Abstract: Coherent control of quantum dynamics is key to a multitude of fundamental studies and applications1. In the visible or longer-wavelength domains, near-resonant light fields have become the primary tool with which to control electron dynamics2. Recently, coherent control in the extreme-ultraviolet range was demonstrated3, with a few-attosecond temporal resolution of the phase control. At hard-X-ray energies (above 5--10 kiloelectronvolts), Mössbauer nuclei feature narrow nuclear resonances due to their recoilless absorption and emission of light, and spectroscopy of these resonances is widely used to study the magnetic, structural and dynamical properties of matter4,5. It has been shown that the power and scope of Mössbauer spectroscopy can be greatly improved using various control techniques6--16. However, coherent control of atomic nuclei using suitably shaped near-resonant X-ray fields remains an open challenge. Here we demonstrate such control, and use the tunable phase between two X-ray pulses to switch the nuclear exciton dynamics between coherent enhanced excitation and coherent enhanced emission. We present a method of shaping single pulses delivered by state-of-the-art X-ray facilities into tunable double pulses, and demonstrate a temporal stability of the phase control on the few-zeptosecond timescale. Our results unlock coherent optical control for nuclei, and pave the way for nuclear Ramsey spectroscopy17 and spin-echo-like techniques, which should not only advance nuclear quantum optics18, but also help to realize X-ray clocks and frequency standards19. In the long term, we envision time-resolved studies of nuclear out-of-equilibrium dynamics, which is a long-standing challenge in Mössbauer science20.
Abstract: Bessel beams are remarkable since they do not diverge. Accordingly, they have numerous applications ranging from precision laser micro-machining to laser particle acceleration. We demonstrate a novel approach for generating long-range Gauss-Bessel beams. A ring-shaped beam is produced by imprinting a vortex with high topological charge in a Gaussian beam. The phase singularities are thereafter removed and the ring-shaped beam focused/Fourier-transformed by a thin lens. This results in a remarkably good realization of a Gauss- Bessel beam. Divergence angles in the microradian range and Gauss-Bessel beam lengths up to 2.5 m behind the focal plane of the lens are demonstrated.
Abstract: This paper reports on nonlinear spectral broadening of 1.1ps pulses in a gas-filled multi-pass cell to generate sub-100fs optical pulses at 1030nm and 515nm at pulse energies of 0.8mJ and 225\textdollar µ \textdollar J, respectively, for pump--probe experiments at the free-electron laser FLASH. Combining a 100kHz Yb:YAG laser with\textasciitilde 180W in-burst average power and a post-compression platform enables reaching simultaneously high average powers and short pulse durations for high-repetition-rate FEL pump--probe experiments.
Abstract: This work presents the improvements in the design and testing of polarimeters based on channel-cut crystals for nuclear resonant scattering experiments at the 14.4 keV resonance of Fe-57. By using four asymmetric reflections at asymmetry angles of alpha(1) = -28 degrees, alpha(2) = 28 degrees, alpha(3) = -28 degrees and alpha(4) = 28 degrees, the degree of polarization purity could be improved to 2.2 x 10(-9). For users, an advanced polarimeter without beam offset is now available at beamline P01 of the storage ring PETRA III.
Abstract: Dichroism is one of the most important optical effects in both the visible and the X-ray range. Besides absorption, scattering can also contribute to dichroism. This paper demonstrates that, based on the example of polyimide, materials can show tiny dichroism even far from electronic resonances due to scattering. Although the effect is small, it can lead to a measurable polarization change and might have influence on highly sensitive polarimetric experiments.
Abstract: The generation of high order harmonics from femtosecond mid-IR laser pulses in ZnO has shown great potential to reveal new insight into the ultrafast electron dynamics on a few femtosecond timescale. In this work we report on the experimental investigation of photoluminescence and high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in a ZnO single crystal and polycrystalline thin film irradiated with intense femtosecond mid-IR laser pulses. The ellipticity dependence of the HHG process is experimentally studied up to the 17th harmonic order for various driving laser wavelengths in the spectral range 3-4 mu m. Interband Zener tunneling is found to exhibit a significant excitation efficiency drop for circularly polarized strong-field pump pulses. For higher harmonics with energies larger than the bandgap, the measured ellipticity dependence can be quantitatively described by numerical simulations based on the density matrix equations. The ellipticity dependence of the below and above ZnO band gap harmonics as a function of the laser wavelength provides an efficient method for distinguishing the dominant HHG mechanism for different harmonic orders.
