Dr. Sergiy Trotsenko
Abstract: For decelerated bare lead ions at a low beam energy of 10 MeV/u, the x-ray emission associated with radiative recombination (RR) at threshold energies has been studied at the electron cooler of CRYRING@ESR at GSI, Darmstadt. In our experiment, we observed the full x-ray emission pattern by utilizing dedicated x-ray detection chambers installed at 0∘ and 180∘ observation geometry. Most remarkably, no line distortion effects due to delayed emission are present in the well-defined x-ray spectra, spanning a wide range of x-ray energies (from about 5 to 100 keV), which enables us to identify fine-structure resolved Lyman, Balmer, and Paschen x-ray lines along with the RR transitions into the K, L, and M shells of the ions. For comparison with theory, an elaborate theoretical model is established taking into account the initial population distribution via RR for all atomic levels up to Rydberg states with principal quantum number n=165 in combination with time-dependent feeding transitions. Within the statistical accuracy, the experimental data are in very good agreement with the results of rigorous relativistic predictions. Most notably, this comparison sheds light on the contribution of prompt and delayed x-ray emission (up to 70 ns) to the observed x-ray spectra, originating in particular from yrast transitions into inner shells.
Abstract: We present an experimental and theoretical study of symmetric Xe54++Xe collisions at 50, 30, and 15 MeV/u, corresponding to strong perturbations with vK/vp=1.20, 1.55, and 2.20, respectively (vK is the classical K-shell orbital velocity and vp is the projectile velocity), as well as Xe53++Xe collisions at 15 MeV/u. For each of these systems, x-ray spectra are measured under a forward angle of 35∘ with respect to the projectile beam. Target satellite and hypersatellite radiation Kαs2,1 and Kαhs2,1, respectively, are analyzed and used to derive cross-section ratios for double-to-single target K-shell vacancy production. We compare our experimental results to relativistic time-dependent two-center calculations.
Abstract: We study the electron-loss-to-continuum (ELC) cusp experimentally and theoretically by comparing the ionization of U89+ projectiles in collisions with N-2 and Xe targets, at a beam energy of 75.91 MeV/u. The coincidence measurement between the singly ionized projectile and the energy of the emitted electron is used to compare the shape of the ELC cusp at weak and strong perturbations. A significant energy shift for the centroid of the electron cusp is observed for the heavy target of Xe as compared to the light target of N-2. Our results provide a stringent test for fully relativistic calculations of double-differential cross sections performed in the first-order approximation and in the continuum-distorted-wave approach.
Abstract: In this paper, we present an experimental and theoretical study of excitation processes for the heaviest stable helium-like ion, that is, He-like uranium occurring in relativistic collisions with hydrogen and argon targets. In particular, we concentrate on angular distributions of the characteristic K alpha radiation following the K -> L excitation of He-like uranium. We pay special attention to the magnetic sub-level population of the excited 1s2l(j) states, which is directly related to the angular distribution of the characteristic K alpha radiation. We show that the experimental data can be well described by calculations taking into account the excitation by the target nucleus as well as by the target electrons. Moreover, we demonstrate for the first time an important influence of the electron-impact excitation process on the angular distributions of the K alpha radiation produced by excitation of He-like uranium in collisions with different targets.
Abstract: In this work, we present a pilot experiment in the experimental storage ring (ESR) at GSI devoted to impact parameter sensitive studies of inner shell atomic processes for bare and He-like xenon ions (Xe54+, Xe52+) colliding with neutral xenon gas atoms. The projectile and target x-rays have been measured at different observation angles for all impact parameters as well as for the impact parameter range of ∼35 - 70 fm.
Abstract: Luminosity is a measure of the colliding frequency between beam and target and it is a crucial parameter for the measurement of absolute values, such as reaction cross sections. In this paper, we make use of experimental data from the ESR storage ring to demonstrate that the luminosity can be precisely determined by modelling the measured Rutherford scattering distribution. The obtained results are in good agreement with an independent measurement based on the x-ray normalization method. Our new method provides an alternative way to precisely measure the luminosity in low-energy stored-beam configurations. This can be of great value in particular in dedicated low-energy storage rings where established methods are difficult or impossible to apply.
Abstract: The electron-capture process was studied for Xe54+ colliding with H2 molecules at the internal gas target of the Experimental Storage Ring (ESR) at GSI, Darmstadt. Cross-section values for electron capture into excited projectile states were deduced from the observed emission cross section of Lyman radiation, being emitted by the hydrogenlike ions subsequent to the capture of a target electron. The ion beam energy range was varied between 5.5 and 30.9 MeV/u by applying the deceleration mode of the ESR. Thus, electron-capture data were recorded at the intermediate and, in particular, the low-collision-energy regime, well below the beam energy necessary to produce bare xenon ions. The obtained data are found to be in reasonable qualitative agreement with theoretical approaches, while a commonly applied empirical formula significantly overestimates the experimental findings.
Abstract: Charge-state selective recombination rate coefficients were measured by time of flight (TOF) analyzed highly charged Si ions extracted from an electron-beam ion trap. Additionally, the combination of simultaneous TOF and x-ray measurements and a separation of the dielectronic recombination contribution in the x-ray spectra is used for extracting electron-impact excitation rate coefficients for several overlaying charge states. Experimentally derived dielectronic recombination spectra for XIII and XIV Si are compared and found in excellent agreement with the results of relativistic many-body perturbation theory calculations.
