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Publications by
Tobias Gassner

All publications of HI Jena


M. Vockert, G. Weber, H. Bräuning, A. Surzhykov, C. Brandau, S. Fritzsche, S. Geyer, S. Hagmann, S. Hess, C. Kozhuharov, R. Märtin, N. Petridis, R. Hess, S. Trotsenko, Yu. A. Litvinov, J. Glorius, A. Gumberidze, M. Steck, S. Litvinov, T. Gassner, P.-M. Hillenbrand, M. Lestinsky, F. Nolden, M. S. Sanjari, U. Popp, C. Trageser, D. F. A. Winters, U. Spillmann, T. Krings, and Th. Stöhlker
Radiative electron capture as a tunable source of highly linearly polarized x rays
Physical Review A 99, 052702 (2019)

Abstract: The radiative electron capture (REC) into the K shell of bare Xe ions colliding with a hydrogen gas target has been investigated. In this study, the degree of linear polarization of the K-REC radiation was measured and compared with rigorous relativistic calculations as well as with the previous results recorded for U92+. Owing to the improved detector technology, a significant gain in precision of the present polarization measurement is achieved compared to the previously published results. The obtained data confirms that for medium-Z ions such as Xe, the REC process is a source of highly polarized x rays which can easily be tuned with respect to the degree of linear polarization and the photon energy. We argue, in particular, that for relatively low energies the photons emitted under large angles are almost fully linear polarized.

J. Glorius, C. Langer, Z. Slavkovská, L. Bott, C. Brandau, B. Brückner, K. Blaum, X. Chen, S. Dababneh, T. Davinson, P. Erbacher, S. Fiebiger, T. Gaßner, K. Göbel, M. Groothuis, A. Gumberidze, G. Gyürky, M. Heil, R. Hess, R. Hensch, P. Hillmann, P.-M. Hillenbrand, O. Hinrichs, B. Jurado, T. Kausch, A. Khodaparast, T. Kisselbach, N. Klapper, C. Kozhuharov, D. Kurtulgil, G. Lane, C. Lederer-Woods, M. Lestinsky, S. Litvinov, Yu. A. Litvinov, B. Löher, F. Nolden, N. Petridis, U. Popp, T. Rauscher, M. Reed, R. Reifarth, M. S. Sanjari, D. Savran, H. Simon, U. Spillmann, M. Steck, T. Stöhlker, J. Stumm, A. Surzhykov, T. Szücs, T. T. Nguyen, A. Taremi Zadeh, B. Thomas, S. Yu. Torilov, H. Törnqvist, M. Träger, C. Trageser, S. Trotsenko, L. Varga, M. Volknandt, H. Weick, M. Weigand, C. Wolf, P. J. Woods, and Y. M. Xing
Approaching the Gamow Window with Stored Ions: Direct Measurement of ¹²⁴Xe(p,γ) in the ESR Storage Ring
Physical Review Letters 122, 092701 (2019)

Abstract: We report the first measurement of low-energy proton-capture cross sections of 124Xe in a heavy-ion storage ring. 124Xe^54+ ions of five different beam energies between 5.5 and 8 AMeV were stored to collide with a windowless hydrogen target. The 125Cs reaction products were directly detected. The interaction energies are located on the high energy tail of the Gamow window for hot, explosive scenarios such as supernovae and x-ray binaries. The results serve as an important test of predicted astrophysical reaction rates in this mass range. Good agreement in the prediction of the astrophysically important proton width at low energy is found, with only a 30% difference between measurement and theory. Larger deviations are found above the neutron emission threshold, where also neutron and γ widths significantly impact the cross sections. The newly established experimental method is a very powerful tool to investigate nuclear reactions on rare ion beams at low center-of-mass energies.