Abstract: High-brilliance synchrotron radiation sources have opened new avenues for x-ray polarization analysis that go far beyond conventional polarimetry in the optical domain. With linear x-ray polarizers in a crossed setting, polarization extinction ratios down to 10⁻¹⁰ can be achieved. This renders the method sensitive to probe the tiniest optical anisotropies that would occur, for example, in strong-field quantum electrodynamics due to vacuum birefringence and dichroism. Here we show that high-purity polarimetry can be employed to reveal electronic anisotropies in condensed matter systems with utmost sensitivity and spectral resolution. Taking CuO and La₂CuO₄ as benchmark systems, we present a full characterization of the polarization changes across the Cu K-absorption edge and their separation into dichroic and birefringent contributions. At diffraction-limited synchrotron radiation sources and x-ray lasers, where polarization extinction ratios of 10⁻¹² can be achieved, our method has the potential to assess birefringence and dichroism of the quantum vacuum in extreme electromagnetic fields.
Abstract: We present a theoretical study on the elastic Rayleigh scattering of x-ray photons by closed-shell atoms. Special attention is paid to the transfer of linear polarization from the incident to the outgoing photons. To study this process, we apply the density-matrix formalism combined with the relativistic perturbation theory. This formalism enables us to find general relations between the Stokes parameters of the incident and scattered photons. By using these expressions, we revisit the recent proposal to use Rayleigh scattering for the analysis of the polarization purity of synchrotron radiation. We show that this analysis can be performed without any need for the theoretically calculated scattering amplitudes, if the linear polarization of the scattered light is measured simultaneously at the azimuthal angles 0 degrees and 45 degrees with respect to the plane of the synchrotron. To illustrate our approach, we present detailed calculations for scattering of 145 keV photons by lead atoms.
Abstract: We study the simulation of the topological phases in three subsequent dimensions with quantum walks. We focus mainly on the completion of a table for the protocols of the quantum walk that could simulate different families of the topological phases in one, two, and three dimensions. We also highlight the possible boundary states that can be observed for each protocol in different dimensions and extract the conditions for their emergences. To further enrich the simulation of the topological phenomena, we include step-dependent coins in the evolution operators of the quantum walks. This leads to step dependence of the simulated topological phenomena and their properties which introduces dynamicity as a feature of simulated topological phases and boundary states. This dynamicity provides the step number of the quantum walk as a means to control and engineer the numbers of topological phases and boundary states, their numbers, types, and even occurrences.
Abstract: We introduce a setup to measure high-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering at the High Energy Density scientific instrument at the European X-Ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL). The setup uses the Si (533) reflection in a channel-cut monochromator and three spherical diced analyzer crystals in near-backscattering geometry to reach a high spectral resolution. An energy resolution of 44 meV is demonstrated for the experimental setup, close to the theoretically achievable minimum resolution. The analyzer crystals and detector are mounted on a curved-rail system, allowing quick and reliable changes in scattering angle without breaking vacuum. The entire setup is designed for operation at 10 Hz, the same repetition rate as the high-power lasers available at the instrument and the fundamental repetition rate of the European XFEL. Among other measurements, it is envisioned that this setup will allow studies of the dynamics of highly transient laser generated states of matter.
Abstract: The structure and dynamics of molecules are governed by the electric forces acting between electrons and nuclei. Intense, ultrashort laser pulses offer the possibility to manipulate these forces, on the time scales relevant for the motion of a molecule's constituents. Thus, laser fields can act, not only as a mechanism to trigger molecular dynamics, but also controlling them. The fragmentation patterns that result from the interaction testify to the laser-induced processes occurring in the molecule. In this review, we examine how a laser addresses the different degrees of freedom of a molecule, from electronic excitation to vibrations of nuclei, to rotations of the molecule. We will focus the discussion on the most fundamental systems, particularly H2+, H2, and HeH+. These simple systems allow for accurate theoretical analysis of experimental results, and extrapolation of the conclusions to more complex systems. Since some of the most fundamental molecules, such as HeH+ and H3+ do not exist in the neutral form, we put an emphasis on experiments starting from molecular ions, but do not restrict the discussion to these. Strong-field interactions of small molecules are a test ground, not only for experimental but also for theoretical methods. The joint effort of the two scientific disciplines have delivered deep insights into fundamental concepts of molecular science. The recent developments of novel laser sources with longer wavelength, higher peak power, or repetition rates, as well as more complex targets and detection schemes, promise that the field will remain highly relevant in the decades to come.
