Abstract: In the present work, we report an investigation of plasma environment effects on the atomic parameters associated with the K-vacancy states in highly charged iron ions within the astrophysical context of accretion disks around black holes. More particularly, the sensitivity of K-line X-ray fluorescence parameters (wavelengths, radiative transition probabilities, and Auger rates) in Fe XVII–Fe XXV ions has been estimated for plasma conditions characterized by an electron temperature ranging from 10⁵ to 10⁷ K and an electron density ranging from 10¹⁸ to 10²² cm⁻³. In order to do this, relativistic multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock atomic structure calculations have been carried out by considering a time averaged Debye-Hückel potential for both the electron–nucleus and electron–electron interactions.
Abstract: The Photon-Ion Spectrometer at PETRA III—in short, PIPE—is a permanently installed user facility at the 'Variable Polarization XUV Beamline' P04 of the synchrotron light source PETRA III operated by DESY in Hamburg, Germany. The careful design of the PIPE ion-optics in combination with the record-high photon flux at P04 has lead to a breakthrough in experimental studies of photon interactions with ionized small quantum systems. This short review provides an overview over the published scientific results from photon-ion merged-beams experiments at PIPE that were obtained since the start of P04 operations in 2013. The topics covered comprise photoionization of ions of astrophysical relevance, quantitative studies of multi-electron processes upon inner-shell photoexcitation and photoionization of negative and positive atomic ions, precision spectroscopy of photoionization resonances, photoionization and photofragmentation of molecular ions, and of endohedral fullerene ions.
Abstract: High harmonic sources can provide ultrashort pulses of coherent radiation in the XUV and X-ray spectral region. In this paper we utilize a sub-two-cycle femtosecond fiber laser to efficiently generate a broadband continuum of high-order harmonics between 70 eV and 120 eV. The average power delivered by this source ranges from > 0.2 µW/eV at 80 eV to >0.03 µW/eV at 120 eV. At 92 eV (13.5 nm wavelength), we measured a coherent record-high average power of 0.1 µW/eV, which corresponds to 7 · 109 ph/s/eV, with a long-term stability of 0.8% rms deviation over a 20 min time period. The presented approach is average power scalable and promises up to 1011 ph/s/eV in the near future. With additional carrier-envelop phase control even isolated attosecond pulses can be expected from such sources. The combination of high flux, high photon energy and ultrashort (sub-) fs duration will enable photon-hungry time-resolved and multidimensional studies.
Abstract: We present experimental evidence of relativistic electron-cyclotron resonances (RECRs) in the vicinity of the relativistically intense pump laser of a laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA). The effects of the RECRs are visualized by imaging the driven plasma wave with a few-cycle, optical probe in transverse geometry. The probe experiences strong, spectrally dependent and relativistically modified birefringence in the vicinity of the pump that arises due to the plasma electrons’ relativistic motion in the pump’s electromagnetic fields. The spectral birefringence is strongly dependent on the local magnetic field distribution of the pump laser. Analysis and comparison to both 2D and 3D particle-in-cell simulations confirm the origin of the RECR effect and its appearance in experimental and simulated shadowgrams of the laser-plasma interaction. The RECR effect is relevant for any relativistic, magnetized plasma and in the case of LWFA could provide a nondestructive, in situ diagnostic for tracking the evolution of the pump’s intensity distribution with propagation through tenuous plasma.
Abstract: Detailed investigations of laser–ion interactions require well‐defined ion targets and detection techniques for high‐sensitivity measurements of reaction educts and products. To this end, we have designed and built the High‐Intensity Laser‐Ion Trap Experiment Penning trap setup, which features various ion‐target preparation techniques including selection, cooling, compression, and positioning as well as destructive and non‐destructive measurement techniques to determine the number of stored ions for all charge states individually and simultaneously. We have recently performed first commissioning experiments of ion deceleration and dynamic ion capture with highly charged ion bunches from an electron beam ion source. We have characterized our single‐pass non‐destructive ion counter in detail and were able to determine the ion velocity as well as the number of ions from the signals acquired.
