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Publikationen von
Prof. Dr. Eckhart Förster

Alle Publikationen des HI Jena


T. Gassner, A. Gumberidze, M. Trassinelli, R. Heß, U. Spillmann, D. Banaś, K.-H. Blumenhagen, F. Bosch, C. Brandau, W. Chen, C. Dimopoulou, E. Förster, R. Grisenti, S. Hagmann, P.-M. Hillenbrand, P. Indelicato, P. Jagodzinski, T. Kämpfer, M. Lestinsky, D. Liesen, Y. Litvinov, R. Lötzsch, B. Manil, R. Märtin, F. Nolden, N. Petridis, M. Sanjari, K. Schulze, M. Schwemlein, A. Simionovici, M. Steck, Th. Stöhlker, C. Szabo, S. Trotsenko, I. Uschmann, G. Weber, O. Wehrhan, N. Winckler, D. Winters, N. Winters, E. Ziegler, and H. Beyer
High-resolution wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy of K-shell transitions in hydrogen-like gold
X-Ray Spectrometry 49, 204 (2020)

Abstract: We present a measurement of K‐shell transitions in H‐like gold (Au78+) using specially developed transmission type crystal spectrometers combined with Ge(i) microstrip detectors. The experiment has been carried out at the Experimental Storage Ring at GSI in Darmstadt. This is a first high‐resolution wavelength‐dispersive measurement of a K‐shell transition in a high‐Z H‐like ion, thus representing an important milestone in this field. Ideas on possible future improvements are discussed as well.


H. Sawada, Y. Sentoku, T. Yabuuchi, U. Zastrau, E. Förster, F. N. Beg, H. Chen, A. J. Kemp, H. S. McLean, P. K. Patel, and Y. Ping
Monochromatic 2D Kα Emission Images Revealing Short-Pulse Laser Isochoric Heating Mechanism
Physical Review Letters 122, 155002 (2019)

Abstract: The rapid heating of a thin titanium foil by a high intensity, subpicosecond laser is studied by using a 2D narrow-band x-ray imaging and x-ray spectroscopy. A novel monochromatic imaging diagnostic tuned to 4.51 keV Ti K alpha was used to successfully visualize a significantly ionized area (< Z > > 17 +/- 1) of the solid density plasma to be within a similar to 35 mu m diameter spot in the transverse direction and 2 mu m in depth. The measurements and a 2D collisional particle-in-cell simulation reveal that, in the fast isochoric heating of solid foil by an intense laser light, such a high ionization state in solid titanium is achieved by thermal diffusion from the hot preplasma in a few picoseconds after the pulse ends. The shift of K alpha and formation of a missing K alpha cannot be explained with the present atomic physics model. The measured K alpha image is reproduced only when a phenomenological model for the K alpha shift with a threshold ionization of < Z > = 17 is included. This work reveals how the ionization state and electron temperature of the isochorically heated nonequilibrium plasma are independently increased.


Z. Samsonova, S. Höfer, R. Hollinger, T. Kämpfer, I. Uschmann, R. Röder, L. Trefflich, O. Rosmej, E. Förster, C. Ronning, D. Kartashov, and C. Spielmann
Hard X-ray generation from ZnO nanowire targets in a non-relativistic regime of laser-solid interactions
Applied Sciences 8, 1728 (2018)

Abstract: We present a detailed investigation of X-ray emission from both flat and nanowire zinc oxide targets irradiated by 60 fs 5E16 W/cm^2 intensity laser pulses at a 0.8 µm wavelength. It is shown that the fluence of the emitted hard X-ray radiation in the spectral range 150–800 keV is enhanced by at least one order of magnitude for nanowire targets compared to the emission from a flat surface, whereas the characteristic Kα line emission (8.64 keV) is insensitive to the target morphology. Furthermore, we provide evidence for a dramatic increase of the fast electron flux from the front side of the nanostructured targets. We suggest that targets with nanowire morphology may advance the development of compact ultrafast X-ray sources with an enhanced flux of hard X-ray emission that could find wide applications in high energy density (HED) physics.

T. Gassner, M. Trassinelli, R. Heß, U. Spillmann, D. Banas, K.-H. Blumenhagen, F. Bosch, C. Brandau, W. Chen, C. Dimopoulou, E. Förster, R. Grisenti, A. Gumberidze, S. Hagmann, P.-M. Hillenbrand, P. Indelicato, P. Jagodzinski, T. Kämpfer, Ch. Kozhuharov, M. Lestinsky, D. Liesen, Yu. A. Litvinov, R. Loetzsch, B. Manil, R. Märtin, F. Nolden, N. Petridis, M. S. Sanjari, K. Schulze, M. Schwemlein, A. Simionovici, M. Steck, Th. Stöhlker, C. I. Szabo, S. Trotsenko, I. Uschmann, G. Weber, O. Wehrhan, N. Winckler, D. Winters, N. Winters, E. Ziegler, and H. Beyer
Wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy in the hard x-ray regime of a heavy highly-charged ion: the 1s Lamb shift in hydrogen-like gold
New Journal of Physics 20, 073033 (2018)

Abstract: Accurate spectroscopy of highly-charged high-Z ions in a storage ring is demonstrated to be feasible by the use of specially adapted crystal optics. The method has been applied for the measurement of the is Lamb shift in hydrogen-like gold (Au78+) in a storage ring through spectroscopy of the Lyman x-rays. This measurement represents the first result obtained for a high-Z element using high-resolution wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy in the hard x-ray regime, paving the way for sensitivity to higher-order QED effects.