Abstract: This work presents a review on the effect of transverse mode instability in highpower fiber laser systems and the corresponding investigations led worldwide over the past decade. This paper includes a description of the experimental observations and the physical origin of this effect, as well as some of the proposed mitigation strategies.
Abstract: We present on THz generation in the two-color gas plasma scheme driven by a high-power, ultrafast fiber laser system. The applied scheme is a promising approach for scaling the THz average power but it has been limited so far by the driving lasers to repetition rates up to 1 kHz. Here, we demonstrate recent results of THz generation operating at a two orders of magnitude higher repetition rate. This results in a unprecedented THz average power of 50 mW. The development of compact, table-top THz sources with high repetition rate and high field strength is crucial for studying nonlinear responses of materials, particle acceleration or faster data acquisition in imaging and spectroscopy.
Abstract: Aims. In the context of black-hole accretion disks, we aim to compute the plasma-environment effects on the atomic parameters used to model the decay of K-vacancy states in moderately charged iron ions, namely Fe IX - Fe XVI. Methods. We used the fully relativistic multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock method approximating the plasma electron-nucleus and electron-electron screenings with a time-averaged Debye-Hückel potential. Results. We report modified ionization potentials, K-threshold energies, wavelengths, radiative emission rates, and Auger widths for plasmas characterized by electron temperatures and densities in the ranges 105-107 K and 1018-1022 cm-3. Conclusions. This study confirms that the high-resolution X-ray spectrometers onboard the future XRISM and Athena space missions will be capable of detecting the lowering of the K edges of these ions due to the extreme plasma conditions occurring in accretion disks around compact objects.
Abstract: Scattering of light on relativistic heavy ion beams is widely used for characterizing and tuning the properties of both the light and the ion beam. Its elastic component-Rayleigh scattering-is investigated in this work for photon energies close to certain electronic transitions because of its potential usage in the Gamma Factory initiative at CERN. The angle-differential cross-section, as well as the degree of polarization of the scattered light are investigated for the cases of 1s - 2p1/2 and 1s - 2p3/2 resonance transitions in H-like lead ions. In order to gauge the validity and uncertainty of frequently used approximations, we compare different methods. In particular, rigorous quantum electrodynamics calculations are compared with the resonant electric-dipole approximation evaluated within the relativistic and nonrelativistic formalisms. For better understanding of the origin of the approximation, the commonly used theoretical approach is explained here in detail. We find that in most cases, the nonrelativistic resonant electric-dipole approximation fails to describe the properties of the scattered light. At the same time, its relativistic variant agrees with the rigorous treatment within a level of 10% to 20%. These findings are essential for the design of an experimental setup exploiting the scattering process, as well as for the determination of the scattered light properties.
Abstract: High-energy completeness of quantum electrodynamics (QED) can be induced by an interacting ultraviolet fixed point of the renormalization flow. We provide evidence for the existence of two of such fixed points in the subspace spanned by the gauge coupling, the electron mass and the Pauli spin-field coupling. Renormalization group trajectories emanating from these fixed points correspond to asymptotically safe theories that are free from the Landau pole problem. We analyze the resulting universality classes defined by the fixed points, determine the corresponding critical exponents, study the resulting phase diagram, and quantify the stability of our results with respect to a systematic expansion scheme. We also compute high-energy complete flows towards the long-range physics. We observe the existence of a renormalization group trajectory that interconnects one of the interacting fixed points with the physical low-energy behavior of QED as measured in experiment. Within pure QED, we estimate the crossover from perturbative QED to the asymptotically safe fixed point regime to occur somewhat above the Planck scale but far below the scale of the Landau pole.
