Newsletter December 2020
Dear colleagues and friends of the HI-Jena,
welcome to the December 2020 issue of the HI Jena newsletter.
Below you find informations and news about recent activities of our institute.
Helmholtz Institute Jena
PS: As can be seen from the following photograph taken last Tuesday, the construction of our new insitute building is progressing.
Laser physicist Dr. Jan Rothhardt from the Helmholtz Institute Jena receives Röntgen Prize
The laser physicist Dr. Jan Rothhardt from the Helmholtz Institute Jena (HI Jena), an institute of the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, located on the campus of the Friedrich Schiller University (FSU) Jena, receives the renowned Röntgen Prize. The prize will be awarded during the digital academic ceremony of the Justus-Liebig-University Gießen. The 39-year-old leader of a Helmholtz Young Investigator Group, who works at HI Jena and the Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, receives the award in recognition of his outstanding contributions in the field of laser technology, in particular for the development and application of laser sources for extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation and soft X-ray radiation.
Dr. Jan Rothhardt intensively conducts research in applications of these laser systems and was able to show both mathematically and experimentally for the first time that efficient conversion into the XUV spectral range is also possible with high-power lasers of high pulse repetition frequency. The XUV sources developed by him were already successfully used for high-resolution lensless imaging processes. In addition to applications in nanotechnology, these methods in future should also be able to track ultra-fast processes on the nanoscale, which are the basis of future data memories.
Furthermore, the new XUV sources will enable worldwide unique laser spectroscopy experiments on heavy ion storage rings. Quantum electrodynamics (QED), relativistic effects, but also nuclear properties and ultrafast processes are at the center of these interdisciplinary experiments. First pioneering experiments were already realized at the CRYRING in Darmstadt. CRYRING is one of the storage rings in the unique portfolio of traps and storage facilities for heavy ions of the future accelerator center FAIR, currently under construction at GSI.
Dr. Rothhardt studied physics in Jena and received his doctorate in 2011. Since 2014, the internationally renowned laser physicist is leader of a junior research group at the Helmholtz Institute Jena and author and co-author of almost 70 publications in scientific journals. He regularly receives excellent student evaluations for his lectures and seminars at the Friedrich Schiller University Jena. In addition, he is engaged in inspiring school students for laser technology with a special experimental lecture at schools.
In memory of Nobel Prize winner Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, who was a professor in Giessen from 1879 to 1888, Justus Liebig University Giessen (JLU) has been awarding the renowned Röntgen Prize since 1960. It is endowed with prize money of € 15,000, which is jointly donated by Pfeiffer Vacuum and the Ludwig Schunk Foundation. This year there will be a "hands-on" prize for the first time: To mark the Röntgen Year, JLU and the founders initiated the production of a miniature of the famous Gießen Röntgen monument.
News and Announcements
Understanding astrophysics with laser-accelerated protons
Bringing huge amounts of protons up to speed in the shortest distance in fractions of a second — that's what laser acceleration technology, greatly improved in recent years, can do. An international research team from the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung and the Helmholtz Institute Jena, a branch of GSI, in collaboration with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA, has succeeded in using protons accelerated with the GSI high-power laser PHELIX to split other nuclei and to analyze them. The results have now been published in the journal Nature Scientific Reports and could provide new insights into astrophysical processes.
For less than one picosecond (one trillionth of a second), the PHELIX laser shines its extremely intense light pulse onto a very thin gold foil. This is enough to eject about one trillion hydrogen nuclei (protons), which are only slightly attached to the gold, from the back-surface of the foil, and accelerate them to high energies. "Such a large number of protons in such a short period of time cannot be achieved with standard acceleration techniques," explains Pascal Boller, who is researching laser acceleration in the GSI research department Plasma Physics/PHELIX as part of his graduate studies. "With this technology, completely new research areas can be opened that were previously inaccessible".