U. Zastrau, C. Rödel, M. Nakatsutsumi, T. Feigl, K. Appel, B. Chen, T. Döppner, T. Fennel, T. Fiedler, L. B. Fletcher, E. Förster, E. Gamboa, D. O. Gericke, S. Göde, C. Grote-Fortmann, V. Hilbert, L. Kazak, T. Laarmann, H. J. Lee, P. Mabey, F. Martinez, K.-H. Meiwes-Broer, H. Pauer, M. Perske, A. Przystawik, S. Roling, S. Skruszewicz, M. Shihab, J. Tiggesbäumker, S. Toleikis, M. Wünsche, H. Zacharias, S. H. Glenzer, and G. Gregori
A sensitive EUV Schwarzschild microscope for plasma studies with sub-micrometer resolution
Review of Scientific Instruments 89, 023703 (2018)

Abstract: We present an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) microscope using a Schwarzschild objective which is optimized for single-shot sub-micrometer imaging of laser-plasma targets. The microscope has been designed and constructed for imaging the scattering from an EUV-heated solid-density hydrogen jet. Imaging of a cryogenic hydrogen target was demonstrated using single pulses of the free-electron laser in Hamburg (FLASH) free-electron laser at a wavelength of 13.5 nm. In a single exposure, we observe a hydrogen jet with ice fragments with a spatial resolution in the sub-micrometer range. In situ EUV imaging is expected to enable novel experimental capabilities for warm dense matter studies of micrometer-sized samples in laser-plasma experiments.


Z. Samsonova, S. Höfer, A. Hoffmann, B. Landgraf, M. Zürch, I. Uschmann, D. Khaghani, O. Rosmej, P. Neumayer, R. Röder, L. Trefflich, C. Ronning, E. Förster, C. Spielmann, and D. Kartashov
X-ray emission generated by laser-produced plasmas from dielectric nanostructured targets
AIP Conference Proceedings 1811, 180001 (2017)

Abstract: We present an experimental study of X-ray generation from nanostructured ZnO targets. Samples of different morphology ranging from nanowires to polished surfaces are irradiated by relativistically intense femtosecond laser pulses. X-ray emission of plasma is generated by 45 fs 130 mJ laser pulses at 400 nm with picosecond temporal contrast better than 1E−9 interacting with an array of ZnO nanowires. The measured spectra indicate the existence of highly ionized states of Zn (up to He-like Zn). The obtained flux of ∼1E10 photons per laser shot at the neutral Zn Kα energies around 8.65 keV and at the Zn Heα energies around 9 keV is almost 3 times higher for nanostructured targets compared to the reference polished sample and implies 1E−4 conversion efficiency from the laser energy to the total energy of the emitted X-ray photons.


H. Bernhardt, B. Marx-Glowna, K. Schulze, B. Grabiger, J. Haber, C. Detlefs, R. Lötzsch, T. Kämpfer, R. Röhlsberger, E. Förster, Th. Stöhlker, I. Uschmann, and G. G. Paulus
High purity x-ray polarimetry with single-crystal diamonds
Applied Physics Letters 109, 121106 (2016)

Abstract: We report on the use of synthetic single-crystal diamonds for high purity x-ray polarimetry to improve the polarization purity of present-day x-ray polarimeters. The polarimeter setup consists of a polarizer and an analyzer, each based on two parallel diamond crystals used at a Bragg angle close to 45°. The experiment was performed using one (400) Bragg reflection on each diamond crystal and synchrotron undulator radiation at an x-ray energy of 9838.75 eV. A polarization purity of 8.9 × 10−10 was measured at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, which is the best value reported for two-reflection polarizer/analyzer setups. This result is encouraging and is a first step to improve the resolution of x-ray polarimeters further by using diamond crystal polarizers and analyzers with four or six consecutive reflections.

M. Lestinsky, V. Andrianov, B. Aurand, V. Bagnoud, D. Bernhardt, H. Beyer, S. Bishop, K. Blaum, A. Bleile, At. Borovik, F. Bosch, C. Bostock, C. Brandau, A. Bräuning-Demian, I. Bray, T. Davinson, B. Ebinger, A. Echler, P. Egelhof, A. Ehresmann, M. Engström, C. Enss, N. Ferreira, D. Fischer, A. Fleischmann, E. Förster, S. Fritzsche, R. Geithner, S. Geyer, J. Glorius, K. Göbel, O. Gorda, J. Goullon, P. Grabitz, R. Grisenti, A. Gumberidze, S. Hagmann, M. Heil, A. Heinz, F. Herfurth, R. Heß, P.-M. Hillenbrand, R. Hubele, P. Indelicato, A. Källberg, O. Kester, O. Kiselev, A. Knie, C. Kozhuharov, S. Kraft-Bermuth, T. Kühl, G. Lane, Y. Litvinov, D. Liesen, X. Ma, R. Märtin, R. Moshammer, A. Müller, S. Namba, P. Neumayer, T. Nilsson, W. Nörtershäuser, G. G. Paulus, N. Petridis, M. Reed, R. Reifarth, P. Reiß, J. Rothhardt, R. Sanchez, M. Sanjari, S. Schippers, H. Schmidt, D. Schneider, P. Scholz, R. Schuch, M. Schulz, V. Shabaev, A. Simonsson, J. Sjöholm, Ö. Skeppstedt, K. Sonnabend, U. Spillmann, K. Stiebing, M. Steck, T. Stöhlker, A. Surzhykov, S. Torilov, E. Träbert, M. Trassinelli, S. Trotsenko, X. Tu, I. Uschmann, P. Walker, G. Weber, D. Winters, P. Woods, H. Zhao, and Y. Zhang
Physics book: CRYRING@ESR
European Physical Journal Special Topics 225, 797 (2016)

Abstract: The exploration of the unique properties of stored and cooled beams of highly-charged ions as provided by heavy-ion storage rings has opened novel and fascinating research opportunities in the realm of atomic and nuclear physics research. Since the late 1980s, pioneering work has been performed at the CRYRING at Stockholm and at the Test Storage Ring (TSR) at Heidelberg. For the heaviest ions in the highest charge-states, a real quantum jump was achieved in the early 1990s by the commissioning of the Experimental Storage Ring (ESR) at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung (GSI) in Darmstadt where challenging experiments on the electron dynamics in the strong field regime as well as nuclear physics studies on exotic nuclei and at the borderline to atomic physics were performed. Meanwhile also at Lanzhou a heavy-ion storage ring has been taken in operation, exploiting the unique research opportunities in particular for medium-heavy ions and exotic nuclei.