Abstract: In order to classify and understand structure of the spacetime, investigation of the geodesic motions of massive and massless particles is a key tool. So the geodesic equation is a central equation of gravitating systems and the subject of geodesics in the black hole dictionary attracted much attention. In this paper, we give a full description of geodesic motions in three-dimensional spacetime. We investigate the geodesics near charged BTZ black holes and then generalize our prescriptions to the case of massive gravity. We show that electric charge is a critical parameter for categorizing the geodesic motions of both lightlike and timelike particles. In addition, we classify the type of geodesics based on the particle properties and geometry of spacetime.
Abstract: We present a study of laser-driven ion acceleration with micrometre and sub-micrometre thick targets, which focuses on the enhancement of the maximum proton energy and the total number of accelerated particles at the PHELIX facility. Using laser pulses with a nanosecond temporal contrast of up to and an intensity of the order of, proton energies up to 93 MeV are achieved. Additionally, the conversion efficiency at incidence angle was increased when changing the laser polarization to p, enabling similar proton energies and particle numbers as in the case of normal incidence and s-polarization, but reducing the debris on the last focusing optic.
Abstract: The present status of the fully-relativistic nonperturbative calculations of the fundamental atomic processes with twisted electrons is presented. In particular, the elastic (Mott) scattering, the radiative recombination, and for the very first time, the Bremsstrahlung processes are considered. The electron-ion interaction is accounted for in a nonperturbative manner, that allows obtaining reliable results for heavy systems. We investigate the influence of the "twistedness" of the incoming electron on the angular and polarization properties of the emitted electrons and photons for the elastic and inelastic scattering, respectively. It is found that these properties exhibit a strong dependence on the opening angle of the vortex electron beam in all processes considered.
Abstract: Synopsis We present non-destructive single-pass ion bunch detection and characterisation by measuring the induced image charge in a detection electrode. The presented technique allows direct determination of ion kinetic energy, absolute ion number and spatial ion bunch length. We will show the results of corresponding measurements with bunches of low-energy highly charged ions and discuss the minimum detectable number of charges.
Abstract: We discuss the electron-optical properties of a toroidal magnetic sector spectrometer and its suitablilty for electron-positron pair spectroscopy in relativistic ion-atom collisions in the future HESR storage ring at FAIR. With the simultaneous mapping of electrons and positrons and geometric invariants in the lepton trajectorties this instrument offers a very high efficiency for studies of vector momentum correlation in free-free pair production.
Abstract: A concept of a high resolution asymmetric von Hamos X-ray spectrometer for the CRYRING@ESR electron cooler is described and its characteristics obtained by ray-tracing Monte-Carlo simulations are presented. The spectrometer will be used to study the QED e-ects in H-like medium-Z ions by measuring the energies of X-rays from radiative recombination of highly charged ions with cooling electrons, with a ppm precision of energy determination.
Abstract: A detector setup for registering ion species between the poles of a dipole magnet at CRYRING@ESR has been developed. It is based on a scintillator delivering light via a quartz light guide onto a semiconductor photomultiplier. The detector is capable of operating in a strong magnetic field. It can be swiftly retracted from the exposition area during the beam injection into the ring and repositioned back for the measurement cycle to avoid unnecessary exposition and, thus, to increase the scintillator life time.
Abstract: We present a Penning-trap-based setup for the study of light-matter interactions in the high-power and/or high-intensity laser regime, such as multi-photon ionization and field ionization. The setup applies ioncloud formation techniques to highly charged ions to the end of specific target preparation, as well as nondestructive detection techniques to identify and quantify the interaction educts and products.
Abstract: In this work, we present a pilot experiment in the experimental storage ring (ESR) at GSI devoted to impact parameter sensitive studies of inner shell atomic processes for bare and He-like xenon ions (Xe54+, Xe52+) colliding with neutral xenon gas atoms. The projectile and target x-rays have been measured at different observation angles for all impact parameters as well as for the impact parameter range of ∼35 - 70 fm.
