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Publications by
Maxim Tschernajew

All publications of HI Jena


S. Haedrich, E. Shestaev, M. Tschernajew, F. Stutzki, N. Walther, F. Just, M. Kienel, I. Seres, P. Jojart, Z. Bengery, B. Gilicze, Z. Varallyay, A. Borzsonyi, M. Mueller, C. Grebing, A. Klenke, D. Hoff, G. Paulus, T. Eidam, and J. Limpert
Carrier-envelope phase stable few-cycle laser system delivering more than 100 W, 1 mJ, sub-2-cycle pulses
Optics Letters 47, 1537 (2022)

Abstract: Two-stage multipass-cell compression of a fiber-chirpedpulse amplifier system to the few-cycle regime is presented. The output delivers a sub-2-cycle (5.8 fs), 107W average power, 1.07 mJ pulses at 100kHz centered at 1030nm with excellent spatial beam quality (M-2 =1.1, Strehl ratio S = 0.98), pointing stability (2.3 mu rad), and superior long-term average power stability of 0.1% STD over more than 8 hours. This is combined with a carrier-envelope phase stability of 360mrad in the frequency range from 10Hz to 50kHz, i.e., measured on a single-shot basis. This unique system will serve as an HR1 laser for the Extreme Light Infrastructure Attosecond Light Pulse Source research facility to enable high repetition rate isolated attosecond pulse generation


V. Schuster, V. Hilbert, R. Klas, C. Liu, M. Tschernajew, B. Bernhardt, J. Rothhardt, and J. Limpert
Agile spectral tuning of high order harmonics by interference of two driving pulses
Optics Express 29, 22117 (2021)

Abstract: In this work, the experimental realization of a tunable high photon flux extreme ultraviolet light source is presented. This is enabled by high harmonic generation of two temporally delayed driving pulses with a wavelength of 1030 nm, resulting in a tuning range of 0.8 eV at the 19th harmonic at 22.8 eV. The implemented approach allows for fast tuning of the spectrum, is highly flexible and is scalable towards full spectral coverage at higher photon energies.

M. Tschernajew, S. Hadrich, R. Klas, M. Gebhardt, R. Horsten, S. Werdenburg, S. Pyatchenkov, W. Coene, J. Rothhardt, T. Eidam, and J. Limpert
High repetition rate high harmonic generation with ultra-high photon flux

Abstract: High-harmonic generation (HHG) driven by ultrashort laser pulses is an established process for the generation of coherent extreme ultraviolet (XUV) to soft X-ray radiation, which has found widespread use in various applications [1] . In recent years photon-hungry applications such as coherent diffractive imaging [2] , [3] and applications based on statistical analysis [3] have required more powerful HHG sources, in particular, at high repetition rates. This need can be addressed by using high average power fiber lasers as the HHG drivers [4] . Here, we present a HHG-based XUV source, capable of providing a large photon flux across a wide range between 66 eV and 150 eV. It is driven by a commercial XUV beamline from Active Fiber Systems GmbH consisting of 100-W average power fiber-laser system, delivering up to 300 µJ at <300-fs pulse duration. For HHG this system is operated at 100 W, 600 kHz. A post-compression unit is part of the device to shorten the pulses to ~35 fs, the average power remains at 63W. The turnkey source can provide unprecedented photon fluxes of >10 11 photons/s in each harmonic between 69 eV and 75 eV (HH57-HH63). All fluxes are given at the generation point, i.e. directly after the source.


M. Tschernajew, P. Gierschke, H. Lin, V. Hilbert, J. Kurdal, A. Stancalie, J. Limpert, and J. Rothhardt
Differential pumping unit for windowless coupling of laser beams to ultra high vacuum
Vacuum 178, 109443 (2020)

Abstract: Current laser technology enables table-top high flux XUV sources with photon energies from several tens to several hundreds of eV via high harmonic generation in noble gases. Here we present a compact versatile coupling unit to establish windowless, and thus lossless coupling of such light sources to ultra high vacuum (UHV). The particular coupling unit has been developed to couple a XUV laser source to a heavy ion storage ring. Three-stage differential pumping allows to reduce the input pressure of ~10−6 mbar down to the 10−12 mbar range at the output. The unit particularly reduces the partial pressure of argon, which is used to generate the XUV radiation, by 6 orders of magnitude. Measurements of the pressure distribution inside the different chambers agree well with theoretical simulations. In principle, this unit can also serve for other purposes, where a windowless vacuum coupling is needed, with a transition from High Vacuum (HV) levels to deep UHV, such as coupling to cryogenically cooled detectors, ion traps or to photoelectron emission spectroscopy experiments.