S. Höfer, T. Kämpfer, E. Förster, T. Stöhlker, and I. Uschmann
The formation of rarefaction waves in semiconductors after ultrashort excitation probed by grazing incidence ultrafast time-resolved x-ray diffraction
Structural Dynamics 3, 051101 (2016)

Abstract: We explore the InSb-semiconductor lattice dynamics after excitation of high density electron-hole plasma with an ultrashort and intense laser pulse. By using time resolved x-ray diffraction, a sub-mA ° and sub-ps resolution was achieved. Thus, a strain of 4% was measured in a 3 nm thin surface layer 2 ps after excitation. The lattice strain was observed for the first 5 ps as exponentially decaying, changing rapidly by time and by depth. The observed phenomena can only be understood assuming nonlinear time dependent laser absorption where the absorption depth decreases by a factor of twenty compared to linear absorption.

T. Kämpfer, I. Uschmann, Z. W. Wu, A. Surzhykov, S. Fritzsche, E. Förster, and G. G. Paulus
Linear polarization of the characteristic x-ray lines following inner-shell photoionization of tungsten
Physical Review A 93, 033409 (2016)

Abstract: The linear polarization of the characteristic lines Lα1 (3d5/2→2p3/2) and Lα2 (3d3/2→2p3/2), following inner-shell photoionization of neutral tungsten, is analyzed both experimentally and theoretically. In the experiment, a tungsten target is photoionized by the primary emission of an x-ray tube with incident photon energies in the range of 10.2–30 keV. The σ and π components of the emitted fluorescence are measured by using a spectropolarimeter, based on x-ray diffraction at Bragg angles close to 45∘. The degree of linear polarization of the Lα1 and Lα2 lines is determined to be +(1.6±0.5)% and −(7±2)%, respectively. In addition, this degree of polarization is calculated within the framework of the density-matrix theory as a function of the incident photon energy. These calculations are in good agreement with the experimental results and show only a weak dependence of the degree of polarization on the energy of the incident photoionizing photon.

S. Fuchs, C. Rödel, A. Blinne, U. Zastrau, M. Wünsche, V. Hilbert, L. Glaser, J. Viefhaus, E. Frumker, P. Corkum, E. Förster, and G. G. Paulus
Nanometer resolution optical coherence tomography using broad bandwidth XUV and soft x-ray radiation
Scientific Reports 6, 20658 (2016)

Abstract: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive technique for cross-sectional imaging. It is particularly advantageous for applications where conventional microscopy is not able to image deeper layers of samples in a reasonable time, e.g. in fast moving, deeper lying structures. However, at infrared and optical wavelengths, which are commonly used, the axial resolution of OCT is limited to about 1 μm, even if the bandwidth of the light covers a wide spectral range. Here, we present extreme ultraviolet coherence tomography (XCT) and thus introduce a new technique for non-invasive cross-sectional imaging of nanometer structures. XCT exploits the nanometerscale coherence lengths corresponding to the spectral transmission windows of, e.g., silicon samples. The axial resolution of coherence tomography is thus improved from micrometers to a few nanometers. Tomographic imaging with an axial resolution better than 18 nm is demonstrated for layer-type nanostructures buried in a silicon substrate. Using wavelengths in the water transmission window, nanometer-scale layers of platinum are retrieved with a resolution better than 8 nm. XCT as a nondestructive method for sub-surface tomographic imaging holds promise for several applications in semiconductor metrology and imaging in the water window.

S. G. Podorov, and E. Förster
Direct inversion of digital 3D Fraunhofer holography maps
Applied Optics 55, A150 (2016)

Abstract: Differential Fourier holography (DFH) gives an exact mathematical solution of the inverse problem of diffraction in the Fraunhofer regime. After the first publication \[Opt. Express15, 9954 (2007)OPEXFF1094-408710.1364/OE.15.009954\], DFH was successfully applied in many experiments to obtain amplitude and phase information about two-dimensional images. In this paper, we demonstrate numerically the possibility to apply DFH also for investigation of unknown three-dimensional objects. The first simulation is made for a double-spiral structure plus a line as a reference object.


U. Zastrau, P. Sperling, C. Fortmann-Grote, A. Becker, T. Bornath, R. Bredow, T. Döppner, T. Fennel, L. B. Fletcher, E. Förster, S. Göde, G. Gregori, M. Harmand, V. Hilbert, T. Laarmann, H. J. Lee, T. Ma, K. H. Meiwes-Broer, J. P. Mithen, C. D. Murphy, M. Nakatsutsumi, P. Neumayer, A. Przystawik, S. Skruszewicz, J. Tiggesbäumker, S. Toleikis, T. G. White, S. H. Glenzer, R. Redmer, and T. Tschentscher
Ultrafast electron kinetics in short pulse laser-driven dense hydrogen
Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics 48, 224004 (2015)

Abstract: Dense cryogenic hydrogen is heated by intense femtosecond infrared laser pulses at intensities of 10^15-10^16 W cm−2. Three-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations predict that this heating is limited to the skin depth, causing an inhomogeneously heated outer shell with a cold core and two prominent temperatures of about 25 and 40 eV for simulated delay times up to +70 fs after the laser pulse maximum. Experimentally, the time-integrated emitted bremsstrahlung in the spectral range of 8–18 nm was corrected for the wavelength-dependent instrument efficiency. The resulting spectrum cannot be fit with a single temperature bremsstrahlung model, and the best fit is obtained using two temperatures of about 13 and 30 eV. The lower temperatures in the experiment can be explained by missing energy-loss channels in the simulations, as well as the inclusion of hot, non-Maxwellian electrons in the temperature calculation. We resolved the time-scale for laser-heating of hydrogen, and PIC results for laser–matter interaction were successfully tested against the experiment data.