Abstract: A new approach to accurately assess multiphoton ionization is suggested. Vanishing of the dominant ionization channel in nonresonant (direct) multiphoton ionization is predicted for a specific incident photon energy. The exact energy position of such nonlinear Cooper minimum can be accurately measured and requires calculations of the complete electronic spectrum. Measurements of various observables at these photon energies are desirable for further evaluation of theoretical calculations at hitherto unreachable accuracy.
Abstract: This contribution is based on the plenary presentation at the 14th International Conference on Heavy Ion Accelerator Technology (HIAT-2018) in Lanzhou, China. Heavy-ion storage rings offer unparalleled opportunities for precision experiments in the realm of nuclear structure, atomic physics and astrophysics. A brief somewhat biased review of the presently ongoing research programs is given as well as the future projects are outlined. The limited space does not allow for detailed description of individual experiments, which shall - to some extent - be compensated by extended bibliography.
Abstract: A detector based on the scintillator material YAP:Ce and capable of counting single ions is presented. The detector consists of a YAP:Ce crystal and a light guide operating in ultra high vacuum and a conventional photomultiplier outside the vacuum. The crystal demonstrated the necessary radiation hardness against heavy ion irradiation. The detector has been commissioned at CRYRING@ESR and its detection capabilities have been confirmed with beam from the local source.
Abstract: Single and multiple photoionization of Si1+, Si2+, and Si3+ ions have been investigated near the silicon K-edge using the PIPE setup at beamline P04 of the synchrotron light source PETRA III operated by DESY in Hamburg, Germany. Pronounced resonance structures are observed for all ions which are associated with excitation or ionization of a K-shell electron. The experimental cross sections are compared with results from theoretical calculations.
Abstract: CRYRING was moved from Stockholm to Darmstadt, modernized and integrated into the GSI/FAIR beamline topology behind ESR. As CRYRING@ESR, it will receive and store heavy, highly charged ions from all species the present accelerator chain is capable of producing. An extensive research program on low-energy atomic collisions, spectroscopy and nuclear reactions was proposed. The facility is gradually completing commissioning, ion beams from the local injector branch have already been stored and prototype experiments performed. We present the machine status and highlight some planned experiments.
Abstract: Ion-ion collisions between slow (kev/u) and fast (MeV/u) ions play an important role in for example astrophysical or inertial fusion plasmas as well as in ion-matter interaction. In this regime the energy transfer is maximum, as all primary electronic processes reach their maximum. At the same time up to today no reliable experimental data exists while being difficult to treat accurately by theory. We present the current status and performance of the low energy beam-line of the FISIC experiment which aims at filling in the blanks in this regime.
Abstract: Stored and cooled highly-charged ions offer unprecedented capabilities for precision studies in realm of atomic-, nuclear-structure and astrophysics. In context of the latter, after the successful investigation of the cross section of 96Ru(p,γ) in 2009, in 2016 the first measurement of the 124Xe(p,γ)125Cs reaction was performed at the Experimental Storage Ring (ESR) at GSI.
Abstract: Luminosity is a measure of the colliding frequency between beam and target and it is a crucial parameter for the measurement of absolute values, such as reaction cross sections. In this paper, we make use of experimental data from the ESR storage ring to demonstrate that the luminosity can be precisely determined by modelling the measured Rutherford scattering distribution. The obtained results are in good agreement with an independent measurement based on the x-ray normalization method. Our new method provides an alternative way to precisely measure the luminosity in low-energy stored-beam configurations. This can be of great value in particular in dedicated low-energy storage rings where established methods are difficult or impossible to apply.
Abstract: Attosecond light sources have provided insight into the fastest atomic-scale electronic dynamics. True attosecond-pump–attosecond-probe experiments require a single attosecond pulse at high intensity and large photon energy, a challenge that has yet to be conquered. Here we show 100-TW single attosecond x-ray pulses with unprecedented intensity of 1021 W/cm2 and duration 8.0 as can be produced by intense laser irradiation of a capacitor-nanofoil target composed of two separate nanofoils. In the interaction, a strong electrostatic potential develops between the two foils, which drags electrons out of the second foil and piles them up in vacuum, forming an ultradense relativistic electron nanobunch. This nanobunch reaches both high density and high energy in only half a laser cycle and smears out in others, resulting in coherent synchrotron emission of a single, intense attosecond pulse. Such a pulse enables the capture and control of electron motion at the picometer–attosecond scale.