These include the generation of nuclear fission reactions. For this purpose, the researchers let the freshly generated fast protons impinge on uranium material samples. Uranium was chosen as a case study material because of its large reaction cross-section and the availability of published data for benchmarking purposes. The samples have to be close to the proton production to guarantee a maximum yield of reactions. The protons generated by the PHELIX laser are fast enough to induce the fission of uranium nuclei into smaller fission products, which remain then to be identified and measured. However, the laser impact has unwanted side effects: It generates a strong electromagnetic pulse and a gammy-ray flash that interfere with the sensitive measuring instruments used for this detection.
At this stage, the researchers are assisted by the expertise of another GSI research group. For the chemical investigation of superheavy elements, a transport system has been in use for quite some time that can transport the desired particles over long distances from the reaction area to the detector. The reaction chamber is flushed through by a gas which —in the case of fission experiments —carries the fission products with it and, within only a few seconds, transports them via small plastic tubes to the measuring apparatus, which is now several meters away. In this way, generation and measurement can be spatially separated and interference can be prevented.
For the first time, it was possible in the experiments to combine the two techniques and thus to generate a variety of cesium, xenon and iodine isotopes via the fission of uranium, to reliably identify them via their emitted gamma radiation and to observe their short life time. This provides a methodology for studying fission reactions in high-density plasma-state matter. Comparable conditions can be found, for example, in space inside stars, stellar explosions or neutron star mergers. "Understanding the reaction processes of nuclei interacting with each other in plasma can give us insights into the origin of atomic nuclei, the so-called nucleosynthesis, in our universe. Nucleosynthesis processes such as s-process or r-process take place in exactly such media," explains Boller. "The role fission reactions play in these processes has not yet been researched in detail. Here, the laser-accelerated protons can provide new information".
Further measurements with the methods are planned for future experiments of the PHELIX laser at GSI as well as at other research centers around the world. The investigation of highly dense matter with ion and laser beams will also be one of the topics pursued at the future research facility FAIR. FAIR is currently being built at GSI in international cooperation. With its motto "The Universe in the Laboratory", it is intended to reproduce conditions as they occur in astrophysical environments on Earth, thus expanding the knowledge about our cosmos. (CP)
This press release with pictures is available here.
SPARC User and Collaboration Workshop: Stored and Cooled Heavy Ions at FAIR Phase-0 2021
See the Website: http://indico.gsi.de/e/StorageRings_SPARC_2021.
Annual Meeting of the ErUM-FSP APPA 2021
See the Website: https://indico.gsi.de/e/APPA_FSP_2021.
Zoom link: 986 1209 6628