B. Marx-Glowna, K. Schulze, I. Uschmann, T. Kämpfer, G. Weber, C. Hahn, H.-C. Wille, K. Schlage, R. Röhlsberger, E. Förster, Th. Stöhlker, and G. Paulus
Influence of higher harmonics of the undulator in X-ray polarimetry and crystal monochromator design
Journal of Synchrotron Radiation 22, 1151 (2015)

Abstract: The spectrum of the undulator radiation of beamline P01 at Petra III has been measured after passing a multiple reflection channel-cut polarimeter. Odd and even harmonics up to the 15th order, as well as Compton peaks which were produced by the high harmonics in the spectrum, could been measured. These additional contributions can have a tremendous influence on the performance of the polarimeter and have to be taken into account for further polarimeter designs.

H. F. Beyer, T. Gassner, M. Trassinelli, R. Heß, U. Spillmann, D. Banaś, K.-H. Blumenhagen, F. Bosch, C. Brandau, W. Chen, C. Dimopoulou, E. Förster, R. E. Grisenti, A. Gumberidze, S. Hagmann, P.-M. Hillenbrand, P. Indelicato, P. Jagodzinski, T. Kämpfer, C. Kozhuharov, M. Lestinsky, D. Liesen, Y. A. Litvinov, R. Loetzsch, B. Manil, R. Märtin, F. Nolden, N. Petridis, M. S. Sanjari, K. S. Schulze, M. Schwemlein, A. Simionovici, M. Steck, Th. Stöhlker, C. I. Szabo, S. Trotsenko, I. Uschmann, G. Weber, O. Wehrhan, N. Winckler, D. F. A. Winters, N. Winters, and E. Ziegler
Crystal optics for precision x-ray spectroscopy on highly charged ions—conception and proof
Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics 48, 144010 (2015)

Abstract: The experimental investigation of quantum-electrodydamic contributions to the binding energies of inner shells of highly charged heavy ions requires an accurate spectroscopy in the region of hard x-rays suitable at a limited source strength. For this purpose the focusing compensated asymmetric Laue crystal optics has been developed and a twin-spectrometer assembly has been built and commissioned at the experimental storage ring of the GSI Helmholtzzentrum Darmstadt. We characterize the crystal optics and demonstrate the usefulness of the instrumentation for accurate spectroscopy of both stationary and fast moving x-ray sources. The experimental procedures discussed here may also be applied for other spectroscopic studies where a transition from conventional germanium x-ray detectors to crystal spectrometers seems too demanding because of low source intensity.

R. Loetzsch, A. Lübcke, F. Zamponi, T. Kämpfer, I. Uschmann, and E. Förster
Time-Resolved X-ray Diffraction of Cryogenic Samples Using a Laser Based Plasma Source
in: Davide Bleiner, John Costello, Francois Dortan, Gerry O'Sullivan, Ladislav Pina, Alan Michette (ed.): Short Wavelength Laboratory Sources : Principles and Practices (ESF (European Science Foundation)) (2015)

Abstract: In this chapter, the microscopic characteristics of a bright, short-pulsed source of Ti Kα radiation are studied. This x-ray emission is generated from fast electrons that are generated when a relativistically intense laser pulse interacts with a solid metal surface. The electrons have average energies significantly exceeding the ionization threshold of the K-shell (5 keV) and give rise to K-radiation when the K-shell recombines with a lifetime of a few femtoseconds only. Hence the duration of the Kα emission is dominantly determined by the time these fast electrons are present. But at the same time, the electrons also generate a solid-density plasma state at several tens of electronvolts temperature (e.g., several 100 000 K). This alters the emission probabilities of the Kα source, potentially effecting the brightness of the x-ray source. These mechanisms and possible optimizations are subject of this chapter.


V. Hilbert, C. Rödel, G. Brenner, T. Döppner, S. Düsterer, S. Dziarzhytski, L. Fletcher, E. Förster, S. H. Glenzer, M. Harmand, N. J. Hartley, L. Kazak, D. Komar, T. Laarmann, H. J. Lee, T. Ma, M. Nakatsutsumi, A. Przystawik, H. Redlin, S. Skruszewicz, P. Sperling, J. Tiggesbäumker, S. Toleikis, and U. Zastrau
Spatio-temporal coherence of free-electron laser radiation in the extreme ultraviolet determined by a Michelson interferometer
Applied Physics Letters 105, 101102 (2014)

Abstract: A key feature of extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation from free-electron lasers (FELs) is its spatial and temporal coherence. We measured the spatio-temporal coherence properties of monochromatized FEL pulses at 13.5 nm using a Michelson interferometer. A temporal coherence time of (59±8) fs has been determined, which is in good agreement with the spectral bandwidth given by the monochromator. Moreover, the spatial coherence in vertical direction amounts to about 15% of the beam diameter and about 12% in horizontal direction. The feasibility of measuring spatio-temporal coherence properties of XUV FEL radiation using interferometric techniques advances machine operation and experimental studies significantly.

U. Zastrau, and E. Förster
Integrated reflectivity measurements of hydrogen phthalate crystals for high-resolution soft x-ray spectroscopy
Journal of Instrumentation 9, P09008 (2014)

Abstract: The integrated x-ray reflectivity of Potassium Hydrogen Phthalate (KAP) and Rubidium Hydrogen Phthalate (RAP) crystals is studied at a photon energy of (1740±14) eV using a double-crystal setup. The absolute measured reflectivities are in < 5% agreement with the values predicted by the dynamic diffraction theory for perfect crystals when absorption is included. Within 4% experimental error margins, specimen that were exposed to ambient conditions over many years show identical reflectivity as specimen that were cleaved just before the measurement. No differences are observed between cleaving off a 10 μm surface layer and splitting the entire crystal bulk of 2 mm thickness. We conclude that at 1.7 keV photon energy the penetration depth of ~ 1 μm is large compared to a potentially deteriorated surface layer of a few 10 nm.