Abstract: We present a study on temperature dependent spectroscopic data for Yb:KGW, Yb:KYW and Yb:YLF between 80K and 280K and Yb:YAP between 100K and 300 K. Absorption and emission cross sections are determined. The latter ones are obtained by using a combination of the McCumber relation and the Füchtbauer-Ladenburg equation. Fluorescence lifetimes are measured within a setup optimized for the suppression of re-absorption and compared to the radiative lifetimes calculated from the previously determined cross sections to cross check the validity of the measurements. The cross sections are evaluated with regard to the materials' potential for supporting the generation of ultra-short laser pulses, low quantum defect lasing and requirements for suitable diode laser pump sources.
Abstract: The exact knowledge of optical material parameters is crucial for laser systems design. Therefore, the work reported herein was dedicated to the determination of an important parameter that is typically not known or only known with insufficient precision: the Kerr coefficient determined by the third order non-linearity, also called the n2-parameter. The optical Kerr effect is responsible for the accumulated nonlinear phase (the B-integral) in high energy laser amplifiers, which often represents a serious limitation. Therefore, the knowledge of n2 is especially required for new types of laser materials. In this paper we report measurements carried out on the widely used optical material Ytterbium-doped Yttrium Aluminium Garnet (Yb:YAG) ceramics. Furthermore, the new Neodymium-doped Calcium Fluoride (Nd:CaF2) crystal was investigated. Specifically, three different approaches have been employed to determine experimentally the nonlinear refractive index of these materials. Thus classical Z-scan technique (at two different wavelengths), the degenerated four waves mixing and the time-resolved digital holography techniques, were compared. These different approaches have permitted the precise measurements of these parameters as well as their dispersion estimations.
Abstract: A compact, femtosecond-pumped noncollinear optical parametric amplifier (NOPA) is presented with a passive spectral shaping technique, employed to produce a flat-top-like ultrabroadband output spectrum. The NOPA is pumped by a dedicated 2 mJ, 120 fs Yb3+- based CPA system, which generates both the second harmonic pump pulse and white light supercontinuum as the signal pulse. A chirped mirror pair pre-compensates the material GVD within the optical path of the signal pulse to produce a near-FTL pulse duration at the OPA crystal output. By optimizing both the pump/signal cross angle and the pump/signal delay, the 40 cm × 40 cm footprint, single-pass, fs-pumped, direct NOPA (non-NOPCPA) system generates a record 20 μJ, 11 fs pulses at 820 nm central wavelength with a bandwidth of 230 nm FWHM, to be used as an ultrashort optical probe pulse for relativistic laser-plasma interactions at the petawatt-class POLARIS laser system.
Abstract: We present a flexible all-polarization-maintaining (PM) mode-locked ytterbium (Yb):fiber laser based on a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror (NALM). In addition to providing detailed design considerations, we discuss the different operation regimes accessible by this versatile laser architecture and experimentally analyze five representative mode-locking states. These five states were obtained in a 78-MHz configuration at different intracavity group delay dispersion (GDD) values ranging from anomalous (-0.035 ps2) to normal (+0.015 ps2). We put a particular focus on the characterization of the intensity noise as well as the free-running linewidth of the carrier-envelope-offset (CEO) frequency as a function of the different operation regimes. We observe that operation points far from the spontaneous emission peak of Yb (~1030 nm) and close to zero intracavity dispersion can be found, where the influence of pump noise is strongly suppressed. For such an operation point, we show that a CEO linewidth of less than 10-kHz at 1 s integration can be obtained without any active stabilization.
Abstract: A systematic study of nonsequential double ionization (NSDI) of alkaline-earth metal atoms with mid-infrared femtosecond pulses is reported. We find that the measured NSDI yield shows a strong target dependence and it is more suppressed for alkaline-earth metal with higher ionization potential. The observation is attributed to the differences in the recollision induced excitation and ionization cross sections of alkaline-earth metals. This work indicates that NSDI of alkaline-earth metals can be generally understood within recollision picture and sheds light on ultrafast control of electron correlation and dynamics of ionic excited states during NSDI of atoms with complex structures.