Abstract: The heavy-ion storage ring CRYRING@ESR has recently been installed and commissioned at GSI as one of the first installations of the upcoming Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR). It is designed to store highly charged ions in the energy range between 300?keV/u and about 10?MeV/u. It will incorporate a gas-jet target providing high-density jets of, among other gases, hydrogen and helium. This will allow to study alpha-capture reaction rates of astrophysical interest in the energy range of the Gamow window for core-collapse supernovae. Special interest comes from the long-lived radio-isotope 44Ti (t1/2?=?58.9?years), which is supposed to be produced in the alpha-rich freeze-out during such an event. The nucleosynthesis of this isotope is of great interest, as the amount of material produced can be estimated by direct observation in remnants of recent supernovae. The disagreements between the observations and the estimations from astrophysical models show the need of more experimental data for the production and consumption reactions in the energy range of a core-collapse supernova. In this article, we will describe the proposed method of injecting beams of 44Ti into CRYRING@ESR and performing the actual reaction rate measurements.
Abstract: Recently, the contribution of the generalized Breit interaction to electron impact ionization was identified for the first time in a high‐Z system, namely, hydrogen‐like uranium. This study employed a measurement of the relative population of the j = 1/2 and j = 3/2 states of the L shell by projectile excitation in collision of U91+ with hydrogen and nitrogen targets. However, for a rigorous test of ion–atom collision theory, also the absolute excitation cross sections are of great importance. In the present work, we report on our efforts to extend the previous study to a determination of the absolute projectile excitation cross sections by normalization to the well‐known radiative electron capture process.
Abstract: The atomic physics collaboration SPARC is a part of the APPA pillar at the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research. It aims at atomic‐physics research across virtually the full range of atomic matter. An emphasis of this contribution are the atomic physics experiments addressing the collision dynamics in strong electro‐magnetic fields as well as the fundamental interactions between electrons and heavy nuclei at the HESR. Here we give a short overview about the central instruments for SPARC experiments at this storage ring.
Abstract: These notes provide a pedagogical introduction to the theoretical study of vacuum polarization effects in strong electromagnetic fields as provided by state-of-the-art high-intensity lasers. Quantum vacuum fluctuations give rise to effective couplings between electromagnetic fields, thereby supplementing Maxwell’s linear theory of classical electrodynamics with nonlinearities. Resorting to a simplified laser pulse model, allowing for explicit analytical insights, we demonstrate how to efficiently analyze all-optical signatures of these effective interactions in high-intensity laser experiments. Moreover, we highlight several key features relevant for the accurate planning and quantitative theoretical analysis of quantum vacuum nonlinearities in the collision of high-intensity laser pulses.
Abstract: We study strong-field ionization of a hydrogenic target by few-cycle Bessel pulses. In order to investigate the interplay between the carrier envelope phase (CEP) and the orbital angular momentum of a few-cycle pulse (OAM), we apply a semiclassical two-step model. In particular, we here compute and discuss photoelectron momentum distributions (PEMD) for localized atomic targets. We show how these momentum distributions are affected by the CEP and TAM of the incident pulse. In particular, we find that the OAM affects the PEMD in a similar way as the CEP, depending on the initial position of our target.
Abstract: We propose and demonstrate the use of random phase plates (RPPs) for high-energy sub-picosecond lasers. Contrarily to previous work related to nanosecond lasers, an RPP poses technical challenges with ultrashort-pulse lasers. Here, we implement the RPP near the beginning of the amplifier and image-relay it throughout the laser amplifier. With this, we obtain a uniform intensity distribution in the focus over an area 1600 times the diffraction limit. This method shows no significant drawbacks for the laser and it has been implemented at the PHELIX laser facility where it is now available for users.
Abstract: Quantum walks are versatile simulators of topological phases and phase transitions as observed in condensed-matter physics. Here, we utilize a step-dependent coin in quantum walks and investigate what topological phases we can simulate with it, their topological invariants, bound states, and possibility of phase transitions. These quantum walks simulate nontrivial phases characterized by topological invariants (winding number) ±1, which are similar to the ones observed in topological insulators and polyacetylene. We confirm that the number of phases and their corresponding bound states increase step dependently. In contrast, the size of topological phase and distance between two bound states are decreasing functions of steps resulting into formation of multiple phases as quantum walks proceed (multiphase configuration). We show that, in the bound states, the winding number and group velocity are ill defined and the second moment of the probability density distribution in position space undergoes an abrupt change. Therefore, there are phase transitions taking place over the bound states and between two topological phases with different winding numbers.