Abstract: For U89+ projectiles colliding at a beam energy of 75.91 MeV/u with a N2 target, we present a coincidence measurement between the cusp electrons emitted under an angle of 0° with respect to the projectile beam and the photons emitted under a polar angle of 90°. This radiative-electron-capture-to-continuum cusp directly probes the theory of electron-nucleus bremsstrahlung up to the high-energy endpoint in inverse kinematics. In the present study, significant improvement with respect to the experimental accuracy has been achieved, resulting in a finer agreement between experimental and theoretical results.
Abstract: Recently, the contribution of the generalized Breit interaction to electron impact ionization was identified for the first time in a high‐Z system, namely, hydrogen‐like uranium. This study employed a measurement of the relative population of the j = 1/2 and j = 3/2 states of the L shell by projectile excitation in collision of U91+ with hydrogen and nitrogen targets. However, for a rigorous test of ion–atom collision theory, also the absolute excitation cross sections are of great importance. In the present work, we report on our efforts to extend the previous study to a determination of the absolute projectile excitation cross sections by normalization to the well‐known radiative electron capture process.
Abstract: A micro-calorimeter X-ray detector of the maXs-30 type was used to record the X-ray radiation from Fe ions, being produced in the S-EBIT-I electron beam ion trap at the site of GSI. The resulting spectra demonstrate the superior energy resolving power of micro-calorimeter detectors compared with conventional semiconductor detectors. The experiment serves as another proof of principle for the application of calorimeters as dedicated high-resolution X-ray spectrometers at an ion facility. Together with the development of an improved analysis algorithm for online readout, these results present a step towards the use of maXs-type detectors as standard instrumentation at GSI/FAIR.
Abstract: We present a measurement of K‐shell transitions in H‐like gold (Au78+) using specially developed transmission type crystal spectrometers combined with Ge(i) microstrip detectors. The experiment has been carried out at the Experimental Storage Ring at GSI in Darmstadt. This is a first high‐resolution wavelength‐dispersive measurement of a K‐shell transition in a high‐Z H‐like ion, thus representing an important milestone in this field. Ideas on possible future improvements are discussed as well.
Abstract: An experiment addressing electron capture (EC) decay of hydrogen-like ¹⁴²Pm⁶⁰⁺ ions has been conducted at the experimental storage ring (ESR) at GSI. The decay appears to be purely exponential and no modulations were observed. Decay times for about 9000 individual EC decays have been measured by applying the single-ion decay spectroscopy method. Both visually and automatically analysed data can be described by a single exponential decay with decay constants of 0.0126(7) s⁻¹ for automatic analysis and 0.0141(7) s⁻¹ for manual analysis. If a modulation superimposed on the exponential decay curve is assumed, the best fit gives a modulation amplitude of merely 0.019(15), which is compatible with zero and by 4.9 standard deviations smaller than in the original observation which had an amplitude of 0.23(4).
Abstract: The radiative electron capture (REC) into the K shell of bare Xe ions colliding with a hydrogen gas target has been investigated. In this study, the degree of linear polarization of the K-REC radiation was measured and compared with rigorous relativistic calculations as well as with the previous results recorded for U92+. Owing to the improved detector technology, a significant gain in precision of the present polarization measurement is achieved compared to the previously published results. The obtained data confirms that for medium-Z ions such as Xe, the REC process is a source of highly polarized x rays which can easily be tuned with respect to the degree of linear polarization and the photon energy. We argue, in particular, that for relatively low energies the photons emitted under large angles are almost fully linear polarized.
Abstract: We have studied the K-shell excitation of He-like uranium (U90+) in relativistic collisions with hydrogen and argon atoms. Performing measurements with different targets, as well as with different collision energies, enabled us to explore the proton- (nucleus-) impact excitation as well as the electron-impact excitation process for the heaviest He-like ion. The large fine-structure splitting in uranium allowed us to partially resolve excitation into different L-shell levels. State-of-the-art relativistic calculations which include excitation mechanisms due to the interaction with both protons (nucleus) and electrons are in good agreement with the experimental findings. Moreover, our experimental data clearly demonstrate the importance of including the generalized Breit interaction in the treatment of the electron-impact excitation process.
Abstract: We report the first measurement of low-energy proton-capture cross sections of 124Xe in a heavy-ion storage ring. 124Xe^54+ ions of five different beam energies between 5.5 and 8 AMeV were stored to collide with a windowless hydrogen target. The 125Cs reaction products were directly detected. The interaction energies are located on the high energy tail of the Gamow window for hot, explosive scenarios such as supernovae and x-ray binaries. The results serve as an important test of predicted astrophysical reaction rates in this mass range. Good agreement in the prediction of the astrophysically important proton width at low energy is found, with only a 30% difference between measurement and theory. Larger deviations are found above the neutron emission threshold, where also neutron and γ widths significantly impact the cross sections. The newly established experimental method is a very powerful tool to investigate nuclear reactions on rare ion beams at low center-of-mass energies.
Abstract: Accurate spectroscopy of highly-charged high-Z ions in a storage ring is demonstrated to be feasible by the use of specially adapted crystal optics. The method has been applied for the measurement of the is Lamb shift in hydrogen-like gold (Au78+) in a storage ring through spectroscopy of the Lyman x-rays. This measurement represents the first result obtained for a high-Z element using high-resolution wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy in the hard x-ray regime, paving the way for sensitivity to higher-order QED effects.