T. Gassner, M. Trassinelli, R. Heß, U. Spillmann, D. Banas, K.-H. Blumenhagen, F. Bosch, C. Brandau, W. Chen, C. Dimopoulou, E. Förster, R. Grisenti, A. Gumberidze, S. Hagmann, P.-M. Hillenbrand, P. Indelicato, P. Jagodzinski, T. Kämpfer, Ch. Kozhuharov, M. Lestinsky, D. Liesen, Yu. A. Litvinov, R. Loetzsch, B. Manil, R. Märtin, F. Nolden, N. Petridis, M. S. Sanjari, K. Schulze, M. Schwemlein, A. Simionovici, M. Steck, Th. Stöhlker, C. I. Szabo, S. Trotsenko, I. Uschmann, G. Weber, O. Wehrhan, N. Winckler, D. Winters, N. Winters, E. Ziegler, and H. Beyer
Wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy in the hard x-ray regime of a heavy highly-charged ion: the 1s Lamb shift in hydrogen-like gold
New Journal of Physics 20, 073033 (2018)

Abstract: Accurate spectroscopy of highly-charged high-Z ions in a storage ring is demonstrated to be feasible by the use of specially adapted crystal optics. The method has been applied for the measurement of the is Lamb shift in hydrogen-like gold (Au78+) in a storage ring through spectroscopy of the Lyman x-rays. This measurement represents the first result obtained for a high-Z element using high-resolution wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy in the hard x-ray regime, paving the way for sensitivity to higher-order QED effects.


A. Gumberidze, C. Kozhuharov, R. Zhang, S. Trotsenko, Y. Kozhedub, R. DuBois, H. Beyer, K.-H. Blumenhagen, C. Brandau, A. Bräuning-Demian, W. Chen, O. Forstner, B. Gao, T. Gassner, R. Grisenti, S. Hagmann, P.-M. Hillenbrand, P. Indelicato, A. Kumar, M. Lestinsky, Yu. A. Litvinov, N. Petridis, D. Schury, U. Spillmann, C. Trageser, M. Trassinelli, X. Tu, and Th. Stöhlker
Impact parameter sensitive study of inner-shell atomic processes in the experimental storage ring
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 408, 27 (2017)

Abstract: In this work, we present a pilot experiment in the experimental storage ring (ESR) at GSI devoted to impact parameter sensitive studies of inner shell atomic processes for low-energy (heavy-) ion-atom collisions. The experiment was performed with bare and He-like xenon ions (Xe54+, Xe52+) colliding with neutral xenon gas atoms, resulting in a symmetric collision system. This choice of the projectile charge states was made in order to compare the effect of a filled K-shell with the empty one. The projectile and target X-rays have been measured at different observation angles for all impact parameters as well as for the impact parameter range of ∼35–70 fm.


K.-H. Blumenhagen, S. Fritzsche, T. Gassner, A. Gumberidze, R. Märtin, N. Schell, D. Seipt, U. Spillmann, A. Surzhykov, S. Trotsenko, G. Weber, V. A. Yerokhin, and Th. Stöhlker
Polarization transfer in Rayleigh scattering of hard x-rays
New Journal of Physics 18, 103034 (2016)

Abstract: We report on the first elastic hard x-ray scattering experiment where the linear polarization characteristics of both the incident and the scattered radiation were observed. Rayleigh scattering was investigated in a relativistic regime by using a high- Z target material, namely gold, and a photon energy of 175 keV. Although the incident synchrotron radiation was nearly 100% linearly polarized, at a scattering angle of θ=90° we observed a strong depolarization for the scattered photons with a degree of linear polarization of +27% ± 12% only. This finding agrees with second-order quantum electrodynamics calculations of Rayleigh scattering, when taking into account a small polarization impurity of the incident photon beam which was determined to be close to 98%. The latter value was obtained independently from the elastic scattering by analyzing photons that were Compton-scattered in the target. Moreover, our results indicate that when relying on state-of-the-art theory, Rayleigh scattering could provide a very accurate method to diagnose polarization impurities in a broad region of hard x-ray energies.

T. Gassner
High Precision X-Ray Spectroscopy of Highly Charged Heavy Ions
Doctoral thesis
Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Physikalisch-Astronomische Fakultät (2016)

Abstract: In the present thesis, the advantages of two new and complementary detector concepts for x-ray spectroscopy of highly charged ions over conventional semiconductor detectors have been worked out. These two detectors are the twin crystal spectrometer FOCAL and the metallic magnetic microcalorimeter maXs. Although the maXs microcalorimeter is still under development, first very promising x-ray spectra could be recorded at the ESR storage ring at the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research in Darmstadt. With the crystal spectrometer FOCAL, which was fully equipped for the first time, a dedicated beam time at the ESR, aiming for the precise determination of the 1s Lamb shift of hydrogen-like gold (Au^78+), could be conducted. The obtained result for the Lyman-a1 transition energy is afflicted with a small statistical uncertainty, however, the encountered systematic effects are still posing a challenge to overcome. In the outlook, it will be discussed in detail how the accuracy of a future measurement could be improved, and in which way both detector concepts could support each other optimally.