Abstract: Relative cross sections for m-fold photoionization (m = 1,…, 5) of Fe3+ by single-photon absorption were measured employing the photon-ion merged-beams setup PIPE at the PETRA III synchrotron light source operated at DESY in Hamburg, Germany. The photon energies used spanned the range of 680–950 eV, covering both the photoexcitation resonances from the 2p and 2s shells, as well as the direct ionization from both shells. Multiconfiguration Dirac–Hartree–Fock (MCDHF) calculations were performed to simulate the total photoexcitation spectra. Good agreement was found with the experimental results. These computations helped to assign several strong resonance features to specific transitions. We also carried out Hartree–Fock calculations with relativistic extensions taking into account both photoexcitation and photoionization. Furthermore, we performed extensive MCDHF calculations of the Auger cascades that result when an electron is removed from the 2p and 2s shells of Fe3+. Our theoretically predicted charge-state fractions are in good agreement with the experimental results, representing a substantial improvement over previous theoretical calculations. The main reason for the disagreement with the previous calculations is their lack of inclusion of slow Auger decays of several configurations that can only proceed when accompanied by de-excitation of two electrons. In such cases, this additional shake-down transition of a (sub)valence electron is required to gain the necessary energy for the release of the Auger electron.
Abstract: Laguerre–Gaussian-like laser beams have been proposed for driving experiments with high-intensity lasers. They carry orbital angular momentum and exhibit a ring-shaped intensity distribution in the far field which make them particularly attractive for various applications. We show experimentally and numerically that this donut-like shape is extremely sensitive to off-axis wavefront deformations. To support our claim, we generate a Laguerre–Gaussian-like laser beam and apply a selection of common low-order wavefront aberrations. We investigate the visibility of those wavefront deformations in the far field. Under use of established tolerance criteria, we determine the thresholds for the applied aberration and compare the findings with simulations for verification.
Abstract: The generation of three-cycle multi-millijoule pulses at 318 W power is reported by compressing pulses of a Yb-fiber chirped pulse amplifier in a 6 m long stretched flexible hollow fiber. This technique brings high-power lasers to the few-cycle regime.
Abstract: In this study, the influence of speckle size on contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and resolution is examined based on the object dimensions in the macroscopic and microscopic regimes. This research shows that for microscopic samples the conventional scaling laws are no longer effective and the CNR does not counter-propagate in the same manner as the resolution. To our knowledge, a deviation in CNR scaling on speckle size is observed for the first time in the field of microscopic ghost imaging. This result was verified using two different sample shapes. In addition, numerical analysis revealed that the noise of the photodiode is a limiting factor for the CNR. Based on these findings, the conditions for identifying the parameter set that maximizes the CNR and provides high resolution images was defined, which achieving high-quality microscopic ghost images.
Abstract: The pulse-energy scaling technique electro-optically controlled divided-pulse amplification is implemented in a high-power ultrafast fiber laser system based on coherent beam combination. A fiber-integrated front end and a multipass-cell-based back end allow for a small footprint and a modular implementation. Bursts of eight pulses are amplified parallel in up to 12 ytterbium-doped large-pitch fiber amplifiers. Subsequent spatiotemporal coherent combination of the 96 total amplified pulse replicas to a single pulse results in a pulse energy of 23 mJ at an average power of 674 W, compressible to a pulse duration of 235 fs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest pulse energy ever accomplished with a fiber chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) system.
Abstract: Relativistic laser-solid target interaction is a powerful source of terahertz radiation where broadband terahertz radiation is emitted from the front and rear surfaces of the target. Even though several experimental works have reported the generation of subpicosecond duration gigawatt peak power terahertz pulses from the target rear surface, the underlying physical process behind their origin is still an open question. Here we discuss a numerical model that can accurately reproduce several aspects of the experimental results. The model is based on the charged particle dynamics at the target rear surface and the evolution of the charge separation field. We identify the major contributors that are responsible for broadband terahertz emission from the rear surface of the target.
Abstract: Single-cycle pulses with multimillion volts per centimeter field strengths and spectra in the terahertz (THz) band have attracted great interest due to their ability to coherently manipulate molecular orientations and electron spins resonantly and nonresonantly. The tremendous progress made in the development of compact and powerful terahertz sources have identified intense laser-thin foil interaction as a potential candidate for high-power broadband terahertz radiation. They are micrometers in size and deliver radially polarized terahertz pulses with millijoule energy and gigawatt peak power. Although several works have been carried out to investigate the terahertz generation process, their origin and angular distribution are still debated. We present here an indisputable study on their spatiotemporal characteristics and elaborate the underlying physical processes via recording the three-dimensional beam profile along with transient dynamics. These results are substructured with the quantitative visualization of the charge particle spectra.