V. Hilbert, M. Tschernajew, R. Klas, J. Limpert, and J. Rothhardt
A compact, turnkey, narrow-bandwidth, tunable, and high-photon-flux extreme ultraviolet source
AIP Advances 10, 045227 (2020)

Abstract: We report on a compact high-photon-flux extreme ultraviolet (XUV) source based on high harmonic generation. A high XUV-photon flux (>10¹³ photons/s) is achieved at 21.8 eV and 26.6 eV. The narrow spectral bandwidth (ΔE/E < 10⁻³) of the generated harmonics is in the range of state-of-the-art synchrotron beamlines and enables high resolution spectroscopy experiments. The robust design based on a fiber– laser system enables turnkey-controlled and even remotely controlled operation outside specialized laser laboratories, which opens the way for a variety of applications.

M. Tschernajew, S. Hädrich, R. Klas, M. Gebhardt, R. Horsten, S. Weerdenburg, S. Pyatchenkov, W. Coene, J. Rothhardt, T. Eidam, and . others
High Repetition Rate High Harmonic Generation with Ultra-high Photon Flux

Abstract: A 100W fiber laser system is used to drive a high repetition rate HHG beamline producing record-high photon flux of >10^11 photons/s at 69-75eV and >10^10 photons/s for harmonics between 115eV and 140eV.


G. Tadesse, W. Eschen, R. Klas, M. Tschernajew, T. Frederik, M. Steinert, M. Zilk, V. Schuster, M. Zürch, T. Pertsch, C. Spielmann, J. Limpert, and J. Rothhardt
Wavelength-scale ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging using a high-order harmonic source
Scientific Reports 9, 1735 (2019)

Abstract: Ptychography enables coherent diffractive imaging (CDI) of extended samples by raster scanning across the illuminating XUV/X-ray beam, thereby generalizing the unique advantages of CDI techniques. Table- top realizations of this method are urgently needed for many applications in sciences and industry. Previously, it was only possible to image features much larger than the illuminating wavelength with table-top ptychography although knife-edge tests suggested sub-wavelength resolution. However, most real-world imaging applications require resolving of the smallest and closely-spaced features of a sample in an extended field of view. In this work, resolving features as small as 2.5 \lambda (45 nm) using a table-top ptychography setup is demonstrated by employing a high-order harmonic XUV source with record-high photon flux. For the first time, a Rayleigh-type criterion is used as a direct and unambiguous resolution metric for high-resolution table-top setup. This reliably qualifies this imaging system for real-world applications e.g. in biological sciences, material sciences, imaging integrated circuits and semiconductor mask inspection.


R. Klas, A. Kirsche, M. Tschernajew, J. Rothhardt, and J. Limpert
Annular beam driven high harmonic generation for high flux coherent XUV and soft X-ray radiation
Optics Express 26, 19318 (2018)

Abstract: Separation of the high average power driving laser beam from the generated XUV to soft-X-ray radiation poses great challenges in collinear HHG setups due to the losses and the limited power handling capabilities of the typically used separating optics. This paper demonstrates the potential of driving HHG with annular beams, which allow for a straightforward and power scalable separation via a simple pinhole, resulting in a measured driving laser suppression of 5⋅10−3. The approach is characterized by an enormous flexibility as it can be applied to a broad range of input parameters and generated photon energies. Phase matching aspects are analyzed in detail and an HHG conversion efficiency that is only 27% lower than using a Gaussian beam under identical conditions is demonstrated, revealing the viability of the annular beam approach for high flux coherent short-wavelength sources and high