Abstract: A simplification strategy for segmented mirror splitters (SMS) used as beam combiners is presented. These devices are useful for compact beam division and the combination of linear and 2-D arrays. However, the standard design requires unique thin-film coating sections for each input beam; thus, potential for scaling to high beam-counts is limited due to manufacturing complexity. Taking advantage of the relative insensitivity of the beam combination process to amplitude variations, numerical techniques are used to optimize highly simplified designs with only one, two or three unique coatings. It is demonstrated that with correctly chosen coating reflectivities, the simplified optics are capable of high combination efficiency for several tens of beams. The performance of these optics as beam splitters in multicore fiber amplifier systems is analyzed, and inhomogeneous power distribution of the simplified designs is noted as a potential source of combining loss in such systems. These simplified designs may facilitate further scaling of filled-aperture coherently combined systems in linear array or 2-D array formats.
Abstract: An ultrafast laser delivering 10.4 kW average output power based on a coherent combination of 12 step-index fiber amplifiers is presented. The system emits close-to-transform-limited 254 fs pulses at an 80 MHz repetition rate, and has a high beam quality (M2 ≤ 1.2) and a low relative intensity noise of 0.56% in the frequency range of 1 Hz to 1 MHz. Automated spatiotemporal alignment allows for hands-off operation.
Abstract: In this work, we demonstrate a discrete dispersion scan scheme using a low number of flat windows to vary the dispersion of laser pulses in discrete steps. Monte Carlo simulations indicate that the pulse duration can be retrieved accurately with less than 10 dispersion steps, which we verify experimentally by measuring few-cycle pulses and material dispersion curves at 3 and 10 µm wavelength. This minimal measuring scheme using only five optical components without the need for linear positioners and interferometric alignment can be readily implemented in many wavelength ranges and situations.
Abstract: We present a novel, to the best of our knowledge, Hartmann wave front sensor for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral range with a numerical aperture (NA) of 0.15. The sensor has been calibrated using an EUV radiation source based on gas high harmonic generation. The calibration, together with simulation results, shows an accuracy beyond λ/39 root mean square (rms) at λ = 32 nm. The sensor is suitable for wave front measurement in the 10 nm to 45 nm spectral regime. This compact wave front sensor is high-vacuum compatible and designed for in situ operations, allowing wide applications for up-to-date EUV sources or high-NA EUV optics.
Abstract: We report on a comparative study of strong-field ionization of alkaline-earth-metal atoms by intense femtosecond laser pulses from near-infrared to midinfrared wavelengths. By collecting the ionization signals only produced within the central portion of the laser focus, the focus volume effect is largely reduced and the saturation intensities for different alkaline-earth-metal atoms are reliably determined, which permits us to directly test the strong-field-ionization theories. We demonstrate that the Perelomov-Popov-Terent'ev model accurately predicts the experimental ionization yields and saturation intensities in general for arbitrary values of the Keldysh parameter, while the Ammosov-Delone-Krainov simulations agree with the experiments for the tunneling-ionization regime and also for the regime when the Keldysh parameter is around 1. Our work presents benchmark data for strong-field ionization of alkaline-earth metals over a broad range of laser parameters and confirms the validity of Keldysh's picture for such atoms.
Abstract: Understanding the behaviour of matter under conditions of extreme temperature, pressure, density and electromagnetic fields has profound effects on our understanding of cosmologic objects and the formation of the universe. Lacking direct access to such objects, our interpretation of observed data mainly relies on theoretical models. However, such models, which need to encompass nuclear physics, atomic physics and plasma physics over a huge dynamic range in the dimensions of energy and time, can only provide reliable information if we can benchmark them to experiments under well-defined laboratory conditions. Due to the plethora of effects occurring in this kind of highly excited matter, characterizing isolated dynamics or obtaining direct insight remains challenging. High-density plasmas are turbulent and opaque for radiation below the plasma frequency and allow only near-surface insight into ionization processes with visible wavelengths. Here, the output of a high-harmonic seeded laser-plasma amplifier using eight-fold ionized krypton as the gain medium operating at a 32.8 nm wavelength is ptychographically imaged. A complex-valued wavefront is observed in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) beam with high resolution. Ab initio spatio-temporal Maxwell-Bloch simulations show excellent agreement with the experimental observations, revealing overionization of krypton in the plasma channel due to nonlinear laser-plasma interactions, successfully validating this four-dimensional multiscale model. This constitutes the first experimental observation of the laser ion abundance reshaping a laser-plasma amplifier. The presented approach shows the possibility of directly modelling light-plasma interactions in extreme conditions, such as those present during the early times of the universe, with direct experimental verification.
