelmann, B. Manschwetus, and I. Hartl
Ultrafast MHz-Rate Burst-Mode Pump-Probe Laser for the FLASH FEL Facility Based on Nonlinear Compression of ps-Level Pulses from an Yb-Amplifier Chain
Laser Photon. Rev., 1 :2100268 ( 2022)
The Free-Electron Laser (FEL) FLASH offers the worldwide still unique capability to study ultrafast processes with high-flux, high-repetition rate extreme ultraviolet, and soft X-ray pulses. The vast majority of experiments at FLASH are of pump-probe type. Many of them rely on optical ultrafast lasers. Here, a novel FEL facility laser is reported which combines high average power output from Yb:YAG amplifiers with spectral broadening in a Herriott-type multipass cell and subsequent pulse compression to sub-100-fs durations. Compared to other facility lasers employing optical parametric amplification, the new system comes with significantly improved noise figures, compactness, simplicity, and power efficiency. Like FLASH, the optical laser operates with 10-Hz burst repetition rate. The bursts consist of 800-mu s long trains of up to 800 ultrashort pulses being synchronized to the FEL with femtosecond precision. In the experimental chamber, pulses with up to 50-mu J energy, 60-fs full-width half-maximum duration and 1-MHz rate at 1.03-mu m wavelength are available and can be adjusted by computer-control. Moreover, nonlinear polarization rotation is implemented to improve laser pulse contrast. First cross-correlation measurements with the FEL at the plane-grating monochromator photon beamline are demonstrated, exhibiting the suitability of the laser for user experiments at FLASH.


S. Fritzsche
Dielectronic recombination strengths and plasma rate coefficients of multiply charged ions
Astron. Astrophys., 656 :A163 (December 2021)
A. Weber, B. Böning, B. Minneker, and S. Fritzsche
Generation of elliptically polarized high-order harmonic radiation with bi-elliptical two-color laser beams
Phys. Rev. A, 104 :063118 (December 2021)
Z. W. Wu, Z. Q. Tian, J. Jiang, C. Z. Dong, and S. Fritzsche
Hyperfine-induced effects on the K α_1 angular distribution following electron-impact excitation of heliumlike spin- 1/2 Tl⁷⁹⁺ ions
Phys. Rev. A, 104 :062814 (December 2021)
W. Middents, G. Weber, U. Spillmann, T. Krings, M. Vockert, A. Volotka, A. Surzhykov, and T. Stöhlker
Possible Polarization Measurements in Elastic Scattering at the Gamma Factory Utilizing a 2D Sensitive Strip Detector as Dedicated Compton Polarimeter
Ann. Phys. (Berlin), 534 :2100285 (December 2021)
E. Appi, C. C. Papadopoulou, J. L. Mapa, C. Jusko, P. Mosel, A. Schoenberg, J. Stock, T. Feigl, S. Ališauskas, T. Lang, C. M. Heyl, B. Manschwetus, M. Brachmanski, M. Braune, H. Lindenblatt, F. Trost, S. Meister, P. Schoch, A. Trabattoni, F. Calegari, R. Treusch, R. Moshammer, I. Hartl, U. Morgner, and M. Kovacev
Synchronized beamline at FLASH2 based on high-order harmonic generation for two-color dynamics studies
Rev. Sci. Instrum., 92 :123004 (December 2021)
J. Hornung, Y. Zobus, S. Roeder, A. Kleinschmidt, D. Bertini, M. Zepf, and V. Bagnoud
Time-resolved study of holeboring in realistic experimental conditions
Nat. Commun., 12 :6999 (December 2021)
B. Kettle, D. Hollatz, E. Gerstmayr, G. M. Samarin, A. Alejo, S. Astbury, C. Baird, S. Bohlen, M. Campbell, C. Colgan, D. Dannheim, C. Gregory, H. Harsh, P. Hatfield, J. Hinojosa, Y. Katzir, J. Morton, C. D. Murphy, A. Nurnberg, J. Osterhoff, G. Pérez-Callejo, K. Poder, P. P. Rajeev, C. Roedel, F. Roeder, F. C. Salgado, G. Sarri, A. Seidel, S. Spannagel, C. Spindloe, S. Steinke, M. J. V. Streeter, A. G. R. Thomas, C. Underwood, R. Watt, M. Zepf, S. J. Rose, and S. P. D. Mangles
A laser–plasma platform for photon–photon physics: the two photon Breit–Wheeler process
New J. Phys., 23 :115006 (November 2021)