U. Zastrau, L. Fletcher, E. Förster, E. Galtier, E. Gamboa, S. Glenzer, P. Heimann, H. Marschner, B. Nagler, A. Schropp, O. Wehrhan, and H. Lee
Bent crystal spectrometer for both frequency and wavenumber resolved x-ray scattering at a seeded free-electron laser
Review of Scientific Instruments 85, 093106 (2014)

Abstract: We present a cylindrically curved GaAs x-ray spectrometer with energy resolution ΔE/E = 1.1 × 10^−4 and wave-number resolution of Δk/k = 3 × 10^−3, allowing plasmon scattering at the resolution limits of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) x-ray free-electron laser. It spans scattering wavenumbers of 3.6 to 5.2/Å in 100 separate bins, with only 0.34% wavenumber blurring. The dispersion of 0.418 eV/13.5 μm agrees with predictions within 1.3%. The reflection homogeneity over the entire wavenumber range was measured and used to normalize the amplitude of scattering spectra. The proposed spectrometer is superior to a mosaic highly annealed pyrolytic graphite spectrometer when the energy resolution needs to be comparable to the LCLS seeded bandwidth of 1 eV and a significant range of wavenumbers must be covered in one exposure.

B. Marx, K. S. Schulze, I. Uschmann, T. Kämpfer, O. Wehrhan, H. C. Wille, K. Schlage, R. Röhlsberger, E. Weckert, E. Förster, Th. Stöhlker, and G. G. Paulus
High precision measurement of undulator polarization in the regime of hard x-rays
Applied Physics Letters 105, 024103 (2014)

Abstract: We have measured the polarization purity of undulator radiation at 12.9 keV, with hitherto unachievable precision. We could measure a polarization purity of 1.8 × 10−4 by using a silicon channel-cut crystal with six Bragg reflections at 45° as analyzer.

U. Zastrau, P. Sperling, A. Becker, T. Bornath, R. Bredow, T. Döppner, S. Dziarzhytski, T. Fennel, L. B. Fletcher, E. Förster, C. Fortmann, S. H. Glenzer, S. Göde, G. Gregori, M. Harmand, V. Hilbert, B. Holst, T. Laarmann, H. J. Lee, T. Ma, J. P. Mithen, R. Mitzner, C. D. Murphy, M. Nakatsutsumi, P. Neumayer, A. Przystawik, S. Roling, M. Schulz, B. Siemer, S. Skruszewicz, J. Tiggesbäumker, S. Toleikis, T. Tschentscher, T. White, M. Wöstmann, H. Zacharias, and R. Redmer
Equilibration dynamics and conductivity of warm dense hydrogen
Physical Review E 90, 013104 (2014)

Abstract: We investigate subpicosecond dynamics of warm dense hydrogen at the XUV free-electron laser facility (FLASH) at DESY (Hamburg). Ultrafast impulsive electron heating is initiated by a ≤300-fs short x-ray burst of 92 eV photon energy. A second pulse probes the sample via x-ray scattering at jitter-free variable time delay. We show that the initial molecular structure dissociates within (0.9±0.2) ps, allowing us to infer the energy transfer rate between electrons and ions. We evaluate Saha and Thomas-Fermi ionization models in radiation hydrodynamics simulations, predicting plasma parameters that are subsequently used to calculate the static structure factor. A conductivity model for partially ionized plasma is validated by two-temperature density-functional theory coupled to molecular dynamic simulations and agrees with the experimental data. Our results provide important insights and the needed experimental data on transport properties of dense plasmas.

C. R. D. Brown, D. O. Gericke, M. Cammarata, B. I. Cho, T. Döppner, K. Engelhorn, E. Förster, C. Fortmann, D. Fritz, E. Galtier, S. H. Glenzer, M. Harmand, P. Heimann, N. L. Kugland, D. Q. Lamb, H. J. Lee, R. W. Lee, H. Lemke, M. Makita, A. Moinard, C. D. Murphy, B. Nagler, P. Neumayer, K.-U. Plagemann, R. Redmer, D. Riley, F. B. Rosmej, P. Sperling, S. Toleikis, S. M. Vinko, J. Vorberger, S. White, T. G. White, K. Wünsch, U. Zastrau, D. Zhu, T. Tschentscher, and G. Gregori
Evidence for a glassy state in strongly driven carbon
Scientific Reports 4, 5214 (2014)

Abstract: Here, we report results of an experiment creating a transient, highly correlated carbon state using a combination of optical and x-ray lasers. Scattered x-rays reveal a highly ordered state with an electrostatic energy significantly exceeding the thermal energy of the ions. Strong Coulomb forces are predicted to induce nucleation into a crystalline ion structure within a few picoseconds. However, we observe no evidence of such phase transition after several tens of picoseconds but strong indications for an over-correlated fluid state. The experiment suggests a much slower nucleation and points to an intermediate glassy state where the ions are frozen close to their original positions in the fluid.

K. S. Schulze, B. Marx, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, Th. Stöhlker, and G. G. Paulus
Determination of the polarization state of x rays with the help of anomalous transmission
Applied Physics Letters 104, 151110 (2014)

Abstract: Besides intensity and direction, the polarization of an electromagnetic wave provides characteristic information on the crossed medium. Here, we present two methods for the determination of the polarization state of x rays by polarizers based on anomalous transmission (Borrmann effect). Using a polarizer-analyzer setup, we have measured a polarization purity of less than 1.5 × 10^−5, three orders of magnitude better than obtained in earlier work. Using the analyzer crystal in multiple-beam case with slightly detuned azimuth, we show how the first three Stokes parameters can be determined with a single angular scan. Thus, polarization analyzers based on anomalous transmission make it possible to detect changes of the polarization in a range from degrees down to arcseconds.

U. Zastrau, P. Sperling, M. Harmand, A. Becker, T. Bornath, R. Bredow, S. Dziarzhytski, T. Fennel, L. Fletcher, E. Förster, S. Göde, G. Gregori, V. Hilbert, D. Hochhaus, B. Holst, T. Laarmann, H. Lee, T. Ma, J. Mithen, R. Mitzner, C. Murphy, M. Nakatsutsumi, P. Neumayer, A. Przystawik, S. Roling, M. Schulz, B. Siemer, S. Skruszewicz, J. Tiggesbäumker, S. Toleikis, T. Tschentscher, T. White, M. Wöstmann, H. Zacharias, T. Döppner, S. Glenzer, and R. Redmer
Resolving Ultrafast Heating of Dense Cryogenic Hydrogen
Physical Review Letters 112, 105002 (2014)

Abstract: We report on the dynamics of ultrafast heating in cryogenic hydrogen initiated by a ≲300  fs, 92 eV free electron laser x-ray burst. The rise of the x-ray scattering amplitude from a second x-ray pulse probes the transition from dense cryogenic molecular hydrogen to a nearly uncorrelated plasmalike structure, indicating an electron-ion equilibration time of ∼0.9  ps. The rise time agrees with radiation hydrodynamics simulations based on a conductivity model for partially ionized plasma that is validated by two-temperature density-functional theory.