Abstract: In this work we analyze the power scaling potential of amplifying multicore fibers (MCFs) used in coherently combined systems. In particular, in this study we exemplarily consider rod-type MCFs with 2 × 2 up to 10 × 10 ytterbium-doped cores arranged in a squared pattern. We will show that, even though increasing the number of active cores will lead to higher output powers, particular attention has to be paid to arising thermal effects, which potentially degrade the performance of these systems. Additionally, we analyze the influence of the core dimensions on the extractable and combinable output power and pulse energy. This includes a detailed study on the thermal effects that influence the propagating transverse modes and, in turn, the amplification efficiency, the combining efficiency, the onset of nonlinear effect, as well as differences in the optical path lengths between the cores. Considering all these effects under rather extreme conditions, the study predicts that average output powers higher than 10 kW from a single 1 m long ytterbium-doped MCF are feasible and femtosecond pulses with energies higher than 400 mJ can be extracted and efficiently recombined in a filled-aperture scheme.
Abstract: We present a carrier-envelope offset (CEO) stable ytterbium-doped fiber chirped-pulse amplification system employing the technology of coherent beam combining and delivering more than 1 kW of average power at a pulse repetition rate of 80 MHz. The CEO stability of the system is 220 mrad rms, characterized out-of-loop with an f-to-2f interferometer in a frequency offset range of 10 Hz to 20 MHz. The high-power amplification system boosts the average power of the CEO stable oscillator by five orders of magnitude while increasing the phase noise by only 100 mrad. No evidence of CEO noise deterioration due to coherent beam combining is found. Low-frequency CEO fluctuations at the chirped-pulse amplifier are suppressed by a slow loop feedback. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a coherently combined laser system delivering an outstanding average power and high CEO stability at the same time.
Abstract: We demonstrate the three-fold post-chirped-pulse-amplification (post-CPA) pulse compression of a high peak power laser pulse using ally) diglycol carbonate (CR39), which was selected as the optimal material for near-field self-phase modulation out of a set of various nonlinear plastic materials, each characterized with respect to its nonlinear refractive index and optical transmission. The investigated materials could be applied for further pulse compression at high peak powers, as well as for gain narrowing compensation within millijoule-class amplifiers. The post-CPA pulse compression technique was tested directly after the first CPA stage within the POLARIS laser system, with the compact setup containing a single 1 mm thick plastic sample and a chirped mirror pair, which enabled a substantial shortening of the compressed pulse duration and, hence, a significant increase in the laser peak power without any additional modifications to the existing CPA chain.
Abstract: We study the resonant two-photon ionization of neutral atoms by a combination of twisted and plane-wave light within a fully relativistic framework. In particular, the ionization of an isotropic ensemble of neutral sodium atoms (Z = 11) from their ground 3 S-2(1/2) state via the 3 P-2(3/2) level is considered. We investigate in details the influence of the kinematic parameters of incoming twisted radiation on the photoelectron angular distribution and the circular dichroism. Moreover, we study the influence of the geometry of the process on these quantities. This is done by changing the propagation directions of the incoming twisted and plane-wave light. It is found that the dependence on the kinematic parameters of the twisted photon is the strongest if the plane-wave and twisted light beams are perpendicular to each other.
Abstract: We study the photon trident process, where an initial photon turns into an electron-positron pair and a final photon under a nonlinear interaction with a strong plane-wave background field. We show that this process is very similar to double Compton scattering, where an electron interacts with the background field and emits two photons. We also show how the one-step terms can be obtained by resumming the small- and large -x expansions. We consider a couple of different resummation methods and also propose new resummations (involving Meijer-G functions) which have the correct type of expansions at both small and large x . These new resummations require relatively few terms to give good precision.