K.-H. Blumenhagen, U. Spillmann, T. Gaßner, A. Gumberidze, R. Märtin, N. Schell, S. Trotsenko, G. Weber, and T. Stöhlker
Identification and reduction of unwanted stray radiation using an energy- and position-sensitive Compton polarimeter
Physica Scripta 2015, 014032 (2015)

Abstract: In this work, we report on an experiment that investigated the elastic scattering of linearly polarized 175 keV photons on a gold target. A combined measurement of the angular distribution and the linear polarization of the scattered photons was performed using standard germanium detectors and a double-sided Si(Li) strip polarimeter. Since the data analysis is still in progress, we will show results in forthcoming papers and present here how the polarimeter was used to identify a lack of shielding during the experiment.

T. Gassner, and H. F. Beyer
Spatial characterization of the internal gas target at the ESR for the FOCAL experiment
Physica Scripta 2015, 014052 (2015)

Abstract: The FOCAL experiment involves a highly accurate twin crystal spectrometer, designed for the measurement of the ground state Lamb shift of stored highly charged ions, like hydrogen-like Au 78+, via spectroscopy in the hard-x-ray regime with an accuracy down to the few-eV level where higher-order QED contributions become accessible. For this level of accuracy all geometrical parameters including the position of the x-ray source are of crucial importance. In this conference proceeding we present our efforts to characterize the internal gas target at the experiment storage ring at GSI Darmstadt where in 2012 the FOCAL experiment was conducted.

D. Hengstler, M. Keller, C. Schötz, J. Geist, M. Krantz, S. Kempf, L. Gastaldo, A. Fleischmann, T. Gassner, G. Weber, R. Märtin, Th. Stöhlker, and C. Enss
Towards FAIR: first measurements of metallic magnetic calorimeters for high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy at GSI
Physica Scripta 2015, 014054 (2015)

Abstract: Metallic magnetic calorimeters are energy dispersive particle detectors that are operated at temperatures below 100 mK. Applied to x-ray spectroscopy they combine the high energy resolution of crystal spectrometers with the large energy bandwidth of semiconductor detectors. After the absorption of a photon its energy is converted into heat. A paramagnetic alloy converts the temperature change into a change of magnetization that is read out by a sensitive superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer. With such a metallic magnetic calorimeter we performed two successful measurements at the internal gas target of the experimental storage ring at GSI. In the first beamtime lithium-like Au-ions were targeted on a N2 and a Xe gas target, respectively. In the second beamtime we observed a projectile beam of bare Xe ions interacting with a Xe gas target. In both experiments we achieved an energy resolution below 60 eV from 0 keV to 60 keV . We were able to detect K-lines of Xe ions of different charge states, including the Lyman series up to Ly-η and could resolve the Ly-β-doublet in H-like Xe.

H. F. Beyer, T. Gassner, M. Trassinelli, R. Heß, U. Spillmann, D. Banaś, K.-H. Blumenhagen, F. Bosch, C. Brandau, W. Chen, C. Dimopoulou, E. Förster, R. E. Grisenti, A. Gumberidze, S. Hagmann, P.-M. Hillenbrand, P. Indelicato, P. Jagodzinski, T. Kämpfer, C. Kozhuharov, M. Lestinsky, D. Liesen, Y. A. Litvinov, R. Loetzsch, B. Manil, R. Märtin, F. Nolden, N. Petridis, M. S. Sanjari, K. S. Schulze, M. Schwemlein, A. Simionovici, M. Steck, Th. Stöhlker, C. I. Szabo, S. Trotsenko, I. Uschmann, G. Weber, O. Wehrhan, N. Winckler, D. F. A. Winters, N. Winters, and E. Ziegler
Crystal optics for precision x-ray spectroscopy on highly charged ions—conception and proof
Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics 48, 144010 (2015)

