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Publikationen von
Dr. Slawomir Skruszewicz

Alle Publikationen des HI Jena


S. Fuchs, J. Abel, J. Nathanael, J. Reinhard, F. Wiesner, M. Wuensche, S. Skruszewicz, C. Roedel, D. Born, H. Schmidt, and G. Paulus
Photon counting of extreme ultraviolet high harmonics using a superconducting nanowire single-photon detector
Applied Physics B 128, 26 (2022)

Abstract: Laser-driven light sources in the extreme ultraviolet range (EUV) enable nanoscopic imaging with unique label-free elemental contrast. However, to fully exploit the unique properties of these new sources, novel detection schemes need to be developed. Here, we show in a proof-of-concept experiment that superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPD) can be utilized to enable photon counting of a laser-driven EUV source based on high harmonic generation (HHG). These detectors are dark-count free and accommodate very high count rates-a perfect match for high repetition rate HHG sources. In addition to the advantages of SNSPDs for classical imaging applications with laser-driven EUV sources, the ability to count single photons paves the way for very promising applications in quantum optics and quantum imaging with high energetic radiation like, e.g., quantum ghost imaging with nanoscale resolution.


S. Skruszewicz, A. Przystawik, D. Schwickert, M. Sumfleth, M. Namboodiri, V. Hilbert, R. Klas, P. Gierschke, V. Schuster, A. Vorobiov, C. Haunhorst, D. Kip, J. Limpert, J. Rothhardt, and T. Laarmann
Table-top interferometry on extreme time and wavelength scales
Optics Express 29, 40333 (2021)

Abstract: High-resolution Fourier-transform spectroscopy using table-top sources in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) spectral range is still in its infancy. In this contribution a significant advance is presented based on a Michelson-type all-reflective split-and-delay autocorrelator operating in a quasi amplitude splitting mode. The autocorrelator works under a grazing incidence angle in a broad spectral range (10 nm - 1 µ m) providing collinear propagation of both pulse replicas and thus a constant phase difference across the beam profile. The compact instrument allows for XUV pulse autocorrelation measurements in the time domain with a single-digit attosecond precision resulting in a resolution of E/Δ E=2000. Its performance for spectroscopic applications is demonstrated by characterizing a very sharp electronic transition at 26.6 eV in Ar gas induced by the 11th harmonic of a frequency-doubled Yb-fiber laser leading to the characteristic 3s3p⁶4p¹P¹ Fano-resonance of Ar atoms. We benchmark our time-domain interferometry results with a high-resolution XUV grating spectrometer and find an excellent agreement. The common-path interferometer opens up new opportunities for short-wavelength femtosecond and attosecond pulse metrology and dynamic studies on extreme time scales in various research fields.

S. Skruszewicz, S. Fuchs, J. J. Abel, J. Nathanael, J. Reinhard, C. Rödel, F. Wiesner, M. Wuensche, P. Wachulak, A. Bartnik, K. Janulewicz, H. Fiedorowicz, and G. G. Paulus
Coherence tomography with broad bandwidth extreme ultraviolet and soft X-ray radiation
Applied Physics B 127, 55 (2021)

Abstract: We present an overview of recent results on optical coherence tomography with the use of extreme ultraviolet and soft X-ray radiation (XCT). XCT is a cross-sectional imaging method that has emerged as a derivative of optical coherence tomography (OCT). In contrast to OCT, which typically uses near-infrared light, XCT utilizes broad bandwidth extreme ultraviolet (XUV) and soft X-ray (SXR) radiation (Fuchs et al in Sci Rep 6:20658, 2016). As in OCT, XCT\textquotesingle s axial resolution only scales with the coherence length of the light source. Thus, an axial resolution down to the nanometer range can be achieved. This is an improvement of up to three orders of magnitude in comparison to OCT. XCT measures the reflected spectrum in a common-path interferometric setup to retrieve the axial structure of nanometer-sized samples. The technique has been demonstrated with broad bandwidth XUV/SXR radiation from synchrotron facilities and recently with compact laboratory-based laser-driven sources. Axial resolutions down to 2.2 nm have been achieved experimentally. XCT has potential applications in three-dimensional imaging of silicon-based semiconductors, lithography masks, and layered structures like XUV mirrors and solar cells.

M. Kübel, P. Wustelt, Y. Zhang, S. Skruszewicz, D. Hoff, D. Würzler, H. Kang, D. Zille, D. Adolph, G. Paulus, A. Sayler, M. Dumergue, A. Nayak, R. Flender, L. Haizer, M. Kurucz, B. Kiss, S. Kühn, B. Fetić, and D. Milošević
High-Order Phase-Dependent Asymmetry in the Above-Threshold Ionization Plateau
Physical Review Letters 126, 113201 (2021)

Abstract: Above-threshold ionization spectra from cesium are measured as a function of the carrier-envelope phase (CEP) using laser pulses centered at 3.1  μm wavelength. The directional asymmetry in the energy spectra of backscattered electrons oscillates three times, rather than once, as the CEP is changed from 0 to 2π. Using the improved strong-field approximation, we show that the unusual behavior arises from the interference of few quantum orbits. We discuss the conditions for observing the high-order CEP dependence, and draw an analogy with time-domain holography with electron wave packets.