Abstract: In this work, we present a pilot experiment in the experimental storage ring (ESR) at GSI devoted to impact parameter sensitive studies of inner shell atomic processes for low-energy (heavy-) ion-atom collisions. The experiment was performed with bare and He-like xenon ions (Xe54+, Xe52+) colliding with neutral xenon gas atoms, resulting in a symmetric collision system. This choice of the projectile charge states was made in order to compare the effect of a filled K-shell with the empty one. The projectile and target X-rays have been measured at different observation angles for all impact parameters as well as for the impact parameter range of ∼35–70 fm.
Abstract: A new mechanism of nuclear excitation via two-photon electron transitions (NETP) is proposed and studied theoretically. As a generic example, detailed calculations are performed for the E1E1 1s2sS01→1s2S01 two-photon decay of a He-like Ac87+225 ion with a resonant excitation of the 3/2+ nuclear state with an energy of 40.09(5) keV. The probability for such a two-photon decay via the nuclear excitation is found to be PNETP=3.5×10−9 and, thus, is comparable with other mechanisms, such as nuclear excitation by electron transition and by electron capture. The possibility for the experimental observation of the proposed mechanism is thoroughly discussed.
Abstract: We report on the first elastic hard x-ray scattering experiment where the linear polarization characteristics of both the incident and the scattered radiation were observed. Rayleigh scattering was investigated in a relativistic regime by using a high- Z target material, namely gold, and a photon energy of 175 keV. Although the incident synchrotron radiation was nearly 100% linearly polarized, at a scattering angle of θ=90° we observed a strong depolarization for the scattered photons with a degree of linear polarization of +27% ± 12% only. This finding agrees with second-order quantum electrodynamics calculations of Rayleigh scattering, when taking into account a small polarization impurity of the incident photon beam which was determined to be close to 98%. The latter value was obtained independently from the elastic scattering by analyzing photons that were Compton-scattered in the target. Moreover, our results indicate that when relying on state-of-the-art theory, Rayleigh scattering could provide a very accurate method to diagnose polarization impurities in a broad region of hard x-ray energies.
Abstract: The exploration of the unique properties of stored and cooled beams of highly-charged ions as provided by heavy-ion storage rings has opened novel and fascinating research opportunities in the realm of atomic and nuclear physics research. Since the late 1980s, pioneering work has been performed at the CRYRING at Stockholm and at the Test Storage Ring (TSR) at Heidelberg. For the heaviest ions in the highest charge-states, a real quantum jump was achieved in the early 1990s by the commissioning of the Experimental Storage Ring (ESR) at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung (GSI) in Darmstadt where challenging experiments on the electron dynamics in the strong field regime as well as nuclear physics studies on exotic nuclei and at the borderline to atomic physics were performed. Meanwhile also at Lanzhou a heavy-ion storage ring has been taken in operation, exploiting the unique research opportunities in particular for medium-heavy ions and exotic nuclei.
Abstract: The process of electron-loss to the continuum (ELC) has been studied for the collision systems U28+ -> H2 at a collision energy of 50 MeV/u, U28+ -> N2 at 30 MeV/u, and U28+ -> Xe at 50 MeV/u. The energy distributions of cusp electrons emitted at an angle of 0∘ with respect to the projectile beam were measured using a magnetic forward-angle electron spectrometer. For these collision systems far from equilibrium charge state, a significantly asymmetric cusp shape is observed. The experimental results are compared to calculations based on first-order perturbation theory, which predict an almost symmetric cusp shape. Some possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed.
Abstract: The x-rays emitted in the process of radiative recombination (RR) of quasi-free electrons into 2p₃/₂ excited state of hydrogenlike uranium ion were studied experimentally. Both the RR x-ray and the subsequently emitted Lyα₁ x-ray were detected in time-coincidences. The angular distribution of the Lyα₁ x-rays varied as a function of the RR x-ray emission direction. This observation revealed the coherent population of magnetic sublevels of the 2p₃/₂ state in the hydrogenlike uranium ion.
Abstract: We have measured the x-rays following 116.15 MeV/u U⁸⁹⁺ collisions with H 2 at 35°, 90°, 120° and 150° observation angles with regard to the ion beam direction. From our experimental spectra combined with radiative electron capture calculations, we obtain angular distribution of characteristic x-rays L to K following the resonance transfer and excitation. Our result shows a good qualitative agreement with theoretical predictions.
Abstract: In this work, we report on an experiment that investigated the elastic scattering of linearly polarized 175 keV photons on a gold target. A combined measurement of the angular distribution and the linear polarization of the scattered photons was performed using standard germanium detectors and a double-sided Si(Li) strip polarimeter. Since the data analysis is still in progress, we will show results in forthcoming papers and present here how the polarimeter was used to identify a lack of shielding during the experiment.
Abstract: Astrophysical x-ray bursts are thought to be a result of thermonuclear explosions on the atmosphere of an accreting neutron star. Between these bursts, energy is thought to be generated by the hot CNO cycles. The ¹⁵O(α,γ)¹⁹Ne reaction is one reaction that allows breakout from these CNO cycles and into the rp-process to fuel outbursts. The reaction is expected to be dominated by a single 3/2⁺ resonance at 4.033 MeV in ¹⁹Ne, however, limited information is available on this key state. This work reports on a pioneering study of the ²⁰Ne(p,d)¹⁹Ne reaction, performed in inverse kinematics at the experimental storage ring (ESR) as a means of accessing the astrophysically important 4.033 MeV state in ¹⁹Ne. The unique, background free, high luminosity conditions of the storage ring were utilized for this, the first transfer reaction performed at the ESR. The results of this pioneering test experiment are presented along with suggestions for future measurements at storage ring facilities.