Abstract: The experimental investigation of quantum-electrodydamic contributions to the binding energies of inner shells of highly charged heavy ions requires an accurate spectroscopy in the region of hard x-rays suitable at a limited source strength. For this purpose the focusing compensated asymmetric Laue crystal optics has been developed and a twin-spectrometer assembly has been built and commissioned at the experimental storage ring of the GSI Helmholtzzentrum Darmstadt. We characterize the crystal optics and demonstrate the usefulness of the instrumentation for accurate spectroscopy of both stationary and fast moving x-ray sources. The experimental procedures discussed here may also be applied for other spectroscopic studies where a transition from conventional germanium x-ray detectors to crystal spectrometers seems too demanding because of low source intensity.

G. Weber, M. Herdrich, R. DuBois, P.-M. Hillenbrand, H. Beyer, L. Bozyk, T. Gassner, R. Grisenti, S. Hagmann, Y. Litvinov, F. Nolden, N. Petridis, M. Sanjari, D. Winters, and Th. Stöhlker
Total projectile electron loss cross sections of U²⁸⁺ ions in collisions with gaseous targets ranging from hydrogen to krypton
Physical Review ST - Accelerators and Beams 18, 034403 (2015)

Abstract: Beam lifetimes of stored U^(28+) ions with kinetic energies of 30 and 50  MeV/u, respectively, were measured in the experimental storage ring of the GSI accelerator facility. By using the internal gas target station of the experimental storage ring, it was possible to obtain total projectile electron loss cross sections for collisions with several gaseous targets ranging from hydrogen to krypton from the beam lifetime data. The resulting experimental cross sections are compared to predictions by two theoretical approaches, namely the CTMC method and a combination of the DEPOSIT code and the RICODE program.


N. Winters, A. Warczak, J. A. Tanis, T. Gassner, A. Gumberidze, S. Hagmann, P. M. Hillenbrand, C. Kozhuharov, N. Petridis, R. Reuschl, M. Schwemlein, D. Sierpowski, U. Spillmann, R. Strzalka, S. Trotsenko, G. Weber, D. F. A. Winters, Z. Yin, and Th. Stöhlker
A study of radiative double electron capture in bare chromium ions at the ESR
Physica Scripta 2013, 014048 (2013)

Abstract: Radiative double electron capture is a fundamental atomic process which should be observed in collisions of bare ions with atoms, albeit with a much smaller cross-section than single radiative electron capture. A new experiment—to observe this rare process under single-collision conditions—has been performed at the internal gas jet target of the experimental storage ring at GSI in Darmstadt. X-ray spectra associated with single and double charge exchange have been observed in 30 MeV u^(−1) collisions of bare chromium ions (Cr^(24+)) with helium and nitrogen target gases.

R. Reuschl, T. Gassner, U. Spillmann, A. Bräuning-Demian, A. Ananyeva, H. Beyer, K.-H. Blumenhagen, W. Chen, S. Hagmann, M. Hegewald, P. Indelicato, M. Schwemlein, S. Toleikis, M. Trassinelli, S. Trotsenko, D. Winters, N. Winters, and Th. Stöhlker
Lifetime measurement of the 2 3^P_0 state in He-like uranium
Physica Scripta 2013, 014024 (2013)

Abstract: In recent years for the fundamental theory of quantum electrodynamics, considerable progress in the evaluation of higher order corrections has been achieved—not only for hydrogen—but also for helium-like systems—up to very heavy nuclei. We were aiming at a more precise determination of the lifetime of the metastable 2 3^P_0 state in He-like uranium which has a calculated value of 57.3 ps [1, 2]. From the lifetime it is possible to derive the energy of the state. In October 2011 we were able to perform a first test experiment at GSI, Darmstadt to study the feasibility of a new experimental detection technique. This advanced set-up consists of two state-of-the-art energy-, time- and position-sensitive germanium detectors [3] in combination with collimators in a Soller-slit like assembly. A beam of U^(91+) -ions at an energy of 290 MeV u^(−1) is passed through a thin nickel foil in the interaction chamber. From the decrease in intensity as a function of the target distance one may extract a decay curve from which the lifetime can be derived. The advantages of this new set-up, in comparison to former experiments [4, 5] will be discussed and the results of a preliminary data analysis will be presented.