U. Zastrau, A. Woldegeorgis, E. Förster, R. Loetzsch, H. Marschner, and I. Uschmann
Characterization of strongly-bent HAPG crystals for von-Hámos x-ray spectrographs
Journal of Instrumentation 8, P10006 (2013)

Abstract: The properties of two strongly bent Highly Annealed Pyrolytic Graphite (HAPG) crystals with different thicknesses of 40 μm and 100 μm are studied at all possible reflection orders using x-rays at 4.5 keV and 8 keV photon energies. Typical reflecting areas within 50% reflectivity drop boundaries have sizes of about ≤ 1 mm. These domains are mis-oriented by ≤ 1 minutes of arc to each other. The mosaicity was measured to be ~ 0.06° on a 1 × 1 mm 2 scale, whereas it amounts to ~ 0.14° when the probed area becomes > 2 × 1 mm 2 . We find that the integrated reflectivity of the reflection (004) is in good agreement with the kinematical diffraction theory, while a maximum value of 2.3 mrad is achieved for 8 keV and reflection (002). The highest spectral resolution is obtained with an x-ray source of ≤ 50 μm size and a 40 μm thin graphite coating, which amounts to E /Δ E ≥ 1000 for 4.5 keV and 8 keV. In the case of 8 keV and reflection (008), the resolving power exceeds E /Δ E = 2000. In von-Hámos geometry, it was found that > 60% of the reflected photons are confined in a central 500 μm wide profile where high spectral resolution is pertained. Ray tracing simulations reveal that in order to pertain a certain resolution, a larger mosaicity would result in less contributing photons. Thus the efficiency of the crystal drops significantly when the mosaicity is increased and could not be increased by large crystal opening angles.

V. Hilbert, A. Blinne, S. Fuchs, T. Feigl, T. Kämpfer, C. Rödel, I. Uschmann, M. Wünsche, G. Paulus, E. Förster, and U. Zastrau
An extreme ultraviolet Michelson interferometer for experiments at free-electron lasers
Review of Scientific Instruments 84, 095111 (2013)

Abstract: We present a Michelson interferometer for 13.5 nm soft x-ray radiation. It is characterized in a proof-of-principle experiment using synchrotron radiation, where the temporal coherence is measured to be 13 fs. The curvature of the thin-film beam splitter membrane is derived from the observed fringe pattern. The applicability of this Michelson interferometer at intense free-electron lasers is investigated, particularly with respect to radiation damage. This study highlights the potential role of such Michelson interferometers in solid density plasma investigations using, for instance, extreme soft x-ray free-electron lasers. A setup using the Michelson interferometer for pseudo-Nomarski-interferometry is proposed.

B. Marx, K. S. Schulze, I. Uschmann, T. Kämpfer, R. Lötzsch, O. Wehrhan, W. Wagner, C. Detlefs, T. Roth, J. Härtwig, E. Förster, Th. Stöhlker, and G. G. Paulus
High-Precision X-Ray Polarimetry
Physical Review Letters 110, 254801 (2013)

Abstract: The polarization purity of 6.457- and 12.914-keV x rays has been improved to the level of 2.4×10-10 and 5.7×10-10. The polarizers are channel-cut silicon crystals using six 90° reflections. Their performance and possible applications are demonstrated in the measurement of the optical activity of a sucrose solution.

S. Fuchs, C. Rödel, M. Krebs, S. Hädrich, J. Bierbach, A. E. Paz, S. Kuschel, M. Wünsche, V. Hilbert, U. Zastrau, E. Förster, J. Limpert, and G. G. Paulus
Sensitivity calibration of an imaging extreme ultraviolet spectrometer-detector system for determining the efficiency of broadband extreme ultraviolet sources
Review of Scientific Instruments 84, 023101 (2013)

Abstract: We report on the absolute sensitivity calibration of an extreme ultraviolet (XUV) spectrometer system that is frequently employed to study emission from short-pulse laser experiments. The XUV spectrometer, consisting of a toroidal mirror and a transmission grating, was characterized at a synchrotron source in respect of the ratio of the detected to the incident photon flux at photon energies ranging from 15.5 eV to 99 eV. The absolute calibration allows the determination of the XUV photon number emitted by laser-based XUV sources, e.g., high-harmonic generation from plasma surfaces or in gaseous media. We have demonstrated high-harmonic generation in gases and plasma surfaces providing 2.3 μW and μJ per harmonic using the respective generation mechanisms.


R. Lötzsch, O. Jäckel, S. Höfer, T. Kämpfer, J. Polz, I. Uschmann, M. C. Kaluza, E. Förster, E. Stambulchik, E. Kroupp, and Y. Maron
K-shell spectroscopy of silicon ions as diagnostic for high electric fields
Review of Scientific Instruments 83, 113507 (2012)

Abstract: We developed a detection scheme, capable of measuring X-ray line shape of tracer ions in μm thick layers at the rear side of a target foil irradiated by ultra intense laser pulses. We performed simulations of the effect of strong electric fields on the K-shell emission of silicon and developed a spectrometer dedicated to record this emission. The combination of a cylindrically bent crystal in von Hámos geometry and a CCD camera with its single photon counting capability allows for a high dynamic range of the instrument and background free spectra. This approach will be used in future experiments to study electric fields of the order of TV/m at high density plasmas close to solid density.