Abstract: We report on a proton acceleration experiment in which high-intensity laser pulses with a wavelength of 0.4 mm and with varying temporal intensity contrast have been used to irradiate water droplets of 20 mm diameter. Such droplets are a reliable and easy-to-implement type of target for proton acceleration experiments with the potential to be used at very high repetition rates. We have investigated the influence of the laser's angle of incidence by moving the droplet along the laser polarization axis. This position, which is coupled with the angle of incidence, has a crucial impact on the maximum proton energy. Central irradiation leads to an inefficient coupling of the laser energy into hot electrons, resulting in a low maximum proton energy. The introduction of a controlled pre-pulse produces an enhancement of hot electron generation in this geometry and therefore higher proton energies. However, two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations support our experimental results confirming, that even slightly higher proton energies are achieved under grazing laser incidence when no additional pre-plasma is present. Illuminating a droplet under grazing incidence generates a stream of hot electrons that flows along the droplet's surface due to self-generated electric and magnetic fields and ultimately generates a strong electric field responsible for proton acceleration. The interaction conditions were monitored with the help of an ultra-short optical probe laser, with which the plasma expansion could be observed.
Abstract: We report on the successful implementation and characterization of a cryogenic solid hydrogen target in experiments on high-power laser-driven proton acceleration. When irradiating a solid hydrogen filament of 10 mm diameter with 10-Terawatt laser pulses of 2.5 J energy, protons with kinetic energies in excess of 20?MeV exhibiting non-thermal features in their spectrum were observed. The protons were emitted into a large solid angle reaching a total conversion efficiency of several percent. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations confirm our results indicating that the spectral modulations are caused by collisionless shocks launched from the surface of the the high-density filament into a low-density corona surrounding the target. The use of solid hydrogen targets may significantly improve the prospects of laser-accelerated proton pulses for future applications.
Abstract: In this paper, we propose a study of the picosecond temporal contrast degradation of ultrashort laser pulses by surface defects in pulse stretchers. In a chirped-pulse-amplification stretcher or compressor, dust and damages on the surface of an optical element lead to a spectral amplitude modulation. Furthermore, surface figure errors of optical elements happening where the pulse is spatially dispersed yield a modulation of the spectral phase. The influence of both amplitude and phase noise effects is numerically investigated using a hybrid ray-tracing method that enables treating separately the influence of noise sources, whether noise occurs in the near field or the far field. We show that the main issue in terms of picosecond contrast degradation is a combined effect of surface pattern distortion in the far field and phase–amplitude coupling caused by spatial frequency filters. Temporal domains can be defined, where the temporal contrast is dominated by different noise effects. The algorithm used in this paper is compared to the cross-correlation trace of a pulse. The conclusions emerging from the presented analysis are universally applicable to known grating stretcher geometries.
Abstract: A theoretical analysis is presented for the excitation of single many-electron atoms and ions by twisted (or vortex) light. Special emphasis is put on excitations that can proceed via several electric and magnetic multipole channels. We argue that the relative strength of these multipoles is very sensitive to the topological charge and kinematic parameters of the incident light and can be strongly modified with respect to the plane-wave case. Most remarkably, the modification of multipole transitions by twisted radiation can be described by means of a geometrical factor. This factor is independent of the shell structure of a particular target atom and just reflects the properties of the light beam as well as the position of an atom with respect to the vortex axis. An analytical expression for the geometrical factor is derived for Bessel photons and for a realistic experimental situation in which the position of an atom is not well determined. To illustrate the use of the geometrical factor for the analysis of (future) measurements, detailed calculations are presented for the presented for the 3s 3p 3P1 -> 3s 3p 1P1 excitation in neutral Mg.
Abstract: The recently established agreement between experiment and theory for the g factors of lithiumlike silicon and calcium ions manifests the most stringent test of the many-electron bound-state quantum electrodynamics (QED) effects in the presence of a magnetic field. In this Letter, we present a significant simultaneous improvement of both theoretical gth=2.000 889 894 4 (34) and experimental gexp=2.000 889 888 45 (14) values of the g factor of lithiumlike silicon 28Si11+. The theoretical precision now is limited by the many-electron two-loop contributions of the bound-state QED. The experimental value is accurate enough to test these contributions on a few percent level.