Zoom link: 986 1209 6628
Recently finished theses
Diffraction-based metrology in the extreme ultraviolet
Charakterisierung expandierter ultradünner DLC-Folien für die Laser-Protonenbeschleunigung
Extreme nonlinear optics in highly excited semiconductors
Above-threshold ionization driven by spatially structured laser fields
Generation of long range low-divergent Gauss-Bessel beams by annihilating optical vortices
L. Stoyanov, M. Zhekova, A. Stefanov, B. Ivanov, I. Stefanov, G. Paulus, and A. Dreischuh
Opt. Commun. 480, 126510 (2021)
Determination of luminosity for in-ring reactions: A new approach for the low-energy domain
Y. Xing, J. Glorius, L. Varga, L. Bott, C. Brandau, B. Brückner, R. Chen, X. Chen, S. Dababneh, T. Davinson, P. Erbacher, S. Fiebiger, T. Gaßner, K. Göbel, M. Groothuis, A. Gumberidze, G. Gyürky, M. Heil, R. Hess, R. Hensch, P. Hillmann, P.-M. Hillenbrand, O. Hinrichs, B. Jurado, T. Kausch, A. Khodaparast, T. Kisselbach, N. Klapper, C. Kozhuharov, D. Kurtulgil, G. Lane, C. Langer, C. Lederer-Woods, M. Lestinsky, S. Litvinov, Y. Litvinov, B. Löher, N. Petridis, U. Popp, M. Reed, R. Reifarth, M. Sanjari, H. Simon, Z. Slavkovská, U. Spillmann, M. Steck, T. Stöhlker, J. Stumm, T. Szücs, T. Nguyen, A. Zadeh, B. Thomas, S. Torilov, H. Törnqvist, C. Trageser, S. Trotsenko, M. Volknandt, M. Wang, M. Weigand, C. Wolf, P. Woods, Y. Zhang, and X. Zhou
Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A 982, 164367 (2020)
Determination of non-linear refractive index of laser crystals and ceramics via different optical techniques
L. Lamaignère, G. Toci, B. Patrizi, M. Vannini, A. Pirri, S. Fanetti, R. Bini, G. Mennerat, A. Melninkaitis, L. Lukas, and J. Hein
Opt. Mater. X 8, 100065 (2020)
Discrete dispersion scan setup for measuring few-cycle laser pulses in the mid-infrared
N. Geib, R. Hollinger, E. Haddad, P. Herrmann, F. Légaré, T. Pertsch, C. Spielmann, M. Zürch, and F. Eilenberger
Opt. Lett. 45, 5295 (2020)
Elastic photon scattering on hydrogenic atoms near resonances
D. Samoilenko, A. Volotka, and S. Fritzsche
Atoms 8, 12 (2020)
Enhancement of the laser-driven proton source at PHELIX
J. Hornung, Y. Zobus, P. Boller, C. Brabetz, U. Eisenbarth, T. Kühl, Zs. Major, J. Ohland, M. Zepf, B. Zielbauer, and V. Bagnoud
HPLaser 8, e24 (2020)
Fiber laser-driven gas plasma-based generation of THz radiation with 50-mW average power
J. Buldt, M. Mueller, H. Stark, C. Jauregui, and J. Limpert
Appl. Phys. B 126, 2 (2020)
High numerical aperture Hartmann wave front sensor for extreme ultraviolet spectral range
L. Li, J. Koliyadu, H. Donnelly, D. Alj, O. Delmas, M. Ruiz-Lopez, O. de la Rochefoucauld, G. Dovillaire, M. Fajardo, C. Zhou, S. Ruan, B. Dromey, M. Zepf, and P. Zeitoun
Opt. Lett. 45, 4248 (2020)
Production of 100-TW single attosecond x-ray pulse
X. Xu, Y. Zhang, H. Zhang, H. Lu, W. Zhou, C. Zhou, B. Dromey, S. Zhu, M. Zepf, X. He, and B. Qiao
Optica 7, 355 (2020)
Simplified design of optical elements for filled-aperture coherent beam combination
C. Aleshire, A. Steinkopff, C. Jauregui, A. Klenke, A. Tünnermann, and J. Limpert
Opt. Express 28, 21035 (2020)
Temperature dependent spectroscopic study of Yb3+-doped KG(WO4)2, KY(WO4)2, YAlO3 and YLiF4 for laser applications
J. Körner, M. Krüger, J. Reiter, A. Münzer, J. Hein, and M. Kaluza