U. Zastrau, C. R. D. Brown, T. Döppner, S. H. Glenzer, G. Gregori, H. J. Lee, H. Marschner, S. Toleikis, O. Wehrhan, and E. Förster
Focal aberrations of large-aperture HOPG von-Hamos x-ray spectrometers
Journal of Instrumentation 7, P09015 (2012)

Abstract: Focal aberrations of large-aperture highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) crystals in von-Hàmos geometry are investigated by experimental and computational methods. A mosaic HOPG crystal film of 100 μm thickness diffracts 8 keV x-rays. This thickness is smaller than the absorption depth of the symmetric 004-reflection, which amounts to 257 μm. Cylindrically bent crystals with 110 mm radius of curvature and up to 100 mm collection width produce a X-shaped halo around the focus. This feature vanishes when the collection aperture is reduced, but axial spectral profiles show that the resolution is not affected. X-ray topography reveals significant inhomogeneous crystallite domains of 2 ± 1 mm diameter along the entire crystal. Rocking curves shift by about ±20 arcmin between domains, while their full width at half-maximum varies between 30 and 50 arcmin. These inhomogeneities are not imprinted at the focal spot, since the monochromatically reflecting area of the crystal is large compared to inhomogeneities. Ray-tracing calculations using a Monte-Carlo-based algorithm developed for mosaic crystals reproduce the X-shaped halo in the focal plane, stemming from the mosaic defocussing in the non-dispersive direction in combination with large apertures. The best achievable resolution is found by analyzing a diversity of rocking curve widths, source sizes and crystal thicknesses for 8 keV x-rays to be ΔE/E ~ 10^(−4). Finally a general analytic expression for the shape of the aberration is derived.

M. Harmand, C. D. Murphy, C. R. D. Brown, M. Cammarata, T. Döppner, S. Düsterer, D. Fritz, E. Förster, E. Galtier, J. Gaudin, S. H. Glenzer, S. Göde, G. Gregori, V. Hilbert, D. Hochhaus, T. Laarmann, H. J. Lee, H. Lemke, K. -H. Meiwes-Broer, A. Moinard, P. Neumayer, A. Przystawik, H. Redlin, M. Schulz, S. Skruszewicz, F. Tavella, T. Tschentscher, T. White, U. Zastrau, and S. Toleikis
Plasma switch as a temporal overlap tool for pump-probe experiments at FEL facilities
Journal of Instrumentation 7, P08007 (2012)

Abstract: We have developed an easy-to-use and reliable timing tool to determine the arrival time of an optical laser and a free electron laser (FEL) pulses within the jitter limitation. This timing tool can be used from XUV to X-rays and exploits high FELs intensities. It uses a shadowgraph technique where we optically (at 800 nm) image a plasma created by an intense XUV or X-ray FEL pulse on a transparent sample (glass slide) directly placed at the pump - probe sample position. It is based on the physical principle that the optical properties of the material are drastically changed when its free electron density reaches the critical density. At this point the excited glass sample becomes opaque to the optical laser pulse. The ultra-short and intense XUV or X-ray FEL pulse ensures that a critical electron density can be reached via photoionization and subsequent collisional ionization within the XUV or X-ray FEL pulse duration or even faster. This technique allows to determine the relative arrival time between the optical laser and the FEL pulses in only few single shots with an accuracy mainly limited by the optical laser pulse duration and the jitter between the FEL and the optical laser. Considering the major interest in pump-probe experiments at FEL facilities in general, such a femtosecond resolution timing tool is of utmost importance.

S. Fuchs, A. Blinne, C. Rödel, U. Zastrau, V. Hilbert, M. Wünsche, J. Bierbach, E. Frumker, E. Förster, and G. G. Paulus
Optical coherence tomography using broad-bandwidth XUV and soft X-ray radiation
Applied Physics B 106, 789 (2012)

Abstract: We present a novel approach to extend optical coherence tomography (OCT) to the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) and soft X-ray (SXR) spectral range. With a simple setup based on Fourier-domain OCT and adapted for the application of XUV and SXR broadband radiation, cross-sectional images of semiconductors and organic samples becomes feasible with current synchrotron or laser-plasma sources. For this purpose, broadband XUV radiation is focused onto the sample surface, and the reflected spectrum is recorded by an XUV spectrometer. The proposed method has the particular advantage that the axial spatial resolution only depends on the spectral bandwidth. As a consequence, the theoretical resolution limit of XUV coherence tomography (XCT) is in the order of nanometers, e.g., 3 nm for wavelengths in the water window (280 - 530 eV). We proved the concept of XCT by calculating the reflectivity of one-dimensional silicon and boron carbide samples containing buried layers and found the expected properties with respect to resolution and penetration depth confirmed.

R. Lötzsch, I. Uschmann, and E. Förster
Spatially resolved twin domain distribution and lattice parameter variations in the near-surface region of SrTiO_3 single crystals
Applied Physics B 106, 563 (2012)

Abstract: We investigated the twin domain distribution and lattice parameter variations associated with the displacive phase transition in SrTiO_3 by means of X-ray diffraction with high spatial resolution. By using 4.5-keV photons, the probed region is the first micrometer near the surface. We find a very inhomogeneous domain distribution, showing both regions with large monodomains and highly twinned regions, as well as large needle domains. Also, the lattice parameters in these different regions vary substantially.

U. Zastrau, T. Burian, J. Chalupsky, T. Döppner, T. W. J. Dzelzainis, R. R. Fäustlin, C. Fortmann, E. Galtier, S. H. Glenzer, G. Gregori, L. Juha, H. J. Lee, R. W. Lee, C. L. S. Lewis, N. Medvedev, B. Nagler, A. J. Nelson, D. Riley, F. B. Rosmej, S. Toleikis, T. Tschentscher, I. Uschmann, S. M. Vinko, J. S. Wark, T. Whitcher, and E. Förster
XUV spectroscopic characterization of warm dense aluminum plasmas generated by the free-electron-laser FLASH
Laser and Particle Beams 30, 45 (2012)

Abstract: We report on experiments aimed at the generation and characterization of solid density plasmas at the free-electron laser FLASH in Hamburg. Aluminum samples were irradiated with XUV pulses at 13.5 nm wavelength (92 eV photon energy). The pulses with duration of a few tens of femtoseconds and pulse energy up to 100 µJ are focused to intensities ranging between 10^(13) and 10^(17) W/cm^2. We investigate the absorption and temporal evolution of the sample under irradiation by use of XUV and optical spectroscopy. We discuss the origin of saturable absorption, radiative decay, bremsstrahlung and atomic and ionic line emission. Our experimental results are in good agreement with simulations.