Abstract: An experiment addressing electron capture (EC) decay of hydrogen-like ¹⁴²Pm⁶⁰⁺ ions has been conducted at the experimental storage ring (ESR) at GSI. The decay appears to be purely exponential and no modulations were observed. Decay times for about 9000 individual EC decays have been measured by applying the single-ion decay spectroscopy method. Both visually and automatically analysed data can be described by a single exponential decay with decay constants of 0.0126(7) s⁻¹ for automatic analysis and 0.0141(7) s⁻¹ for manual analysis. If a modulation superimposed on the exponential decay curve is assumed, the best fit gives a modulation amplitude of merely 0.019(15), which is compatible with zero and by 4.9 standard deviations smaller than in the original observation which had an amplitude of 0.23(4).
Abstract: We present a measurement of K‐shell transitions in H‐like gold (Au78+) using specially developed transmission type crystal spectrometers combined with Ge(i) microstrip detectors. The experiment has been carried out at the Experimental Storage Ring at GSI in Darmstadt. This is a first high‐resolution wavelength‐dispersive measurement of a K‐shell transition in a high‐Z H‐like ion, thus representing an important milestone in this field. Ideas on possible future improvements are discussed as well.
Abstract: In slow collisions of two bare nuclei with the total charge larger than the critical value Zcr≈173, the initially neutral vacuum can spontaneously decay into the charged vacuum and two positrons. The detection of the spontaneous emission of positrons would be direct evidence of this fundamental phenomenon. However, the spontaneously produced particles are indistinguishable from the dynamical background in the positron spectra. We show that the vacuum decay can nevertheless be observed via impact-sensitive measurements of pair-production probabilities. The possibility of such an observation is demonstrated using numerical calculations of pair production in low-energy collisions of heavy nuclei.
Abstract: With the unprecedented range of ion species and energies offered by the newly commissioned CRYRING facility, the availability of single ion detectors is of significant importance as part of standard instrumentation as well as for novel experiments. A detector system was constructed on the basis of the YAP:Ce crystal scintillator, which is at once radiation‐hard, fast, and affordable. Results of a characterization experiment confirmed the feasibility of the setup for incident ion rates on the order of MHz and found a critical fluence of some 10¹³ cm⁻² upon which the crystal is rendered locally blind to further ion irradiation. The device was first used in CRYRING commissioning runs in August and November 2018. Future efforts will complete the integration of the detector into the GSI control and data acquisition system MBS.
Abstract: We publish three Roadmaps on photonic, electronic and atomic collision physics in order to celebrate the 60th anniversary of the ICPEAC conference. Roadmap III focusses on heavy particles: with zero to relativistic speeds. Modern theoretical and experimental approaches provide detailed insight into the wide range of many-body interactions involving projectiles and targets of varying complexity ranging from simple atoms, through molecules and clusters, complex biomolecules and nanoparticles to surfaces and crystals. These developments have been driven by technological progress and future developments will expand the horizon of the systems that can be studied. This Roadmap aims at looking back along the road, explaining the evolution of the field, and looking forward, collecting nineteen contributions from leading scientists in the field.
Abstract: Precise calculations of the isotope shifts in berylliumlike thorium and uranium ions are presented. The main contributions to the field and mass shifts are calculated within the framework of the Dirac–Coulomb–Breit Hamiltonian employing the configuration-interaction Dirac–Fock–Sturm method. These calculations include the relativistic, electron–electron correlation, and Breit-interaction effects. The QED, nuclear deformation, and nuclear polarization corrections are also evaluated.
Abstract: Recent years have seen significant progress in the generation and application of twisted beams carrying orbital angular momentum. Here we study the elastic scattering of twisted Bessel light from a crystal and compare our predictions with the results for incident plane-wave radiation. Based on form-factor approximation our numerical calculations of the differential scattering cross sections have been carried out for a crystal of lithium at x-ray energies. It is shown that the use of twisted light can lead to a measurable change in the scattering cross section for the nanocrystals approaching a few nm in size.