Abstract: Radiative recombination (RR) into the K shell and L subshells of U92+ ions interacting with cooling electrons has been studied in an x-ray RR experiment at the electron cooler of the Experimental Storage Ring at GSI. The measured radiative recombination rate coefficients for electron-ion relative energies in the range 0–1000 meV demonstrate the importance of relativistic effects. The observed asymmetry of the measured K-RR x-ray emission with respect to the cooling energy, i.e., zero average relative velocity (〈vrel〉=0), are explained by fully relativistic RR calculations. With our new approach, we show that the study of the angular distribution of RR photons for different relative energies opens new perspectives for detailed understanding of the RR of ions with cooling electrons in cold magnetized plasma.
Abstract: By applying novel-type position sensitive x-ray detectors as Compton polarimeters we recently performed a study of the linear polarization of Lyman-α₁ radiation following radiative electron capture into initially bare uranium ions. It was found that a model-independent determination of the ratio of the E1 and M2 transition amplitudes, and consequently of the corresponding transition rates, is feasible by combining the linear polarization data with a measurement of the angular distribution of the emitted radiation. In this work a detailed description of the underlying experimental technique for combined measurements of the linear polarization and the angular distribution of characteristic transitions in high-Z ions is presented. Special emphasis is given to the application of two, two-dimensional position-sensitive x-ray detectors for Compton polarimetry of hard x-rays. Moreover, we demonstrate the polarimeter efficiency of such detector systems can be significantly improved if events, where the charge is spread over neighboring segments, are reconstructed to be used in the polarization analysis.
Abstract: We have studied the excitation of H-like and He-like uranium (U^91+ and U^90+ ) in relativistic collisions with gaseous targets by observing the subsequent x-ray emission. The experiment was conducted at the ESR storage ring of the GSI accelerator facility in Darmstadt, Germany. The measurements were performed with a newly developed multi-phase target at different collision energies. This enabled us to explore the proton (nucleus) impact excitation as well as the electron impact excitation processes in the relativistic collisions. The large fine-structure splitting in uranium allowed us to unambiguously resolve excitation to different L-shell levels. Moreover, information about the population of different magnetic sublevels has been obtained via an angular differential study of the decay photons associated with the subsequent de-excitation process. The experimental results are compared with calculations performed within the relativistic framework including excitation mechanisms due to both protons (nucleus) and electrons.
Abstract: The experimental investigation of quantum-electrodydamic contributions to the binding energies of inner shells of highly charged heavy ions requires an accurate spectroscopy in the region of hard x-rays suitable at a limited source strength. For this purpose the focusing compensated asymmetric Laue crystal optics has been developed and a twin-spectrometer assembly has been built and commissioned at the experimental storage ring of the GSI Helmholtzzentrum Darmstadt. We characterize the crystal optics and demonstrate the usefulness of the instrumentation for accurate spectroscopy of both stationary and fast moving x-ray sources. The experimental procedures discussed here may also be applied for other spectroscopic studies where a transition from conventional germanium x-ray detectors to crystal spectrometers seems too demanding because of low source intensity.
Abstract: Hard x-ray polarimetry of radiation emitted in collisions of heavy ions, electrons or photons with matter provides detailed information on the collision dynamics as well as of the atomic structure in the presence of extreme field strengths. Moreover, it also opens a route for polarization diagnosis of spin-polarized ion and electron beams which, for example, might be useful in future parity non-conservation studies. Owing to recent progress in the development of highly segmented solid-state detectors, a novel type of polarimeter for the hard x-ray regime has become available. Applied as Compton polarimeters, two-dimensional position-sensitive x-ray detectors now allow for precise and efficient measurements of x-ray linear polarization properties. In this report recent polarimetry studies using such detector systems are reviewed.
Abstract: For the collision system U88+ -> N2 at a collision energy of 90 MeV/u, the energy distribution of electrons being nonradiatively captured from the target into the projectile continuum has been measured under an angle of 0∘ with respect to the projectile beam axis. This measurement of the electron-capture-to-continuum cusp with the highest effective projectile charge Z_eff,p=88 at a near-relativistic collision velocity of β≈0.41 is shown to be characterized by a strong asymmetry in the cusp shape. By comparing the data to measurements of the radiative-electron-capture-to-continuum cusp for the same collision system, the opposite asymmetry of the cusp is traced back to the varying underlying mechanisms. The experimental results are compared with the two theoretical calculations available for this process, one of them in the semirelativistic impulse approximation and the other in the nonrelativistic continuum-distorted-wave approach. A corresponding fully relativistic treatment may be motivated by the presented experimental data.
Abstract: The electron loss to the continuum has been studied for the collision system U88+ + N2→U89+ + [N2]∗ + e− at the low-relativistic projectile energy of 90 MeV/u. Using a magnetic electron spectrometer, the energy distribution of cusp electrons emitted at an angle of 0∘ with respect to the projectile beam was measured in coincidence with the up-charged projectile. At the experimental collision energy ionization of the berylliumlike U88+ projectile proceeds predominantly from the L shell, but a contribution from the K shell could also be identified experimentally. The measurement is shown to be in accordance with fully relativistic Dirac calculations applying first-order perturbation theory. Furthermore, the underlying continuum electron distribution in the projectile frame is illustrated.
