Dr. Ing. Volker Tympel
Abstract: Non-destructive measurements of nA beam currents in particle beam storage rings by detecting the azimuthal magnetic field generated by moving charged particles with a Cryogenic Current Comparator (CCC) are well established. The detection of beam currents with small amplitudes with a CCC in a storage ring demands a high slew rate which is caused by the rapid change of the beam current exceeding the operational limit of the SQUID in flux-locked loop mode. Previous solutions to increase the slew rate used a LCR first-order low-pass filter were a small resistor, unfortunately, dominated the current noise of the CCC. In this work we present a novel take by adding a second resonator into the CCC which in turn allows for higher resistances of the LCR low-pass filter and therefore lower thermal current noise. A second challenge connected with this CCC approach is the residual magnetization of the highly permeable magnetic core and the resulting shielding currents in the superconducting circuits of the CCC. The timing of a storage ring in the range of minutes opens a way to reduce these DC currents using a LR high-pass filter. Using serial sub-micro ohm resistors, time constants in the hour range can be achieved to improve the stability and performance of the CCC system.
Abstract: We present an approach for fabrication of reproducible, chemically and mechanically robust functionalized layers based on MgF₂ thin films on thin glass substrates. These show great advantages for use in super-resolution microscopy as well as for multi-electrode-array fabrication and are especially suited for combination of these techniques. The transparency of the coated substrates with the low refractive index material is adjustable by the layer thickness and can be increased above 92%. Due to the hydrophobic and lipophilic properties of the thin crystalline MgF₂ layers, the temporal stable adhesion needed for fixation of thin tissue, e.g. cryogenic brain slices is given. This has been tested using localization-based super-resolution microscopy with currently highest spatial resolution in light microscopy. We demonstrated that direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy revealed in reliable imaging of structures of central synapses by use of double immunostaining of post- (homer1 and GluA2) and presynaptic (bassoon) marker structure in a 10 µm brain slice without additional fixing of the slices. Due to the proven additional electrical insulating effect of MgF2 layers, surfaces of multi-electrode-arrays were coated with this material and tested by voltage-current-measurements. MgF₂ coated multi-electrode-arrays can be used as a functionalized microscope cover slip for combination with live-cell super-resolution microscopy.
Abstract: We report on a novel concept and prototype development of a coreless SQUID-based charged-particle beam monitor as a non-destructive diagnostic tool for accelerator facilities. Omitting the typically used pickup coil with a high magnetic permeability core leads to a significant improvement in low-frequency noise performance. Moreover, a revised shielding geometry allows for very compact and rather lightweight device designs. Based on highly sensitive SQUIDs featuring sub-micron cross-type Josephson tunnel junctions, our prototype device exhibits a current sensitivity of about 6 pA Hz(-1/2) in the white noise region. Together with a measured shielding factor of about 135 dB this opens up the way for its widespread use in modern accelerator facilities.
Abstract: A Cryogenic Current Comparator (CCC) is an extremely sensitive DC-Beam Transformer based on superconducting SQUID technology. Recently, a CCC without a toroidal core and with an axially oriented magnetic shielding has been developed at the Institute of Photonic Technologies (IPHT) Jena/Germany. It represents a compact and lightweight alternative to the ’classical’ CCC, which was originally developed at PTB Braunschweig and is successfully in operation in accelerators at GSI and CERN. Excellent low-frequency noise performance was demonstrated with a prototype of this new CCC-type. Current measurements and further tests are ongoing, first results are presented together with simulation calculations for the magnetic shielding. The construction from lead as well as simplified manufacturing results in drastically reduced costs compared to formerly used Nb-CCCs. Reduced weight also puts less constraints on the cryostat. Based on highly sensitive SQUIDs, the new prototype device shows a current sensitivity of about 6 pA/Hz1/2 in the white noise region. The measured and calculated shielding factor is ~135 dB. These values, together with a significant cost reduction - resulting also from a compact cryostat design - opens up the way for widespread use of CCCs in modern accelerator facilities.
Abstract: For more than 20 years Cryogenic Current Comparators (CCC) are used to measure the current of charged particle beams with low intensity (nA-range). The device was first established at GSI in Darmstadt and was improved over the past two decades by the cooperation of institutes in Jena, GSI and CERN. The improved versions differ in material parameters and electronics to increase the resolution and in dimensions in order to meet the requirements of the respective application. The device allows non-destructive measurements of the charged particle beam current. The azimuthal magnetic field which is generated by the beam current is detected by low temperature Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) current sensors. A complex shaped superconductor cooled down to 4.2 K is used as magnetic shielding and a high permeability core serves as flux concentrator. Three versions of the CCC shall be presented in this work: (1) GSI-Pb-CCC which was running at GSI Darmstadt in a transfer line, (2) CERN-Nb-CCC currently installed in the Antiproton Decelerator at CERN and (3) GSI-Nb-CCC-XD which will be operating in the CRYRING at GSI 2019. Noise, signal and drift measurements were performed in the Cryo-Detector Lab at the University of Jena.
Abstract: We report on a novel concept and prototype development of a coreless SQUID-based charged-particle beam monitor as a non-destructive diagnostic tool for accelerator facilities. Omitting the typically used pickup coil with a high magnetic permeability core leads to a significant improvement in low-frequency noise performance. Moreover, a revised shielding geometry allows for very compact and rather lightweight device designs. Based on highly sensitive SQUIDs featuring sub-micron cross-type Josephson tunnel junctions, our prototype device exhibits a current sensitivity of about 6 pA Hz^(−1/2) in the white noise region. Together with a measured shielding factor of about 135 dB this opens up the way for its widespread use in modern accelerator facilities.
Abstract: The non-destructive measurement of charged particle beams with intensities below 1 μA represents still a challenge in current R&D efforts. Beam peak-intensities of modern high power accelerators are in the range of milli-amperes, but for a large number of experiments, the pulse lengths have to be increased by several orders of magnitude (slow extraction process) to avoid saturation in the detectors. At the same time, the intensities of exotic ion- or antiproton-beams – depending on the production yield – might be in the range of nano-amperes or even below. The solution of this measurement problem should moreover include the possibility to calibrate the electrical current with traceability to national standards.
Abstract: A new Cryogenic Current Comparator with eXtended Dimensions (CCC-XD), compared to earlier versions built for GSI, is currently under development for a non-destructive, highly-sensitive monitoring of nA-intensities of beams for larger beamline diameters planned for the new FAIR accelerator facility at GSI. The CCC consists of a:
1) flux concentrator,
2) superconducting shield against external magnetic field and a
3) superconducting toroidal coil of niobium which is read out by a
4) Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID).
The new flux concentrator (1) comprises a specially designed highly-permeable core made of nano-crystalline material, in order to assure low-noise operation with high system bandwidth of up to 200 kHz. The superconducting shielding of niobium (2) is extended in its geometric dimensions compared to the predecessor CCC and thus will suppress (better -200 dB) disturbing magnetic fields of the beamline environment more effectively. For the CCD-XD readout, new SQUID sensors (4) with sub-μm Josephson junctions are used which enable the lowest possible noiselimited current resolution in combination with a good suppression of external disturbances. The CCC-XD system, together with a new dedicated cryostat, will be ready for testing in the CRYRING at GSI in spring 2017. For the application of a CCC in the antiproton storage ring at CERN a pulse shape correction has been developed and tested in parallel. Results from electrical measurements of two components (1 and 4) of the new CCC-XD setup will be presented in this work.