Abstract: We study x-ray photon scattering in the head-on collision of an XFEL pulse and a focused high-intensity laser pulse, described as paraxial Laguerre-Gaussian beam of arbitrary mode composition. For adequately chosen relative orientations of the polarization vectors of the colliding laser fields, this gives rise to a vacuum birefringence effect manifesting itself in polarization flipped signal photons. Throughout this article the XFEL is assumed to be mildly focused to a waist larger than that of the high-intensity laser beam. As previously demonstrated for the special case of a fundamental paraxial Gaussian beam, this scenario is generically accompanied by a scattering phenomenon of x-ray energy signal photons outside the forward cone of the XFEL beam, potentially assisting the detection of the effect in experiment. Here, we study the fate of the x-ray scattering signal under exemplary deformations of the transverse focus profile of the high-intensity pump.
Abstract: The process of a positron—bound-electron annihilation with simultaneous emission of two photons is investigated theoretically. A fully relativistic formalism based on an ab initio QED description of the process is worked out. The developed approach is applied to evaluate the annihilation of a positron with K-shell electrons of a silver atom, for which a strong contradiction between theory and experiment was previously stated. The results obtained here resolve this longstanding disagreement and, moreover, demonstrate a sizable difference with approaches so far used for calculations of the positron—bound-electron annihilation process, namely, Lee’s and the impulse approximations.
Abstract: We show that coherent harmonic focusing provides an efficient mechanism to boost all-optical signatures of quantum vacuum nonlinearity in the collision of high-intensity laser fields, thereby offering a promising route to their first experimental detection. Assuming two laser pulses of given parameters at our disposal, we demonstrate a substantial increase of the number of signal photons measurable in experiments where one of the pulses undergoes coherent harmonic focusing before it collides with the fundamental-frequency pulse. Imposing a quantitative criterion to discern the signal photons from the background of the driving laser photons and accounting for the finite purity of polarization filtering, we find that signal photons arising from inelastic scattering processes constitute a promising signature. By contrast, quasielastic contributions which are conventionally assumed to form the most prospective signal remain background dominated. Our findings may result in a paradigm shift concerning which photonic signatures of quantum vacuum nonlinearity are accessible in experiment.
Abstract: Electronic structure computations of atoms and ions have a long tradition in physics with applications in basic research, spectroscopy, life sciences and technology. Various theoretical methods (and codes) have therefore been developed to account for the many-particle structure of atoms, from simple semi-empirical estimates to accurate predictions of selected data, and up to highly advanced time-independent and time-dependent numerical techniques. — Here, I present a fresh concept and implementation of (relativistic) atomic structure theory that supports the computation of interaction amplitudes, properties as well as a large number of excitation and decay processes for open-shell atoms and ions across the whole periodic table. This implementation will facilitate also studies on atomic cascades, responses as well as the time-evolution of atoms and ions. It is based on Julia, a new programming language for scientific computing, and provides an easy-to-use but powerful platform to extent atomic theory towards new applications.
Abstract: Thermal profile modification of an active material in a laser amplifier via optical pumping results in a change in the material’s refractive index, and causes thermal expansion and stress, eventually leading to spatial phase aberrations, or even permanent material damage. For this purpose, knowledge of the 3D spatio-temporal thermal profile, which can currently only be retrieved via numerical simulations, is critical for joule-class laser amplifiers to reveal potentially dangerous thermal features within the pumped active materials. In this investigation, a detailed, spatio-temporal numerical simulation was constructed and tested for accuracy against surface thermal measurements of various end-pumped Yb³⁺-doped laser-active materials. The measurements and simulations show an excellent agreement and the model was successfully applied to a joule-class Yb³⁺-based amplifier currently operating in the POLARIS laser system at the Friedrich-Schiller-University and Helmholtz-Institute Jena in Germany.
Abstract: We summarize the development of high harmonic generation (HHG) with linearly polarized Laguerre–Gaussian (LG) beams and their superpositions to explain the non-perturbative aspects of HHG. Furthermore, we show that circularly polarized extreme ultraviolet vortices with well-defined orbital angular momentum (OAM) can be generated by HHG with bicircular LG beams. We introduce photon diagrams in order to explain how to calculate the OAM and the polarization of the generated harmonics by means of simultaneous conservation of spin angular momentum and OAM. Moreover, we show how the intensity ratio of the driving fields in HHG with bicircular LG beams further enhances the generation of circularly polarized twisted attosecond pulse trains.