Abstract: The photoelectric effect has been studied in the regime of hard x rays and strong Coulomb fields via its time-reversed process of radiative recombination (RR). In the experiment, the relativistic electrons recombined into the 2p3/2 excited state of hydrogenlike uranium ions, and both the RR x rays and the subsequently emitted characteristic x rays were detected in coincidence. This allowed us to observe the coherence between the magnetic substates in a highly charged ion and to identify the contribution of the spin-orbit interaction to the RR process.
Abstract: The radiative electron capture of a target electron into the projectile continuum has been studied for the collision system U88+ + N2 → U88+ + [N+2]∗ + e− + γ at 90 MeV/u. Using a magnetic electron spectrometer, the energy distribution of cusp electrons emitted under an angle of 0∘ with respect to the projectile beam and with a velocity close to the projectile velocity has been measured in coincidence with the emitted photons under various observation angles. The experimental results provide a stringent test for the corresponding process in inverse kinematics, namely, the theory of electron-nucleus bremsstrahlung at the high-energy endpoint. For comparison this process is calculated using fully relativistic Dirac wave functions and using semirelativistic Sommerfeld-Maue wave functions.
Abstract: Although different ion-atom collisions have been studied in various contexts, precise values of cross-sections for many atomic processes were seldom obtained. One of the main uncertainties originates from the value of target densities. In this paper, we describe a unique method to measure a target density precisely with a combination of physical vapor deposition and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. This method is preliminarily applied to a charge transfer cross-section measurement in collisions between highly charged ions and magnesium vapor. The final relative uncertainty of the target density is less than 2.5%. This enables the precise studies of atomic processes in ion-atom collisions, even though in the trial test the deduction of precise capture cross-sections was limited by other systematic errors.
Abstract: We report an experimental study of the charge-transfer process in collisions of Xe^q+ ions (16≤q≤20) with magnesium atoms at an energy of 5.5q keV. With charge-selective and time-coincidence techniques, we separated the pure capture and capture accompanied by transfer-ionization processes. The experimental data indicate that the magnesium target is around two times more likely to lose two electrons than one in the collision. This finding is very different compared to the calculation based on the extended classic over-the-barrier model. The Xe^q+-Mg collision also behaves very differently from “traditional” collisions between highly charged ions and noble gases. We suggest a one-step dielectronic mechanism for the capture process. The data also show that autoionization dominates the relaxation process after the capture, and fluctuation of the autoionization fraction versus the projectile charge state indicates that for the relaxation processes, the projectile core structure plays a more important role than the detailed characteristics of the projectile states where the target electrons are initially captured.
Abstract: Radiative double electron capture is a fundamental atomic process which should be observed in collisions of bare ions with atoms, albeit with a much smaller cross-section than single radiative electron capture. A new experiment—to observe this rare process under single-collision conditions—has been performed at the internal gas jet target of the experimental storage ring at GSI in Darmstadt. X-ray spectra associated with single and double charge exchange have been observed in 30 MeV u^(−1) collisions of bare chromium ions (Cr^(24+)) with helium and nitrogen target gases.
Abstract: A brief overview is presented in this paper on some experiments conducted at the Experimental Storage Ring (ESR) of GSI which addressed the β decay of stored and cooled highly charged ions. Special emphasis is placed on the two-body beta decay of bare or few-electron ions: bound-state β− decay (β_b) and its time-mirrored counterpart, orbital electron capture. The former decay mode was detected experimentally 20 years ago at the ESR. The latter could be investigated there for the first time in detail for the simplest quantum systems: hydrogen- and helium-like atoms. The main results of these experiments will be presented. Also their impact on stellar nucleosynthesis, in particular the s -process, is discussed.
Abstract: In recent years several measurements of the orbital electron capture half-lives of few-electron ions have been carried out employing the storage ring ESR at GSI. Hydrogen-like and helium-like (140)^Pr and (142)^Pm as well as hydrogen-like (122)^I were studied. Half-lives of the corresponding fully ionized nuclides provide the three-body β^(+) decay constants.
Abstract: In recent years for the fundamental theory of quantum electrodynamics, considerable progress in the evaluation of higher order corrections has been achieved—not only for hydrogen—but also for helium-like systems—up to very heavy nuclei. We were aiming at a more precise determination of the lifetime of the metastable 2 3^P_0 state in He-like uranium which has a calculated value of 57.3 ps [1, 2]. From the lifetime it is possible to derive the energy of the state. In October 2011 we were able to perform a first test experiment at GSI, Darmstadt to study the feasibility of a new experimental detection technique. This advanced set-up consists of two state-of-the-art energy-, time- and position-sensitive germanium detectors  in combination with collimators in a Soller-slit like assembly. A beam of U^(91+) -ions at an energy of 290 MeV u^(−1) is passed through a thin nickel foil in the interaction chamber. From the decrease in intensity as a function of the target distance one may extract a decay curve from which the lifetime can be derived. The advantages of this new set-up, in comparison to former experiments [4, 5] will be discussed and the results of a preliminary data analysis will be presented.