F. Wiesner, M. Wünsche, J. Reinhard, J. Abel, J. Nathanael, S. Skruszewicz, C. Rödel, S. Yulin, A. Gawlik, G. Schmidl, U. Huebner, J. Plentz, G. Paulus, and S. Fuchs
Material-specific imaging of nanolayers using extreme ultraviolet coherence tomography
Optica 8, 230 (2021)

Abstract: Scientific and technological progress depend substantially on the ability to image on the nanoscale. In order to investigate complex, functional, nanoscopic structures like, e.g., semiconductor devices, multilayer optics, or stacks of 2D materials, the imaging techniques not only have to provide images but should also provide quantitative information. We report the material-specific characterization of nanoscopic buried structures with extreme ultraviolet coherence tomography. The method is demonstrated at a laser-driven broadband extreme ultraviolet radiation source, based on high-harmonic generation. We show that, besides nanoscopic axial resolution, the spectral reflectivity of all layers in a sample can be obtained using algorithmic phase reconstruction. This provides localized, spectroscopic, material-specific information of the sample. The method can be applied in, e.g., semiconductor production, lithographic mask inspection, or quality control of multilayer fabrication. Moreover, it paves the way for the investigation of ultrafast nanoscopic effects at functional buried interfaces. Published by The Optical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.


D. Zille, D. Adolph, S. Skruszewicz, A. M. Sayler, and G. G. Paulus
Species-dependent tunneling ionization of weakly bound atoms in the short-wave infrared regime
New Journal of Physics 22, 083021 (2020)
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J. Nathanael, M. Wünsche, S. Fuchs, T. Weber, J. Abel, J. Reinhard, F. Wiesner, U. Hübner, S. Skruszewicz, G. Paulus, and C. Rödel
Laboratory setup for extreme ultraviolet coherence tomography driven by a high-harmonic source
Review of Scientific Instruments 90, 113702 (2019)

Abstract: We present a laboratory beamline dedicated to nanoscale subsurface imaging using extreme ultraviolet coherence tomography (XCT). In this setup, broad-bandwidth extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation is generated by a laser-driven high-harmonic source. The beamline is able to handle a spectral range of 30-130 eV and a beam divergence of 10 mrad (full width at half maximum). The XUV radiation is focused on the sample under investigation, and the broadband reflectivity is measured using an XUV spectrometer. For the given spectral window, the XCT beamline is particularly suited to investigate silicon-based nanostructured samples. Cross-sectional imaging of layered nanometer-scale samples can be routinely performed using the laboratory-scale XCT beamline. A depth resolution of 16 nm has been achieved using the spectral range of 36-98 eV which represents a 33% increase in resolution due to the broader spectral range compared to previous work.

M. Wünsche, S. Fuchs, T. Weber, J. Nathanael, J. Abel, J. Reinhard, F. Wiesner, U. Hübner, S. Skruszewicz, G. Paulus, and C. Rödel
A high resolution extreme ultraviolet spectrometer system optimized for harmonic spectroscopy and XUV beam analysis
Review of Scientific Instruments 90, 023108 (2019)

Abstract: We present a modular extreme ultraviolet (XUV) spectrometer system optimized for a broad spectral range of 12-41 nm (30-99 eV) with a high spectral resolution of lambda/Delta lambda greater than or similar to 784 +/- 89. The spectrometer system has several operation modes for (1) XUV beam inspection, (2) angular spectral analysis, and (3) imaging spectroscopy. These options allow for a versatile use in high harmonic spectroscopy and XUV beam analysis. The high performance of the spectrometer is demonstrated using a novel cross-sectional imaging method called XUV coherence tomography.

F. Wiesner, S. Fuchs, M. Wünsche, J. Nathanael, J. Abel, J. Reinhard, S. Skruszewicz, C. Rödel, A. Gawlik, G. Schmidl, and . others
Label-free quantitative material sensitive tomography with extreme ultraviolet light

Abstract: We report on quantitative material-sensitive cross-sectional imaging with nanoscale axial resolution. First experimental results show that in addition to the structural information element-specific identification of buried layers is possible.

S. Fuchs, M. Wünsche, J. Nathanael, J. Abel, J. Reinhard, F. Wiesner, S. Skruszewicz, C. Rödel, and G. Paulus
XUV coherence tomography with nanoscale resolution using one-dimensional phase retrieval

Abstract: We present XUV Coherence Tomography (XCT) driven by a high-harmonic generation (HHG) light source. Using a novel one-dimensional phase retrieval algorithm, XCT enables non-destructive, artifact-free, nanoscale, cross-sectional imaging, of, e.g., semiconductor devices.