Abstract: We describe the results of analytical calculations and numerical simulations of the confinement properties of a mechanically compensated cylindrical Penning trap which has conical endcap openings for large-solid-angle access for example with highly focused laser beams. While the analytical calculations show that under the common geometrical conditions the harmonicity of the confining fields near the centre of the trap does not change when a conical shape of the endcap electrodes is introduced, numerical simulations show significant changes when the opening angle of the cone exceeds a certain critical angle. We also show that these sharp features are due to the fringe-field effects above the critical angle, which are not described by the analytical calculations. These effects are also observed in a cylindrical Penning trap when the length of the endcap electrodes is reduced below a certain critical value.
Abstract: We investigate phase matching for high-order harmonic generation with linearly polarized Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beams with nonzero orbital angular momentum (OAM). We compare the conditions for efficient phase matching for LG beams with those of Gaussian beams. In particular, we show how the OAM of the incident beams affects the phase-matching conditions for the short and long trajectories that arise from the saddle-point approximation of the dipole moment. Thereby we illustrate that the coherence length for the short trajectories decreases for LG beams near the focus compared to Gaussian beams, whereas efficient phase matching can be achieved before and behind the focus. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the coherence length for the long trajectory behind the focus plane can be controlled by the OAM. This paper provides a route for the experiment in order to have good coherence control to enhance the conversion efficiency for high-order harmonic generation with beams carrying OAM.
Abstract: Nonsequential two-photon ionization of inner-shell np subshell of neutral atoms by circularly polarized light is investigated. Detection of subsequent fluorescence as a signature of the process is proposed and the dependence of fluorescence degree of polarization on incident photon beam energy is studied. It is generally expected that the degree of polarization remains approximately constant, except when the beam energy is tuned to an intermediate n′ resonance. However, strong unexpected change in the polarization degree is discovered for nonsequential two-photon ionization at specific incident beam energy due to a zero contribution of the otherwise dominant ionization channel. Polarization degree of the fluorescence depends less on the beam parameters, and its measurements at this specific beam energy, whose position is very sensitive to the details of the employed theory, are highly desirable for evaluation of theoretical calculations of nonlinear ionization at hitherto unreachable accuracy.
Abstract: calculations of QED radiative corrections to the 2P1/2 - 2P3/2 fine-structure transition energy are performed for selected F-like ions. These calculations are nonperturbative in αZ and include all first-order and many-electron second-order effects in α. When compared to approximate QED computations, a notable discrepancy is found especially for F-like uranium for which the predicted self-energy contributions even differ in sign. Moreover, all deviations between theory and experiment for the 2P1/2 - 2P3/2 fine-structure energies of F-like ions, reported recently by Li et al., Phys. Rev. A 98, 020502(R) (2018), are resolved if their highly accurate, non-QED fine-structure values are combined with the QED corrections ab initially evaluated here.
Abstract: A plasma channel undulator/wiggler may be created through the plasma wakefield excited by the beating
of several Hermite-Gaussian laser modes propagating in a parabolic plasma channel. Control over both the
betatron and undulator forces is conveniently achieved by tuning the amplitude ratios, colors, and order
numbers of the modes. A special structure of the undulator/wiggler field without the focusing force near the propagation axis is generated inside the plasma wakefield by matching the strengths of the fundamental and
first-order Hermite-Gaussian modes. The electron beam only experiences forced undulator oscillations in
such a field, which significantly improves the quality of the emitted radiation. Since the value of the
undulator strength parameter could be in a wide range, less or larger than unity, it is capable of generating
narrow bandwidth x-ray, as well as the synchrotronlike high-energy x/γ-ray, radiation by harmonics.
Additionally, controlling the relative phases between the laser modes allows for polarization control of the
plasma undulator. High-order harmonics produced from a circularly polarized plasma undulator clearly
show the vortex nature and carry well-defined orbital angular momentum.
Abstract: A high-order implicit multidimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) method is developed for simulating plasmas at solid densities. The space-time arrangement is based on Yee and a leapfrog algorithm for electromagnetic fields and particle advancement. The field solver algorithm completely eliminates numerical instabilities found in explicit PIC methods with relaxed time step and grid resolution. Moreover, this algorithm eliminates the numerical cooling found in the standard implicit PIC methods by using a pseudo-electric-field method. The particle pusher algorithm combines the standard Boris particle pusher with the Newton-Krylov iteration method. This algorithm increases the precision accuracy by several orders of magnitude when compared with the standard Boris particle pusher and also significantly decreases the iteration time when compared with the pure Newton-Krylov method. The code is tested with several benchmarks, including Weibel instability, and relativistic laser plasma interactions at both low and solid densities.