Abstract: Thomson backscattering of intense laser pulses from relativistic electrons not only allows for the generation of bright x-ray pulses but also for the investigation of the complex particle dynamics at the interaction point. For this purpose a complete spectral characterization of a Thomson source powered by a compact linear electron accelerator is performed with unprecedented angular and energy resolution. A rigorous statistical analysis comparing experimental data to 3D simulations enables, e.g., the extraction of the angular distribution of electrons with 1.5% accuracy and, in total, provides predictive capability for the future high brightness hard x-ray source PHOENIX (photon electron collider for narrow bandwidth intense x rays) and potential gamma-ray sources.
Abstract: We have performed a measurement of the spectral shape from the two-photon decay of the 1s2s 1S0 state in He-like uranium. The two-photon emission followed the ionization of initially Li-like uranium ions in collisions with a N2 gas-jet target. The measured shape of the two-photon energy distribution shows good agreement with results of the relativistic calculations that take into account the electron-electron interaction rigorously up to the first order in quantum electrodynamic perturbation expansion. From the full width at half maximum of the measured two-photon energy distribution, we confirm the theoretically predicted modification of the shape due to the relativistic effects.
Abstract: The K shell excitation of H-like uranium (U91+) in relativistic collisions with different gaseous targets has been studied at the experimental storage ring at GSI Darmstadt. By performing measurements with different targets as well as with different collision energies, we were able to observe for the first time the effect of electron-impact excitation (EIE) process in the heaviest hydrogenlike ion. The large fine-structure splitting in H-like uranium allowed us to unambiguously resolve excitation into different L shell levels. State-of-the-art calculations performed within the relativistic framework which include excitation mechanisms due to both protons (nucleus) and electrons are in good agreement with the experimental findings. Moreover, our experimental data clearly demonstrate the importance of including the generalized Breit interaction in the treatment of the EIE process.
Abstract: A tunable source of intense ultra-short hard X-ray pulses represents a novel tool for the structural analysis of complex systems with unprecedented temporal and spatial resolution. With the simultaneous availability of a high power short-pulse laser system this provides unique opportunities at the forefront of relativistic light–matter interactions. At Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) we demonstrated the principle of such a light source (PHOENIX – Photon Electron collider for Narrow bandwidth Intense X-Rays) by colliding picosecond electron bunches from the ELBE linear accelerator with counter-propagating femtosecond laser pulses from the 150 TW Draco Ti:Sapphire laser system. The generated narrowband X-rays are highly collimated and can be reliably adjusted from 12 keV to 20 keV by tuning the electron energy (24–30 MeV). Ensuring the spatial–temporal overlap at the interaction point and suppressing the Bremsstrahlung background a signal to noise ratio of greater than 300 was reached.
Abstract: X-ray spectroscopy is used to obtain single-shot information on electron beam emittance in a low-energy-spread 0.5 GeV-class laser-plasma accelerator. Measurements of betatron radiation from 2 to 20 keV used a CCD and single-photon counting techniques. By matching x-ray spectra to betatron radiation models, the electron bunch radius inside the plasma is estimated to be ~0.1 μm. Combining this with simultaneous electron spectra, normalized transverse emittance is estimated to be as low as 0.1 mm mrad, consistent with three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. Correlations of the bunch radius with electron beam parameters are presented.
Abstract: We report on a study of the polarization transfer between transversely polarized incident electrons and the emitted x rays for electron-atom bremsstrahlung. By means of Compton polarimetry we performed for the first time an energy-differential measurement of the complete properties of bremsstrahlung emission related to linear polarization, i.e., the degree of linear polarization as well as the orientation of the polarization axis. For the high-energy end of the bremsstrahlung continuum the experimental results for both observables show a high sensitivity on the initial electron spin polarization and prove that the polarization orientation is virtually independent of the photon energy.
Abstract: We propose to install a storage ring at an ISOL-type radioactive beam facility for the first time. Specifically, we intend to setup the heavy-ion, low-energy ring TSR at the HIE-ISOLDE facility in CERN, Geneva. Such a facility will provide a capability for experiments with stored secondary beams that is unique in the world. The envisaged physics programme is rich and varied, spanning from investigations of nuclear ground-state properties and reaction studies of astrophysical relevance, to investigations with highly-charged ions and pure isomeric beams. The TSR might also be employed for removal of isobaric contaminants from stored ion beams and for systematic studies within the neutrino beam programme. In addition to experiments performed using beams recirculating within the ring, cooled beams can also be extracted and exploited by external spectrometers for high-precision measurements. The existing TSR, which is presently in operation at the Max-Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, is well-suited and can be employed for this purpose. The physics cases as well as technical details of the existing ring facility and of the beam and infrastructure requirements at HIE-ISOLDE are discussed in the present technical design report.
Abstract: We present measurements of the energy loss of relativistic highly charged uranium ions interacting with a target beam of near-liquid density hydrogen droplets at the experimental storage ring (ESR) at GSI. Our results reveal that a liquid droplet target beam virtually behaves like a homogeneous gas jet target with respect to both energy loss and ion beam cooling. We also provide first results on ion beam cooling efficiency at high hydrogen area target densities, which are consistent with numerical estimations based on a simple model of the cooling force.
Abstract: One- and few-electron ions traditionally serve as an important testing ground for fundamental atomic structure theories and for the effects of QED, relativity and electron correlation. In the domain of high nuclear charges, new opportunities open up for precise testing and consolidating of the present understanding of the atomic structure in the regime of extreme electromagnetic fields. In this review, the current progress in experimental investigations of the heaviest H- and He-like systems at GSI Darmstadt is presented together with the planned future developments.