U. Zastrau, V. Hilbert, C. Brown, T. Döppner, S. Dziarzhytski, E. Förster, S. H. Glenzer, S. Göde, G. Gregori, M. Harmand, D. Hochhaus, T. Laarmann, H. J. Lee, K. -H. Meiwes-Brör, P. Neumayer, A. Przystawik, P. Radcliffe, M. Schulz, S. Skruszewicz, F. Tavella, J. Tiggesbaeumker, S. Toleikis, and T. White
In-situ determination of dispersion and resolving power in simultaneous multiple-angle XUV spectroscopy
Journal of Instrumentation 6, P10001 (2011)

Abstract: We report on the simultaneous determination of non-linear dispersion functions and resolving power of three flat-field XUV grating spectrometers. A moderate-intense short-pulse infrared laser is focused onto technical aluminum which is commonly present as part of the experimental setup. In the XUV wavelength range of 10-19 nm, the spectrometers are calibrated using Al-Mg plasma emission lines. This cross-calibration is performed in-situ in the very same setup as the actual main experiment. The results are in excellent agreement with ray-tracing simulations. We show that our method allows for precise relative and absolute calibration of three different XUV spectrometers.

N. Medvedev, U. Zastrau, E. Förster, D. O. Gericke, and B. Rethfeld
Short-Time Electron Dynamics in Aluminum Excited by Femtosecond Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation
Physical Review Letters 107, 165003 (2011)

Abstract: The femtosecond dynamics of the electrons in aluminum after an intense extreme ultraviolet pulse is investigated by Monte Carlo simulations. Transient distributions of the conduction band electrons show an almost thermalized, low-energy part and a high-energy tail. Constructing emission spectra from these data, we find excellent agreement with measurements. The radiative decay mainly reflects the colder part of the distribution, whereas the highly excited electrons dominate the bremsstrahlung spectrum. For the latter, we also find good agreement between predicted and measured energy scales.

E. Kroupp, D. Osin, A. Starobinets, V. Fisher, V. Bernshtam, L. Weingarten, Y. Maron, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, A. Fisher, M. E. Cuneo, C. Deeney, and J. L. Giuliani
Ion Temperature and Hydrodynamic-Energy Measurements in a Z-Pinch Plasma at Stagnation
Physical Review Letters 107, 105001 (2011)

Abstract: The time history of the local ion kinetic energy in a stagnating plasma was determined from Doppler-dominated line shapes. Using independent determination of the plasma properties for the same plasma region, the data allowed for inferring the time-dependent ion temperature, and for discriminating the temperature from the total ion kinetic energy. It is found that throughout most of the stagnation period the ion thermal energy constitutes a small fraction of the total ion kinetic energy; the latter is dominated by hydrodynamic motion. Both the ion hydrodynamic and thermal energies are observed to decrease to the electron thermal energy by the end of the stagnation period. It is confirmed that the total ion kinetic energy available at the stagnating plasma and the total radiation emitted are in balance, as obtained in our previous experiment. The dissipation time of the hydrodynamic energy thus appears to determine the duration (and power) of the K emission.

K. S. Schulze, T. Kämpfer, I. Uschmann, S. Höfer, R. Lötzsch, and E. Förster
Laser-excited acoustical phonons probed by ultrashort pulses from a laser-driven x-ray diode
Applied Physics Letters 98, 141109 (2011)

Abstract: We demonstrate that an ultrashort-pulse laser-driven x-ray diode can be used for time-resolved experiments on a picosecond timescale. Hence, acoustical phonons in germanium are observed after ultrashort laser-excitation and the results are compared with calculations according to a microphysical model. We also show the advantages of this kind of picosecond x-ray source compared to other sources on the basis of its properties.

B. Marx, I. Uschmann, S. Höfer, R. Lötzsch, O. Wehrhan, E. Förster, M. C. Kaluza, T. Stöhlker, H. Gies, C. Detlefs, T. Roth, J. Hartwig, and G. G. Paulus
Determination of high-purity polarization state of X-rays
Optics Communications 284, 915 (2011)

Abstract: We report on the measurement of the highest purity of polarization of X-rays to date. The measurements are performed by combining a brilliant undulator source with an X-ray polarimeter. The polarimeter is composed of a polarizer and an analyzer, each based on four reflections at channel-cut crystals with a Bragg angle very close to 45°. Experiments were performed at three different X-ray energies, using different Bragg reflections: Si(400) at 6457.0 eV, Si(444) at 11,183.8 eV, and Si(800) at 12,914.0 eV. At 6 keV a polarization purity of 1.5 × 10^{-9} is achieved. This is an improvement by more than two orders of magnitude as compared to previously reported values. The polarization purity decreases slightly for shorter X-ray wavelengths. The sensitivity of the polarimeter is discussed with respect to a proposed experiment that aims at the detection of the birefringence of vacuum induced by super-strong laser fields.

L. A. Gizzi, S. Betti, E. Förster, D. Giulietti, S. Höfer, P. Köster, L. Labate, R. Lötzsch, A. P. L. Robinson, and I. Uschmann
Role of resistivity gradient in laser-driven ion acceleration
Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams 14, 011301 (2011)

Abstract: It was predicted that, when a fast electron beam with some angular spread is normally incident on a resistivity gradient, magnetic field generation can occur that can inhibit beam propagation [A. R. Bell et al. Phys. Rev. E 58 2471 (1998)]. This effect can have consequences on the laser-driven ion acceleration. In the experiment reported here, we compare ion emission from laser irradiated coated and uncoated metal foils and we show that the ion beam from the coated target has a much smaller angular spread. Detailed hybrid numerical simulations confirm that the inhibition of fast electron transport through the resistivity gradient may explain the observed effect.