Abstract: We present a study on temperature dependent spectroscopic data for Yb:KGW, Yb:KYW and Yb:YLF between 80K and 280K and Yb:YAP between 100K and 300 K. Absorption and emission cross sections are determined. The latter ones are obtained by using a combination of the McCumber relation and the Füchtbauer-Ladenburg equation. Fluorescence lifetimes are measured within a setup optimized for the suppression of re-absorption and compared to the radiative lifetimes calculated from the previously determined cross sections to cross check the validity of the measurements. The cross sections are evaluated with regard to the materials' potential for supporting the generation of ultra-short laser pulses, low quantum defect lasing and requirements for suitable diode laser pump sources.
Abstract: We present Emission and absorption cross sections of thulium doped calcium fluoride (Tm:CaF2) in the visible to short wave infrared (SWIR) wavelength range for temperatures between 80 K and 300 K. For spectral regions of high and low absorption the McCumber relation and the Fuchtbauer–Ladenburg equation have been used to give reliable results. Furthermore, an estimation for the cross relaxation efficiency is derived from the emission spectra as a function of doping concentration and temperature. In addition, nearly re-absorption-free fluorescence lifetimes for various doping concentrations were studied. It was found that a double exponential fit model is better suited than a migration model to represent the fluorescence decay curves. The measurement results are interpreted in the light of the application of Tm:CaF2 as an efficient active medium in high-energy class diode-pumped solid state lasers.
Abstract: We present the absorption spectroscopy and continuous -wave laser operation of Tm:YLF at cryogenic temperatures. At 100 K, a maximum output power of 2.55 W corresponding to a maximum slope efficiency of 22.8% is obtained using 15% output coupling transmission. The output laser wavelength is centered at 1877 nm for Ellc.
Abstract: A series of phosphate glasses including two compositions that are similar to commercial laser glasses and 3 new compositions doped with 2 × 10^20 Er3+/cm3 were prepared by using the classical melt quenching technique. The new glass compositions show much better glass forming properties than the commercially available glasses, lower molecular weights and lower optical basicities which are expected to be advantageous for their luminescence and laser properties. From the UV–vis–NIR absorption spectra, detailed Judd–Ofelt analyses were conducted and the radiative properties of the luminescent levels of Er3+ in these host materials were calculated. In fact all three compositions show longer calculated luminescence lifetimes than the compositions that are based on commercially available laser glasses. The absorption and the emission cross sections, the luminescence lifetimes and the quantum efficiency at 1530 nm were investigated. LiZnLaAPF glass can be suggested as a good host to generate efficient lasing action at 1530 nm. The variation of the Judd–Ofelt intensity parameters Ω2, Ω4 and Ω6 is discussed with respect to the glass compositions and their properties. For this, the calculated Ω2, Ω4 and Ω6 values are compared to the results of numerous publications on Er3+ doped phosphate glasses. From this data a correlation with the symmetry at the local rare earth site (Ω2) and with the theoretical optical basicity (Ω6) of the glass composition can be assumed.
Abstract: We present detailed measurements of laser relevant cross sections of thulium doped yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Tm:YAG) and yttrium-aluminum-perovskite (Tm:YAP), including the absorption cross sections for the H63 to H43 transition near 800nm, and the absorption and emission cross sections for the transitions between the H63 and F43 manifolds in the short-wavelength infrared region. For Tm:YAP we present data for all polarization axes. The measurements were carried out at temperatures ranging from 80 K to 300 K. Furthermore, re-absorption free fluorescence lifetimes of the F43 to H63 transition at 77 K, 200 K and 29 5K were obtained using the pinhole method. We observed a significant enhancement of the fluorescence lifetime when cooling from room temperature to 77 K. The lifetime was increased from 9.42 ms to 15.22 ms in Tm:YAG and from 3.81 ms to 4.93 ms in Tm:YAP. This indicates that lifetime quenching is present at room temperature, which can be overcome, at least partially, by cryogenic cooling. These data are presented with the scope to qualify these materials for their use in a new generation of cryogenically cooled, short-wavelength infrared, high-energy class diode pumped solid state lasers utilizing the cross relaxation mechanism for pumping.
Abstract: Similar to ytterbium doped laser materials laser operation with thulium doped media is possible within a quasi-three level scheme, which especially for pulse pumped lasers is a drawback for efficient laser operation, as a significant amount of energy is required to bleach out the laser medium. Since this energy cannot be extracted, it is lost for the amplification process. Hence, operation of such lasers at cryogenic temperatures seems to be an appropriate solution. For further modeling and derivation of design rules for future laser systems based on such a scheme reliable spectral data is needed. We will present absorption and emission measurements on Tm:YAG as a function of temperature in the range from 80 K to 300 K covering both the absorption bands around 800 nm and the emission bands up to 2.1 μm. The spectral measurements were carried out on two samples of Tm:YAG with doping levels of 2 at.% and 8 at.%. Precautions for reabsorption effects were taken to allow for accurate results over the whole measurement range. From these measurements we have derived absorption and emission cross sections and radiative lifetimes. By comparing the latter values to values obtained by highly accurate measurements of the lifetime using the pinhole method we could also estimate the quantum efficiency.
Abstract: It has been shown in the past that pulsed laser systems operating in the so-called “burst mode” are a beneficial approach to generate high peak power laser pulses at high repetition rates suitable for various applications. So far, most high-energy burst-mode laser systems put great effort into generating a homogeneous energy distribution across the burst duration, e.g., by shaping the pump pulse. In this work, we present a new shaping technique, which is able to produce arbitrary energy distributions within the burst by pre-shaping the seed pulse burst with a Pockels cell. Furthermore, this technique allows for the precompensation of any static modulations across the burst, which may be introduced during the subsequent amplification process. Therefore, a pulse burst with a uniform energy distribution can also be generated. The method is tested with an ultra-short pulse burst mode laser amplifier system producing bursts of a 1 ms duration with a pulse repetition rate of 1 MHz and a maximum output power of 800 W during the burst. Furthermore, a method to predict the influence of the amplifier on a non-uniformly shaped burst is presented and successfully tested to produce a pre-defined pulse shape after amplification.