Abstract: A particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation code is used to investigate the transport and energy deposition of an intense proton beam in solid-state material. This code is able to simulate close particle interactions by using a Monte Carlo binary collision model. Such a model takes into account all related interactions between the incident protons and material particles, e.g., proton-nucleus, proton–bound-electron, and proton–free-electron collisions. This code also includes a Monte Carlo model for the collisional ionization and electron-ion recombination as well as the depression of the ionization potential by shielding of surrounding particles. Moreover, for intense proton beams, in order to include collective electromagnetic effects, significantly speed up the simulation, and simultaneously avoid numerical instabilities, an approach that combines the PIC method with a reduced model of high-density plasma based on Ohm's law is used. Simulation results indicate that the collective electromagnetic effects have a significant influence on the transport and energy deposition of proton beams. The Ohmic electric field would increase the stopping power and leads to a shortened range of proton beams in solid. The magnetic field would localize the energy deposition by collimating proton beams, which would otherwise be deflected by the collisions with nuclei.
Abstract: We report an analysis of electron‐optical properties of a toroidal magnetic sector spectrometer and examine parameters for its implementation in a relativistic heavy‐ion storage ring, for example the High Energy Storage ring (HESR) at the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) facility. For studies of free–free pair production in heavy‐ion atom collisions, this spectrometer exhibits very high efficiencies for coincident e+–e− pair spectroscopy over a wide range of momenta of emitted lepton pairs. The high coincidence efficiency of the spectrometer is the key for stringent tests of theoretical predictions for the phase space correlation of lepton vector momenta in free–free pair production.
Abstract: A micro-calorimeter X-ray detector of the maXs-30 type was used to record the X-ray radiation from Fe ions, being produced in the S-EBIT-I electron beam ion trap at the site of GSI. The resulting spectra demonstrate the superior energy resolving power of micro-calorimeter detectors compared with conventional semiconductor detectors. The experiment serves as another proof of principle for the application of calorimeters as dedicated high-resolution X-ray spectrometers at an ion facility. Together with the development of an improved analysis algorithm for online readout, these results present a step towards the use of maXs-type detectors as standard instrumentation at GSI/FAIR.
Abstract: We discuss the possibility of creating novel research tools by producing and storing highly relativistic beams of highly ionised atoms in the CERN accelerator complex, and by exciting their atomic degrees of freedom with lasers to produce high-energy photon beams. Intensity of such photon beams would be by several orders of magnitude higher than offered by the presently operating light sources, in the particularly interesting gamma-ray energy domain of 0.1-400 MeV. In this energy range, the high-intensity photon beams can be used to produce secondary beams of polarised electrons, polarised positrons, polarised muons, neutrinos, neutrons and radioactive ions. New research opportunities in a wide domain of fundamental and applied physics can be opened by the Gamma Factory scientific programme based on the above primary and secondary beams.
Abstract: We consider ionization of atomic hydrogen by antiproton impact. Doubly differential cross sections for ionization calculated within a recently developed semiclassical approach by Bondarev et al. (Phys. Rev. A 95, 052709, 2017) are presented. Comparison of the obtained results with other theoretical predictions is given.
Abstract: In this work we measure the frequency dependent transfer function of the amplitude noise for both the seed and pump power in an Yb3+-doped fiber amplifier chain. In particular, the relative intensity noise transfer function of this amplifier chain in the frequency range of 10 Hz – 100 kHz has been investigated. It is shown that the pump power noise of the pre-amplifier stages is transformed into seed power noise for the next amplification stage. Crucially, the seed power noise in the frequency range of interest is strongly damped by the main-amplifier. This, however, does not happen for the pump power noise. Thus, the noise of the pump of the last amplifier stage is the factor with the strongest impact on the overall noise level of the system. Finally, useful guidelines to minimize the output amplitude noise of an Yb3+-doped fiber amplifier chain are given.
Abstract: The hyperfine splitting of the ground state of selected B-like ions within the range of nuclear charge numbers Z=49–83 is investigated in detail. The rigorous QED approach together with the large-scale configuration-interaction Dirac-Fock-Sturm method are employed for the evaluation of the interelectronic-interaction contributions of first and higher orders in 1/Z. The screened QED corrections are evaluated to all orders in αZ by using an effective potential. The influence of nuclear magnetization distribution is taken into account within the single-particle nuclear model.