Opt. Mater. Express 10, 2425 (2020)
A highly sensitive imaging polarimeter in the x-ray regime
B. Grabiger, B. Marx-Glowna, I. Uschmann, R. Loetzsch, G. Paulus, and K. Schulze
Appl. Phys. Lett. 117, 201102 (2020)
Partial-wave representation of the strong-field approximation
B. Böning, and S. Fritzsche
Phys. Rev. A 102, 053108 (2020)
Spin- and polarization-dependent locally-constant-field-approximation rates for nonlinear Compton and Breit-Wheeler processes
D. Seipt, and B. King
Phys. Rev. A 102, 052805 (2020)
THz generation by optical rectification of intense near-infrared pulses in organic crystal BNA
F. Roeder, M. Shalaby, B. Beleites, F. Ronneberger, and A. Gopal
Opt. Express 28, 36274 (2020)
Electron capture of Xe54+ in collisions with H2 molecules in the energy range between 5.5 and 30.9 MeV/u
F. M. Kröger, G. Weber, M. O. Herdrich, J. Glorius, C. Langer, Z. Slavkovská, L. Bott, C. Brandau, B. Brückner, K. Blaum, X. Chen, S. Dababneh, T. Davinson, P. Erbacher, S. Fiebiger, T. Gaßner, K. Göbel, M. Groothuis, A. Gumberidze, Gy. Gyürky, S. Hagmann, C. Hahn, M. Heil, R. Hess, R. Hensch, P. Hillmann, P.-M. Hillenbrand, O. Hinrichs, B. Jurado, T. Kausch, A. Khodaparast, T. Kisselbach, N. Klapper, C. Kozhuharov, D. Kurtulgil, G. Lane, C. Lederer-Woods, M. Lestinsky, S. Litvinov, Yu. A. Litvinov, B. Löher, F. Nolden, N. Petridis, U. Popp, M. Reed, R. Reifarth, M. S. Sanjari, H. Simon, U. Spillmann, M. Steck, J. Stumm, T. Szücs, T. T. Nguyen, A. T. Zadeh, B. Thomas, S. Yu. Torilov, H. Törnqvist, C. Trageser, S. Trotsenko, M. Volknandt, M. Weigand, C. Wolf, P. J. Woods, V. P. Shevelko, I. Yu. Tolstikhina, and Th. Stöhlker
Phys. Rev. A 102, 042825 (2020)
Enhanced polarization transfer to the characteristic L alpha x-ray lines near the nonlinear Cooper minimum of two-photon ionization
J. Hofbrucker, A. V. Volotka, J. Szlachetko, and S. Fritzsche
Phys. Rev. A 102, 042807 (2020)
First on-line detection of radioactive fission isotopes produced by laser-accelerated protons
P. Boller, A. Zylstra, P. Neumayer, L. Bernstein, C. Brabetz, J. Despotopulos, J. Glorius, J. Hellmund, E. Henry, J. Hornung, J. Jeet, J. Khuyagbaatar, L. Lens, S. Roeder, Th. Stöhlker, A. Yakushev, Y. Litvinov, D. Shaughnessy, V. Bagnoud, T. Kühl, and D. Schneider
Sci. Rep. 10, 17183 (2020)
How to access QED at a supercritical Coulomb field
V. Popov, V. M. Shabaev, D. A. Telnov, I. I. Tupitsyn, I. A. Maltsev, Y. S. Kozhedub, I. Bondarev, V. Kozin, X. Ma, G. Plunien, T. Stöhlker, D. A. Tumakov, and V. A. Zaytsev
Phys. Rev. D 102, 076005 (2020)
A 410 MHz resonant cavity pickup for heavy ion storage rings
M. Sanjari, D. Dmytriiev, Y. Litvinov, O. Gumenyuk, R. Hess, R. Joseph, S. Litvinov, M. Steck, and Th. Stöhlker
Rev. Sci. Instrum. 91, 083303 (2020)
High Resolution Photoexcitation Measurements Exacerbate the Long-Standing Fe XVII Oscillator Strength Problem
S. Kühn, C. Shah, J. López-Urrutia, K. Fujii, R. Steinbrügge, J. Stierhof, M. Togawa, Z. Harman, N. Oreshkina, C. Cheung, M. Kozlov, S. Porsev, M. Safronova, J. Berengut, M. Rosner, M. Bissinger, R. Ballhausen, N. Hell, S. Park, M. Chung, M. Hoesch, J. Seltmann, A. Surzhykov, V. Yerokhin, J. Wilms, F. Porter, T. Stöhlker, C. Keitel, T. Pfeifer, G. Brown, M. Leutenegger, and S. Bernitt
Phys. Rev. Lett. 124, 225001 (2020)