Abstract: The future international accelerator Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) encompasses 4 scientific pillars containing at this time 14 approved technical proposals worked out by more than 2000 scientists from all over the world. They offer a wide range of new and challenging opportunities for atomic physics research in the realm of highly‐charged heavy ions and exotic nuclei. As one of the backbones of the Atomic, Plasma Physics and Applications (APPA) pillar, the Stored Particle Atomic Physics Research Collaboration (SPARC) has organized tasks and activities in various working groups for which we will present a concise survey on their current status.
Abstract: We present the first clear identification and highly accurate measurement of the intra-shell transition 1s2p^3P_2 → 1s2s^3S_1 of He-like uranium performed via x-ray spectroscopy. The present experiment was conducted at the gas-jet target of the ESR storage ring in GSI (Darmstadt, Germany), where a Bragg spectrometer, with a bent germanium crystal, and a Ge(i) detector were mounted. Using the ESR deceleration capabilities, we performed a differential measurement between the 1s2p^3P_2→1s2s^3S_1 He-like U transition energy, at 4510 eV, and the 1s^2 2p^2P_(3/2) → 1s^2 2s^2S_(1/2) Li-like U transition energy, at 4460 eV. By a proper choice of the ion velocities, the x-ray energies from the He- and Li-like ions could be measured, in the laboratory frame, at the same photon energy. This allowed for a drastic reduction of experimental systematic uncertainties, principally due to the Doppler effect, and for a comparison with theory without the uncertainties arising from one-photon quantum electrodynamics predictions and nuclear size corrections.
Abstract: The population of magnetic sublevels in hydrogen-like uranium ions has been investigated in relativistic ion–atom collisions by observing the subsequent X-ray emission. Using the gas target at the experimental storage ring facility we observed the angular emission of Lyman-α radiation from hydrogen-like uranium ions. The alignment parameter for three different interaction energies was measured and found to agree well with theory. In addition, the use of different gas targets allowed for the electron-impact excitation process to be observed.
Abstract: Due to electron-nucleus weak interaction, atomic bound states with different parities turn out to be mixed. We discuss a prospective method for measuring the mixing parameter between the nearly degenerate metastable states 1s_(1/2) 2s_(1/2):J=0 and 1s_(1/2) 2p_(1/2):J=0 in heliumlike uranium. Our analysis is based on the polarization properties of the photons emitted in the two-photon decays of such states.
Abstract: The two-photon decay of the 2S state to the ground state in dressed atoms and one- or two-electron ions has been studied for several decades. Relativistic calculations have shown an Z-dependence of the spectral shape of this two-photon transition in one- or two-electron ions. We have measured the spectral distribution of the 1s2s 1^S_0 → 1s2 1^S_0 two-photon transition in He-like tin at the ESR storage ring using a new approach for such experiments. In this method, relativistic collisions of initially Li-like projectiles with a gaseous target were used to populate exclusively the first excited state, 1s2s, of He-like tin, which provided a clean two-photon spectrum. The measured two-photon spectral distribution was compared with fully relativistic calculations. The obtained results show very good agreement with the calculations for He-like tin.
Abstract: We report the observation of an interference between the electric dipole (E1) and the magnetic quadrupole (M2) amplitudes for the linear polarization of the Ly-alpha(1) (2p(3/2) -> 1s(1/2)) radiation of hydrogenlike uranium. This multipole mixing arises from the coupling of the ion to different multipole components of the radiation field. Our observation indicates a significant depolarization of the Ly-alpha(1) radiation due to the E1-M2 amplitude mixing. It proves that a combined measurement of the linear polarization and of the angular distribution enables a very precise determination of the ratio of the E1 and the M2 transition amplitudes and the corresponding transition rates without any assumptions concerning the population mechanism for the 2p(3/2) state.
Abstract: The spectral distribution of the 1s2s 1S0→1s2 1S0 two-photon decay of He-like tin was measured using a novel approach at the gas-jet target of the ESR storage ring. Relativistic collisions of Li-like projectiles with low-density gaseous matter have been exploited to selectively populate the desired 1s2s state. Compared to conventional techniques, this approach results in a substantial gain in statistical and systematic accuracy, which allowed us to achieve for the first time a sensitivity to relativistic effects on the two-photon decay spectral shape as well as to discriminate the measured spectrum for Sn from theoretical shapes for different elements along the He-isoelectronic sequence.
Abstract: Many physical processes such as bremsstrahlung, synchrotron radiaton and radiative recombination produce polarized X-rays. However, only a few facilities are able to deliver tunable monoenergetic high quality beams of almost completely polarized X-rays to the user. We used radiative electron capture (REC) into the K-shell of bare xenon to produce tunable and highly linearly polarized X-rays in a storage ring environment (Fig. 1) which we confirmed by a dedicated compton polarimeter.
Abstract: We present the first observation of the 1s 2p^3P_2 → 1s 2s^3S_1 transition in He-like uranium. The experiment was performed at the internal gas-jet target of the ESR storage ring at GSI exploiting a Bragg crystal spectrometer and a germanium solid-state detector. Using the 1s^(2) 2p^2P_(3/2) → 1s^(2) 2s^2S_(1/2) transition in Li-like uranium as reference and the deceleration capabilities of the ESR storage ring, we obtained the first evaluation of the energy of an intra-shell transition for a He-like heavy ion.
Abstract: Beam lifetimes of stored U^(28+) ions with energies between 10 and 180 MeV/u were measured in the heavy ion synchrotron SIS18 and in the experimental storage ring (ESR) of the GSI accelerator facility. By using the internal gas jet target of the ESR, it was possible to obtain projectile ionization cross sections for collisions with H_2 and N_2 from the lifetime data. The experimental cross sections are compared to theoretical data predicted by the n-body classical-trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method of Olson et al. and to calculations of Shevelko et al. using the LOSS-R code. In addition, both theoretical approaches are probed by using the resulting cross sections as input parameters for the STRAHLSIM code, which models the beam losses and, consequently, the lifetimes in the heavy ion synchrotron SIS18. Both the cross section measurement and the SIS18 lifetime study indicate that the LOSS-R code cross sections are in better agreement with the experimental results than the n-body CTMC calculations.
Abstract: Recent advances in the development of 2D microstrip detectors open up new possibilities for hard x-ray spectroscopy, in particular for polarization studies. These detectors make ideal Compton polarimeters, which enable us to study precisely the polarization of hard x-rays. Here, we present recent results from measurements of Radiative Electron Capture into the K-shell of highly-charged uranium ions. The experiments were performed with a novel 2D Si(Li) Compton polarimeter at the Experimental Storage Ring at GSI. Stored and cooled beams of U^(91+) and U^(92+) ions, with kinetic energies of 43 MeV/u and 96 MeV/u respectively, were crossed with a hydrogen gasjet. The preliminary data analysis shows x-rays from the K-REC process, emitted perpendicularly to the ion beam, to be strongly linearly polarized.
Abstract: A dedicated Si(Li) Compton polarimeter combining energy and time resolution with a large detection area of 64 × 64 mm^2 and a two dimensional position resolution of 2 mm has been used for the first time to study the polarization of x‐rays emitted via radiative electron capture (REC) into the K and L‐shell of heavy highly charged ions. First data for the collision system 96.6 MeV/u U^(92+) → H_2 are presented. The angular distribution of the Compton scattered photons inside the detector indicates that both K‐ and L‐REC processes lead to the emission of strongly linearly polarized light.
Abstract: Particle and photon polarization phenomena occurring in collisions of relativistic ions with matter have recently attracted particular interest. Investigations of the emitted characteristic x-ray and radiative electron capture radiation has been found to be a versatile tool for probing our present understanding of the dynamics of particles in extreme electromagnetic fields. Owing to the progress in x-ray detector technology, in addition, accurate measurements of the linear polarization for hard x-ray photons as well as the determination of the polarization plane became possible. This new diagnostic tool enables one today to derive information about the polarization of the ion beams from the photon polarization features of the radiative electron capture process.
Abstract: The two-photon 2E1 transition from the singlet 2s state of heliumlike tin was measured. An alternative experimental approach was adopted in the present investigation where the two-photon emission results from the decay of the 2s state by selective K-shell ionization of Li-like tin ions in relativistic collisions with a low-Z gaseous target, which allowed for a measurement of the undistorted two-photon spectral shape. The measured 2E1 energy distribution was compared with fully relativistic calculations, which predict a Z dependence of the distribution. The preliminary results indicate the best agreement with the relativistic many body calculations for tin, and thus confirm the sensitivity on Z. Detailed data analysis is still in progress.
Abstract: Lifetimes for 10 – 50 MeV/u U28+ ions were measured for base vacuum conditions in the ESR storage ring at GSI-Darmstadt. The lifetimes are due to total electron loss from U28+ resulting from interactions with background gases in the ring. Lifetimes were also measured for interactions with H2 and N2 targets. These data provide information about the relative magnitudes and energy dependences of the stripping cross-sections resulting from interactions with H2 and N2, gases which represent the primary constituents in high and ultra-high vacuum environments.
Abstract: We report on an experiment aiming for a study of the radiative decay modes of the 1s (2s)2 level in Li-like uranium. The experiment was performed of initially Be-like uranium colliding with N2 molecules at an energy of 90 MeV/u. By measuring the x-ray production associated with K-shell ionization of the projectile, a high selectivity for the production of the 1s (2s)2 level is observed.
Abstract: Radiative processes occurring in collision of decelerated bare uranium ions and molecular hydrogen are studied at the heavy-ion storage ring ESR. The combination of the deceleration technique and the narrow Compton profile of molecular hydrogen allowed us to resolve a multitude of REC transitions into the bound states of the projectile and to resolve unambiguously the tip region of primary bremsstahlung. For this purpose, a supersonic molecular hydrogen jet-target, precooled with liquid nitrogen and optimized for long-term stability, was applied.
Abstract: The latest commissioning experiment of a two arm transmission crystal x-ray spectrometer along with high-performance position-sensitive microstrip germanium detectors is presented. The goal of the experiment was to observe with high resolution the Ly-α-transitions of H-like Pb 81+ produced in collisions with Kr atoms. Due to a photon efficiency of only 10^−8 the position sensitivity as well as the energy and time resolution of segmented solid state Germanium detectors are absolutely essential for experiments using crystal x-ray spectrometers dealing with beams of heavy ions. A detector system with the desired properties has become available through a collaboration with the Forschungszentrum Jülich.